Skip to main content

Full text of "Remains of old Latin; newly edited and translated"

See other formats


THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOODED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 
EDITED BY 

T. E. PAGE, C.H., Lirr.D. 
E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, liit.d. 



REMAINS OF OLD LATIN 
I 

ENNIUS AND CAECILIUS 



EEMAINS OF OLD 
LATIN 

newly edited axd translated by 
E7%.AVaRMINGT0N, m.a. 

RKAOER IN ANTIKST HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF 
LONDON, king's COLLEGE 

(in three volumes y 
I 

ENNIUS AND CAECILIUS 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMXXXV 



?A 






Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 

PAOK 

INTEODUCTION vii 

BKNIUS 1 

CAECILITTS 467 

WORDS FBOM ENNniS AND CAECrLITJS NOT INCLUDED 

IN THE TEXT OE THE NOTES OF THIS VOLUME . 562 

CONCOEDANCES — 

I. — ENNius {for rej. from Vahlen's ed. to this) . . 565 

n. — EKNius (for ref. from this ed. to Vahleti'a) . . 575 

I. — CAECiLius (for ref. from Ribbeck's ed. to this) . 585 

II. — CAECILIUS (for ref. from this ed. to Ribbeck's) . 587 

INDEX 591 



INTRODUCTION 

Scope of this nork. Limits of the archaic period. 
Archaic spelling. Contents 

In three volumes entitled Remains of Old Latin, 
of which this is the first volume, my object is to 
present a Latin text and an English translation of 
Latin remnants, literary and epigraphic, which 
belong to the archaic period of Roman literary historj-. 
I have fixed the limit of this archaic period at 81 — 80 
B.C., which are the years of Sulla's dictatorship. 
It is indeed true that the limit cannot really be 
defined with precision, partly because archaisms 
in spelling and in form survive, especially in epi- 
graphic records, during many years after the date 
here given. However, for practical purposes, the 
time of Sulla's supremacy has been found to be the 
best, even though some of the inscriptions, which 
will be included in the third volume, may belong to 
a somewhat later period ; for the year 80, in which 
Sulla resigned his powers, may be taken to mark 
the beginning of the golden age in Latin literature, 
and the archaisms which persist during this age 
and the early imperial era are natural survivals, 
some conscious, some unconscious ; while some are 
definitely mistakes or false archaisms. I therefore 
claim to present, so far as the remains allow, a picture 
of Latin in the making ; but there is one important 



INTRODUCTION 

thing which must be stated here. I have not tried 
to reconstruct the spelling used by the old writers,*^ 
but have retained the ' modernised ' spelling which 
our sources for the literary fragments normally 
show. Sometimes indeed these sources present 
or seem to present the true archaic spelling. In 
such cases I have reproduced it. With the exception 
of remnants like those of the Twelve Tables of 
Roman Law, the most valuable of the literary 
remains belonging to the archaic period, as defined 
above, are fragments from the works of poets ; 
it is the poetic fragments which give the best idea of 
Latin in the process of development. Hence the 
literary remains in these three volumes consist of 
the fragments of seven poets, namely, Livius Andro- 
nicus, Naevius, Ennius, Caecilius, Pacuvius, Accius, 
and Lucilius. These poets are not taken in chrono- 
logical order, owing to the necessity of producing 
volumes of manageable size ; but each poet is 
complete in his volume, this first volume containing 
Ennius and Caecilius. The inscriptions present both 
poetry and prose ; further introductory matter 
about them will be found in the third volume. 

Sources 

Our sources for old literary fragments are nearly 
all later writers of prose. These writers vary very 
much in nature, belong to widely different eras, and 

" The inscriptions are an obvious exception from this general 
ruling, for in them the archaisms in spelling and form are 
nearly all in their original state. Many actual archaisms of 
Latin will thus be best apprehended by readers if they will 
study the inscriptions; these include some documents which 
are much older than most of the literary remains. 



INTRODUCTION 

differ greatly in the reasons for which they quote the 
old Latin. Some of them, especially those nearest 
to the archaic period, quote archaic predecessors 
largely because the renown of these was still great, 
and their plays were still widely performed or read, 
and their whole work had some meaning in the public 
life of Rome and Italy ; while others, especially 
writers from the beginning of the imperial epoch 
onwards, were interested chiefly in linguistic peculi- 
arities of various kinds, and, in a few important 
cases, in the imitation of the archaic poets by later 
ones. There is no need to re\iew all these sources, 
but I have thought it adxisable to ffive here some 
information about certain late sources which are 
not often read but which are the most fruitful in 
gi\ing us fragments of archaic Latin. The point of 
\iew of these writers is that of grammarians, or of 
persons who want at the moment to deal with a 
point of grammar or philology .'' 

(i) Nonius. This is the grammarian and lexico- 
grapher Nonius Marcellus, who in his De Coni- 
pendiosa Doctrina in twenty books, WTitten about the 
beginning of the fourth century after Christ, pro- 
\-ides us with more ancient literary fragments than 
any other source does. He consulted a limited 
number of ' classical ' writers, and also other gram- 
marians and lexicographers, and first made large 
catalogues of words occurring in them, and then 
compiled his Doctrina from these catalogues, in such 

' I wish to point out here that ancient philology was largely 
ignorant and fanciful, so that many of the derivations given by 
the sources are absurd and even fantastic ; and in quoting them 
I have not thought it worth while to point this out unless the 
fact is relevant to the right interpretation of an archaic 
fragment. 

ix 



INTRODUCTION 

a way that the order of the fragments as he finally 
quotes them is sometimes the same as their order 
in the original writer ; this is a matter of greatest 
importance in considering the fragments of Lucilius 
which will be given in our third volume ; further 
details on this point will be found there. The text 
of Nonius tends to be very corrupt in the quotations 
from old WTiters, and I have thus felt it advisable 
to give fuller critical notes on his passages than 
on most of those which come from other sources. 
The extant manuscripts, all come (possibly by way of 
an intervening MS. now lost) from a lost archetype, 
and are indicated in these volumes by sigla as 
follows : 

Lu. Lugdunensis (Voss., lat. fol. 73) ; 9th cent. ; 

best of all. Well corrected by two hands 

(L2, L3). 
F., Flor. Florentinus (Laur., xlviii, 1); 9th cent.; 

copied from Lu ; corrected by two hands. 

Books I-III only. 
Harl Harleianus (Mus. Brit. 2719); 9th-10th 

cent. ; copied partly from F and from Geii. 

(see below) in book IV ; corrections by H2, H3. 
Escorial. Escorialensis (M III, 14) ; 10th cent. ; 

copied partly from the same source as Par. 7667 

(see below), partly from F (corrected). 
G. Gudianus (Wolfenb. 96) ; 10th cent, (source for 

correctors 7/2, L3). 
Lugd. Lugdunensis (Voss., 4to. 116); lOth-llth 

cent. 
Bamb. Barabergensis (M.V. 18) ; 9th-10th cent. 
Turic. Turicense fragmentum (C796) 10th cent. 

(bad). 



INTRODUCTION 

Par. 7666. Parisinus 7666 ; lOth cent. 
Par. 7665 1 Parisinus 7665. Beraensis 347, 357, 
Bern. 347, 357/ 10th cent. All portions of one cd. 
Montepess. Montepessulanus (212) ; 9th-10th cent. 
Ox. Oxoniensis (Bibl. Bodl. Can. CI. Lat. 279); 

10th cent. 
Gen. Genevensis (84); 9th cent. (good). 
Bern. 83. Bemensis 83; 10th cent. (bad). 
Par 7667. Parisinus 7667 ; 10th cent. 

There is also Cantabrigiensis (Mm. V. 22); 9th 
cent. ; copied from Gen. 

The edition which I have used is that of W. M. 
Lindsay, Leipzig, Teubner, 1903, and the numeration 
that of Mercier. 

(ii) Festus. This is Sextus Pompeius Festus 
(probably of the second century after Christ), whose 
work is an abridgment of an earlier work entitled 
De Verhorum Significatu and ^^Titten by M. Verrius 
Flaccus, a famous grammarian of Augustus' time. 
Only the latter part of Festus' abridgment has 
survived, and there is only one manuscript of it — ■ 
the Codex Farnesianus IV. A, 3 (11th cent.) at Naples. 
Even in this there are large gaps, which can be re- 
stored in part from copies of the codex made before 
it was damaged so much as it is now, and in part 
from an abridgment of Festus' own work made by 
Paul us Diaconus (c. 720 — c. 800). Paulus' work is 
extant in a number of codices. The edition used in 
these volumes is the combined Paulus and Festus 
edited by W. M. Lindsay, Leipzig, Teubner, 1913. 

(iii) Servius. The elaborate commentary on 
Virgil by Maurus (Marius ?) Ser\ius Honoratus — - 
these names occur in varying order — who gives us 



INTRODUCTION 

many fragments, was composed about the end of the 
fourth century after Christ, and is extant in very 
different groups of manuscripts. One group gives 
apparently the original commentary of Servius, 
who is in these volumes referred to simply as 
Servius. But another group shows the same 
commentary embedded in other matter, so to speak, 
or rather supplemented or augmented from an 
anonymous writer of about the same date. Where 
the source of an old fragment comes from one of 
these supplemented contexts, the author is referred 
to as ' Servius auctus,' ' Servius (supplemented).' 
Readers will further understand from this the 
meaning of the phrase augmenter of Servius/* 

The edition used for these volumes is that of 
G. Thilo and H. Hagen, Leipzig, Teubner, 1878- 
1902, re-issued in 1923. 

(iv) Several late grammarians, in particular 
Charisius, Diomedes, and Priscianus, who give us 
many fragments at second hand.* These are all to be 
found in Grammatici Latini, ed. H. Keil (and others), 
Leipzig, 1857-1880, referred to in these volumes as 
G. L. K. 

(v) Some fragments given by one or two scholars 
of the medieval and early modern eras have been 
included, but they differ in trustworthiness. For 
example, Ekkehart or Ekkehard (there are four with 
this name), a monk of St. Gall, who died c. 1061 ; 
and Osbern of Gloucester (c. 1123-1200) are worthy 

" Note that J. J. H. Savage, in Harvard Studies in Classical 
Philology, 1932, 77, maintains that the ' Servius auctus ' 
commentary is a mixture or conflation of two commentaries — 
that of Servius and another of Aeliua Donatus who wrote about 
25 years before Servius. 

* Priscianus appears to quote directly from Ennius. 
xii 



INTRODUCTION 

of belief. But it is not easy to decide about the 
German philologist Kaspar von Barth (1587-1658). 
In his Adversaria and his commentary on Stat jus he 
professes to quote fragments of Ennius from old 
sources. In 1636 his library and manuscripts were 
destroyed by fire, so that, even when he wrote in 
good faith, he often depended upon his memory. 
It is thus difficult to trust his authority. 

This point leads me naturally to mention the 
groups of fragments which I have classed doubtfully 
as spurious ; I have included only such as readers 
who are already familiar with the old poets may 
expect to find in these volumes. There are others 
which I have omitted altogether. Amongst these 
are a number given as genuine by Merula, who 
acted apparently in good faith. They will be found 
in Vahlen's third edition of Ennius, on pp. 240-242. 

Method of quotation from sources 

In presenting each literary fragment, the method 
used in these three volumes is to give, as a separate 
* item,' either the whole passage of the source by 
which the fragment of old Latin is quoted or referred 
to, or so much of the passage as may reveal the old 
author of the quotation (>\-ith or without the title or 
other details of the old author's work), the reason 
for the quotation, and maybe something of its 
meaning and context, or of the nature of the work 
from which it is quoted. These items fall into two 
classes : 

(i) Passages which quote actual words of the old 
author. These passages give true fragments and 
form the bulk of the text and translation in the 

xiii 



INTRODUCTION 

first two volumes of this series. They are numbered 
by figures placed over the middle of each item, the 
numeration representing the lines, or parts of lines, 
which, printed in distinctive type, are thus deemed to 
survive from among the lost works of the author." 
Single words not placed in the text or given in a note 
are collected at the end of each volume. 

(ii) Passages which do not give words as actually 
written by the old author. Some of these reveal a 
' hidden fragment ' by a paraphrase ; others tell us 
something about the old poet's work, or about its 
context at some particular point. Such items as 
these are not numbered, but they are placed in what 
is apparently the best position for them ; where 
they are separated by spaces from numbered items 
of class (i), they are to be taken as separate items. 
In view of the meagre nature of our knowledge 
about the lost poets, it was felt advisable to include 
these passages.* 

A word must be said here about C. lulius 
Hyginus, from whom I have incorporated a number 
of important extracts belonging to this second 
class. Under Hyginus' name has come down to 
us a mythological treatise written in Latin "^ and 
entitled Fahulae or Fabularum Liber. This contains 
about three hundred old Greek legends and gene- 

" With the exception of Ennius' Euhemerus, the lines are 
lines of poetry; in Euhemerus the numeration is of lines of 
text as printed in this volume. 

* Many ' testimonia ' about the old author's life, or criti- 
cising his work as a whole or a particular work, have not been 
included. But references to the sources for the lives of the old 
authors have been given in the introductions to the volumes. 

"^ There are also fragments of a version or original in 
Greek. 



INTRODUCTION 

alogies, and consists of an abridgment, or possibly 
a union of two abridgments, of the original work. 
The extant text shows a poor knowledge of good 
Latin and Greek ; if this reflects the mind of the 
original author, then Professor H. J. Rose, the 
latest editor, is probably right in rejecting the belief 
that the author was that Hyginus who was a learned 
freedman of Augustus. Although it is not easy to 
decide in every case, lulius Hyginus' sources appear 
to have been very often epic poems and Alexandrian 
works WTitten in prose, less often old Greek 
tragedies, or hypotheses of these. Sometimes a 
Fabula has been produced from the plots of two or 
more Greek tragedies 'contaminated.' In a few 
cases Hyginus' source for a legend appears to be 
a separate old Latin play or its hypothesis. Where 
this happens I have incorporated Hyginus' plot into 
the extant fragments of the Latin play ; but the 
correctness of this use of Hyginus should not be 
regarded as wholly certain. 

The references added at the end of any item in 
the Latin (not the English) text, and prefixed by 
the abbreviation Cf. or Cp., generally indicate 
other sources which give all or part of the old frag- 
ment, but are not quoted in this text. 

Where several fragments have survived from one 
book (for example, of Ennius' Annals) or one play 
or other named work of an old poet — especially 
where the fragments of this particular work are all 
or mostly quoted by one or two sources (for example, 
by Nonius) — there the ascription, by the source, 
to ' Ennius in such and such a book' has, as a rule, 
only been included in the text of that passage which 
gives the first fragment of a group as arranged by 

XV 

VOL. I. b 



INTRODUCTION 

me. After that, the ascription has been omitted 
unless there was a special reason ; this method has 
excluded some needless repetition. Where no 
work of, for example, Ennius is named by the source 
in quoting a fragment, and yet the fragment is 
ascribed in this edition to a definite work, the lack 
of any ascription by the source has been indicated 
in some way ; so also where neither the old work nor 
the old author of a fragment is mentioned by the 
source, yet the author or his work, or both are 
known or can be deduced with probability. 

In a good many places the Greek model or source 
of an old Latin fragment is known or deduced; 
in such cases the Greek original has been quoted or 
referred to at the beginning of the relevant item on 
the Latin page, but not translated. Again, in some 
cases the source which quotes a substantial fragment 
shows how the old Latin poet not only drew upon 
some older Greek source, but also inspired some later 
Latin poet ; thus we have fragments of Ennius 
which imitated Homer and were imitated by Virgil. 
In such cases the passages from the original Greek 
author, from the old Latin poet, and from the later 
Latin poet, have been given in full, both in text and 
in translation. 

Throughout the literary fragments the recon- 
struction is mine, save where it is established, well 
known, and indisputable. There was no room to give 
the full evidence for various allocations of fragments 
to probable contexts ; but the English translation 
of many of the items is provided with a heading in 
italic letters giving the known context, or indicating 
a probable context, of the old fragment. In those 
cases where the context cannot be regarded as known, 

xvi 



INTRODUCTION 

I do not vouch for the correctness of these headings ; 
ijut most of them have a better foundation than mere 
conjecture. Their function is to indicate the reason 
\\ hy I have put various items in the places where they 
now stand, and to be if possible a help and a guide. 
^n order to make the series more useful, I have 

rapiled two concordances, which will be found 
near the end of the volumes. One is intended for 
the use of persons who possess a standard complete 

itin text of any old author and wish to compare, 

any point, that text with this ; while the other is 

intended to assist those who \\-ish to turn from the 

present text and translation and to consult the latest 

standard predecessor. 

Life of Ennius 

Quintus Ennius was born in 239 " b.c. at Rudiae, 
now Rugge, in Calabria,* or Messapia, and claimed, 
as a Messapian,to be descended from King Messapus.*^ 
It was probably because this Italian district had been 
deeply influenced by Greek culture that Ennius 
was in later ages called ' Greek ' or ' Half-Greek.' '^ 
He was probably quite young when he leamt to 
speak not only Greek but Latin, for the colony of 

• GelUus, XVII, 21, 43; Cicero, Brut., 18, 72; Tusc. Diap., 
I, 1, 3. Jerome, Euseb. Chron., anno ab Abraham 1777, 
240 B.C. and Abr. 1849, 168 b.c is wTong. 

* Cic, pro Archia, 9, 22; Schol. Bob., ad loc.; Cic, de 
Oral., Ill, 42, 168; Ausoniua, Technopae^n., XIV, 17; Silius, 
XII, 393 ff. ; Strabo, 281-2c. Mela, II, 66 gives the wrong 
Rudiae near Canusium. 

« Silius, I.C.; Ovid, Are Amai., Ill, 409; Serv., ad Aen., 
VII, 691 ; Suidas, s.v. 'Eitios ; Horace, C. IV, 8, 20 and 
Aero, ad loc. 

' Festus, 412, 33; Suetonius, de grammaticis, 1. 



62 



INTRODUCTION 

Brundisium was only twenty miles or so from Rudiae ; 
he spoke Oscan also, and used to say that he had 
three * hearts ' because he could speak Greek, Oscan, 
and Latin." From Jerome's mistake in saying that 
Ennius was born at Tarentum * it is perhaps right 
to conclude that he was educated there. 

He joined the Roman army and, according to 
Silius, rose to the rank of centurion. While he 
was serving in Sardinia in 204 b.c, he was there 
brought to the notice of M. Porcius Cato, who was 
at that time quaestor. He is alleged to have in- 
structed Cato in ' Greek letters,' '^ which means that 
he introduced Cato to Greek literature if not to the 
Greek language. In any case he made a great 
impression on Cato, and was brought by him to Rome.'' 
There he lived on the Aventine, according to Jerome, 
and apparently tended grounds {loca coluit) sacred 
to Tutilina or ' Guardian Goddess,' according to 
Porcius (Licinus ?) in a passage of Varro.* He was 
doubtless attracted to the Aventine because in that 
region had been built, in honour of Livius Andronicus, 
a temple of Minerva for the use of poets and actors. 
During the first years of his residence in Rome (which 
lasted during all the rest of his life) he appears to 
have earned his living chiefly by teaching Greek to 
Romans ■'^; but at the same time he took to writing 
original poetry which increased his income, the death 
of Livius Andronicus and the banishment of Naevius 
giving him a good opportunity within the range of 

" Gellius, XVII, 17, 1. 
" Jerome, ann. 1777, 240. 
<^ Sil., I.e. ; ' Aurel Vict.,' de vir. illustr., 47. 
^ ' Cornel. Nepos,' Cato, 1, 4; Jerome, ann. 1777, 240. 
' Jerome, I.e. ; Varro, L.L., V, 163. 
/ Suet., l.c. 
xviii 



INTRODUCTION 

drama. In the course of his ^\Titing he did much to 
estabhsh a reasonable system of long and short 
syllables in poetry, and introduced into Latin the 
Greek hexameter. In due course he made friends 
>vith some of the most enlightened and influential 
Komans of the day, as is shown below. We can 
obtain a few glimpses of his character, and in this 
connexion it is worth while noting the good story 
which Cicero tells of him " : Scipio Nasica, who was 
consul in 191, when he once went to call on Ennius, 
was put off by the statement of Ennius' maidservant 
that the master was not at home. But Nasica had 
his suspicions that, at Ennius' orders, she had not 
told the truth. So a few days later when Ennius 
called on Nasica, and asked for him at the front door, 
Nasica, unseen within, shouted that he was not at 
home. When Ennius claimed to recognise Nasica 's 
voice, Nasica replied ' Shame on you. When / 
asked for you, I believed your maidservant that 
you weren't at home ; don't you believe me in 
person ? ' It is probably this story which gave rise 
to the tradition that on the Aventine Eimius lived a 
thrifty life and kept only one maidservant for his 
needs.* However, it is probably a true tradition 
with regard to his early years in Rome, and it may 
be that Ennius never became a rich man ; for he 
appears to have been poor even at seventy years of 
age."^ He was of a convivial nature, and perhaps 
drank more >nne than was good for him. He said 
of himself ' I never poetise unless I have the gout,' 
and Horace says of him that he never ' leaped 

" Cic, de Oratore, II, 68, 276. 
* Jerome, ann. 1777, 240. 
' Cic, de Senect., 5, 14. 

xix 



INTRODUCTION 

forward to sing of arms ' (that is, he never went 
ahead with the composition of his Annals) unless he 
was drunk." GelHus quotes a fragment of Ennius 
in which the poet is alleged to describe his own 
character as that of a loyal, trustworthy, and intimate 
friend of those statesmen who chose to know him.* 
Ennius became indeed a close friend with some of 
the best Romans of this period, above all perhaps 
with Scipio Africanus, whom he celebrated in his 
poetry <^ ; and with Marcus Fulvius Nobilior and his 
son Quintus. When Marcus, consul in 189 B.C., 
went to Aetolia, he took Ennius with him.'' Ennius 
went not to fight but doubtless because Marcus was 
a man of culture and Ennius intended to celebrate 
the coming campaign, as he afterwards did.* Marcus 
doubtless rewarded Ennius well ; a very late record f 
states that, to his discredit, Marcus did no more than 
give to Ennius one military cloak out of the spoils 
taken at Ambracia. In 184 b.c. Marcus' son Quintus 
caused Ennius to be made a full Roman citizen with 
a grant of land either at Potentia in Picenum or at 
Pisaurum in Umbria ; for it was apparently this 
Quintus Fulvius who was concerned in the foundation 

" Ennius, Satires, 21, pp. 390-1 of this book; Horace, 
EpisL, I, 19, 7-8, Q. Serenus Sammonicus, XXXVI, 706-7. 

' Gell., XII, 4, 4; Ennius, Annals, 210 — 27, as given in 
full on pp. 78-81. 

' Horace, C, IV, 8, 15 ff.; Cic, pro Arch., 9, 22, and 
Schol. Bob., ad loc.; Ennius' own work Scipio; see pp. 394 ff. 
In later ages the tradition, apparently a true one, of this 
friendship was much exaggerated — Claudian, XXIII. 

^ Cic, pro Arch., 11, 27; Tusc. Disp., I, 2, 3; Brut., 20, 
79, where Cic. inaccurately says of E. ' militaverat.' 

' In Ambracia and Book XV of the Annals; see pp. 142 ff., 
358-61. Cp. ' Aurel. Vict.,' de vir. illustr., 52, 3. 

f Symmachus, Epiat., I, 20, 2. 



INTRODUCTION 

of a colony at both places in that year." Ennius' 
friendship with Scipio Nasica has already been in- 
dicated above. In the case of Cato, I think we can 
trace a loss of that old friendship which had been the 
making of Ennius. Cicero, in maintaining that the 
Romans were slow to appreciate poetry and did not 
honour poets as they should have done, shows * 
that Cato in a speech laid it to Marcus Fuhius* 
charge that he had taken poets (Ennius of course is 
meant) into his pro\ince. Now it might be said that 
Cato may simply have used this argument insincerely 
and merely as a poHtical expedient against an un- 
friendly statesman ; or that Cato implied that Rome 
and not a province was the right place for a good poet, 
especially one whom Cato himself had brought to 
Rome in the first place. But Cicero did not thus 
interpret Cato's speech, which was apparently 
extant in Cicero's time ; and we must remember that 
Cato had developed an abiding hatred of new manners 
and especially of Greek culture amongst Romans, 
and conclude that Ennius had ceased to be a friend 
of Cato. There were two reasons, I think, for this 
estrangement: Cato found that Ennius was, after 
all, for his taste much too deeply engaged in 
Greek culture and in expounding of it to Romans 
and in transferring it into Latin ; Ermius had shovvii 
himself to be something of an Epicurean, and in 
works like Epicharmus and Euhemerus, and elsewhere, 
was expressing opinions which Cato believed to be 
subversive of Roman religion and manners. And 
further, Cato had already quarrelled with Ennius' 

• Cic, Br«/., 20, 79; Livy, XXXIX, 44, 10; Cic, pro Arch., 
10, 22; de Oral., Ill, 42, 168. 

* Tusc. Disp., I, 2, 3. 



INTRODUCTION 

friends such as the Scipios, partly again because of 
their love of Greek culture. 

There is one other man of affairs between whom 
and Ennius we can certainly trace some connexion. 
One of Ennius' neighbours was Servius Galba." This 
was probably Servius Sulpicius Galba who was 
praetor urbanus in 187 b.c. and was a friend of M. 
Fulvius. There is, however, much doubt concerning 
A. Postumius Albinus, who was praetor in 155, consul 
in 151. He, according to an isolated manuscript, 
dedicated '' to Ennius, who must have been growing 
old then, a history written by Albinus (obviously as 
a young man) in Greek. 

Of friendship between Ennius and other primarily 
literary men we can discover little. We do not know 
that he was ever acquainted personally with his 
older contemporaries, the poets Livius Andronicus 
and Naevius, for the former's death and the latter 's 
exile came about the time in which Ennius reached 
Rome. Still, years after Naevius' death, Ennius 
did, in his Annals, rightly disparage the ruder style 
of Naevius' Punic War while recognising its value 
as an historical record, and imitating a phrase or 
two."^ Nor, again, is there evidence that he was 
acquainted with Plautus, who lived for twenty years 
after Ennius first came to Rome, though we know 
that Plautus was acquainted -with Ennius' plays."^ 
Plautus was a writer of comedies, whereas Ennius' 
dramatic talent was expended almost entirely on 

« Cic, Ac. Pr., II, 16, 51. 

* Buecheler, Rhein. Mus., XXXIX, 623 ; cp. Riv. di fil. 
class., XII, 396. But the document is justly suspected of 
being a forgery. 

« Cic., Brut., 19, 75-6. On this, see pp. 82-3. 

<* Plant., Poen., prol., 1 £f. See pp. 218-21. 
xxii 



INTRODUCTION 

tragedies. But Ennius does indeed appear to have 
made friends with the comic WTiter Caecilius Statius, 
an Insubrian Gaul ; his life is described, so far as we 
know it, below, and the remains of his work are 
included in this book. Jerome says that Caecilius 
was ' at first ' (that is, at one time) a ' contubernalis ' 
or close comrade of Ennius. In fact Caecilius 
appears to have remained a friend until Ennius' 
death which came first, and to have been cremated 
near the place where Ennius' body also was burnt." 
And lastly, Ennius must presumably have known 
the tragic poet M. Pacuvius, a Calabrian of Brundis- 
ium (220 B.c.-c. 132), because he was a son of Ennius' 
sister.'' But it is doubtful whether Pacuvius, who 
was for many years a painter, not a play^vTight, by 
profession, had done much by way of composition of 
tragedies before his uncle's death in 169 (see below). 
According to one Pompilius,*^ Pacuvius was a 
' discipulus ' of Ennius. This may mean that 
Pacuvius was merely inspired to emulate Ennius in 
the composition of tragedy and possibly too of satire, 
in which Pacuvius is knovvn to have indulged. 

In the year 169, at the age of seventy, just after 
he had produced the tragedy Thyestes, and still, 
according to Cicero, calmly bearing and almost 
enjoying poverty and old age, Ennius died of gout."^ 
His body was apparently cremated on the laniculum ; 
and some authorities stated that his bones were taken 

» Jerome, ann. Abr. 1838, 179 B.C. 

» Pliny, N.H., XXXV, 19; Jerome, ann. Abr. 1863, 154 
B.C. (who wrongly makes P. son of E.'s daughter). 

' In Nonius, 88, 5-7. 

<* Cic, Brut., 20, 78; de senect., 5, 14; Jerome, ann. Abr. 
1849, 168 B.C., a year out. 

xxiii 



INTRODUCTION 

to his birthplace Rudiae." This at any rate was a 
common custom. But the connexion of Ennius 
with the sepulchre of the Scipios is doubtful. Thus, 
according to Cicero, a statue of Ennius in marble 
was, in Cicero's time, believed to have been set up in 
the Scipios' sepulchre because of Africanus' affection 
for him ; * in Livy's time, of three statues then to be 
seen in the sepulchre, one was said at that time to be 
a statue of Ennius ; "^ later on again, the elder Pliny 
says that Africanus ordered that a statue of Ennius 
be put in his tomb, and that Ennius' name could still 
be read on it ; "^ yet again, as a fourth stage in the 
development of what is, from beginning to end, 
apparently a falsehood, Jerome, following Suetonius, 
says that Ennius himself was cremated (sepultus) 
in Scipio's sepulchre. '^ Lastly, we may mention 
the ascription to Ennius by Woelfflin, in modern 
times, of at least some of the old elogia still extant 
on the monuments of the Scipios. The existence of 
such a statue as the Romans described was probably 
an assumption without foundation. A sculptured 
portrait inscribed ' Q. Ennius ' has been found / 
at Rome, but unfortunately it is headless. No 
portrait of Ennius has been found in the Scipios' 
sepulchre. 

With regard to Ennius' poetic remains, I propose, 

" Jerome, I.e., and arm. Abr. 1838, 179. 

* Cic, pro Arch., 9, 22. 

' Livy, XXXVIII, 56; Ovid, Ars Amai., Ill, 409, assumes 
the statement to be one of fact. 

^ Pliny, N.H., VII, 114; Solinus, I, 122 (from Pliny); 
cp. Val. Max., VIII, 14, 1. 

' Jerome, ann. Abr. 1849, 168; cp. Schol. Bob., ad Cic, 
pro Arch., 9, 22. 

/ Not. d. scav., 1903, 600 ff. 

xxiv 



INTRODUCTION 

w-ith the help of notes and headings given in the text 
and translation, to let the fragments in the main 
speak for themselves, but I give here a few 
probabilities and knowTi facts about his various works, 
though we can trace the date of hardly one of them. 
He produced tragedies at various times up to the 
year of his death, while the epic poem the Annals, 
by far his greatest single work, was apparently 
composed over a long period, being once or tA^ice 
resumed, as time went on, after a tentative ending. 
His nainor works were composed for special occasions 
or as the spirit moved him. Thus, his poem Scipio 
in praise of Africanus, \ictor of Hannibal in the battle 
of Zama, and possibly the Satires (of which the third 
book apparently alludes to Scipio), were >\Titten 
soon after the triumph celebrated by Scipio in 201 in 
honour of that last contest of the Second Punic War ; 
and Amhracia, in honour of M. Fulvius, very soon after 
188. A number of tragedies were probably com- 
posed before the Annals were begun or had gone very 
far, because dramatic composition would more than 
any poetry except comedies enable or help Ennius to 
live independently of literarA* ' patrons ' so far as he 
could. The tragedy Achilles after Aristarchus, was 
Avritten before the composition of Plautus' Poenulus 
in 189. The Annals had reached no farther than the 
twelfth book (which was perhaps intended to be the 
last) in 172, for in that book Ennius mentioned his 
age as being sixty-seven years ; thus books thirteen 
to eighteen were composed between 172 and 168; 
Ennius intended again to finish with book fifteen, 
and indeed made an end there ; but added three 
more books for a particular reason. The eighteenth 
was probably unfinished. Lastly, in the year of his 

XXV 



INTRODUCTION 

death, 169, Ennius produced the tragedy Thyestes, 
which was his last work.« 

The list of Ennius' complete works comprises 
eighteen '' books of Annals, at least twenty tragedies, 
two historical Roman plays (fabulae praetextae), two 
comedies (fabulae palliatae ?), at least four books of 
Satires, the poems Scipio, Sota, Proirepticum ( ?), 
Hedypkageiica (}), Epickarmus, Etihemerus or Holy 
History, and epigrams. There was a later grammarian, 
named Ennius (fl. c. 100 B.C.), whom it is difficult to 
distinguish from the poet. Two books on * letters 
and syllables ' and one (?) on ' metres ' were generally 
attributed by later Romans to this grammarian." 
I have assumed that the first development of 
shorthand writing** is also to be ascribed to the 
grammarian. But that the doubling of consonants 
was begun or established by the poet Ennius (and 
not the grammarian) as Festus indicates j*^^ I take to be 
a true tradition ; for in Latin inscriptions the double 
consonants do not appear (except in one name 
where the Greek is transliterated) until 189 B.C., as 
will be seen in the third volume of this series. 

" For further particulars about the points dealt with in 
this paragraph, reference should be made to the text and 
translation. 

* Diomedes, ap. G. L., I, 484, 3K. From this passage 
it appears that at one time (in the Augustan age ?) the Annals 
of E. were called ' Romais ' (cp. Virgil's Aeneis). 

' Suet., de grammat., 1. 

" Suet., fragm. p. 135 Reiff., 289 Roth; Isid., Orig., I, 22, 
1 ; cd. Cass. W. Schmitz, Symb. Philol. Bonn, 532. 

' Fest., 412, 30. 



XXVI 



a 



INTRODUCTION 

Life of Caecilius 

About Caecilius Statius we cannot say much. 
We do not know the date of his birth at all, while 
the date of his death is doubtful ; but he was probably- 
born about the year 220 b.c. He was one Statius, 

Gaul or Celt of the Insubrian tribe in northern 
Italy; according to some, his birthplace was 
Mediolanum" (Milan). He was brought to Rome a 
slave, probably as a prisoner of war, between 200 
and 194. We may presume that he then came into 
the hands of a Roman Caecilius, by whom he was 
freed from slaverj-. He henceforth bore Caecilius' 
gentile name, according to the custom of men who 
were manumitted ; the name Statius, as Gelhus tells 
us, becoming thus a kind of surname.^ After he was 
made a freedman, he became a friend of Ennius,*^ 
as we described above, and took to wTiting comedies 
from Greek modeh (fahulae palliatae) belonging to the 
* New Attic ' t}'pe and apparently WTote nothing 
else besides plays of this kind. It is not unreasonable 
to suggest that Caecilius chose this department of 
drama because Ennius was already composing trage- 
dies ; and thus the two poets were able to be friends 
without being rivals in the same sphere. At first 
Caecilius was not successful, for, says Lucius 
Ambivius Turpio,'' the stage-manager and actor, 
' at first, in new plays of CaeciUus which I produced, 

" Jerome, ann. Abr. 1838, 179. 

^ Gell., IV, 20, 13. By Cicero's time he was generally 
referred to simply as Caiecilius ; he is hardly ever called 
Statius alone in extant authorities. 

' Jerome, l.c. 

■* According to the words put into his mouth by Terence 
in the second prologue to Hecyra, 14-15. 



INTRODUCTION 

I was in some cases hissed off the stage, in others 
maintained my ground with difficulty.' This was 
perhaps because Caecilius as an Insubrian had not yet 
mastered Latin fully." But in course of time, as 
we know, he became famous, reaching, according to 
Jerome, the height of his renown in 179, and was 
regarded as a person fit to judge plays offered for 
exhibition. In his own stage-work some thought him 
especially skilful in handling of plots, others remarked 
on his power to stir up the emotions, others again 
admired his surpassing dignity or weight (gravitas ''). 
Some indeed, like Vulcacius Sedigitus (c. 130 b.c), 
put Caecilius at the head of Roman writers of 
comedies ; Cicero too was inclined to do the same.'' 
Much later, Gellius (c. a.d. 130-180), in a severe 
criticism which will be found in this book in connexion 
with the fragments of Caecilius' Plociuni, seenns to 
have found him effective enough when read without 
reference to his Greek model Menander, but, in 
comparison with the Greek original, much inferior 
to it. It has been argued that, since the titles of 
his comedies show three classes — plays with Latin 
titles, like the plays of Plautus ; plays with both a 
Latin and a Greek title ; and plays with simply a 
Greek title, — and since the last kind form a majority, 
Caecilius was at first very free with his models but 
tended later to keep closer to them ; but we can see 
from extant fragments of Menander 's UXokiov that 
Caecilius was very free even in plays which are quoted 
under a Greek title only. 

" Cic, ad Ait., VII, 3, 10; cp. Brut., 74, 258. 
* His plots : Varro, in Nonius, 374, 6 ; emotions : Charisius, 
in G. L., I, 41K; ' gravltas ' : Horace, Ejnst., II, 1, 59. 
' Sedigitus in GeU., XV, 24, 1. 

xxvlii 



INTRODUCTION 

CaeciUus died soon after Ennius, perhaps in the 
year after, that is, in 168, for Jerome " seems to say 
tiiat he died ' anno post mortem Ennii.' But 
Suetonixis '' says (y,-ith. how much truth we cannot 
tellj that Terence was officially ordered to read his 
first play Andria to Caecilius, who, uninterested at 
the beginning, approved of it as Terence read on. 
But this play was not exhibited until 166 B.C., so that 
some add III or IIII after ' Ennii ' in the text of 
Jerome. Caecilius' remains were apparently cre- 
mated near the laniculum or near if not at the same 
place in which those of Ennius had been burnt 
before him. 



Editions and Translations 
Ennius 

R. and H. Stephanus. Fragmenta Poetarum Veterum 

Latinorum quorum opera non extant. Ennii . . . 

a Rob. Stepkano . . . congesta, ah Henrico . . . 

digesta. 1564. pp. 78 ff. 
H. Colonna. Q. Ennii poetae . . . quae supersunt 

Fragmenta ah Hieronymo Columna conquisita, dis- 

posita, et explicata. Naples. 1590. 
M. A. Del Rio (Delrius). Syntagma Tragoediae 

Latinae, I. Fragmenta vetemtn tragicorum, pp. 

96 ff. Paris. 1593. 
P. Merula.' Q. Ennii . . . Annalium lihh. XIIX quae 

apud varios auctores superant fragmenta con- 

lecta . . . ah P. . . . Merula. Leyden. 1595. 

• aim. Abr. 1838, 179. » vita Terentii, 28, 8. 

« To be distinguishod from G. Merula or )Iirlani. 

xxix 



INTRODUCTION 

P. Schrijver. P, Scriverius. Collectanea Veterum 
Tragicontvi. . . . Q. Ennii . . . aliorumque frag- 
menta. Castigationes et notae. . . . G. J. Vossii. 
Leyden. 1620 (bound up \vith Schrijver's 
Seneca Tragicus). 

F. Hesselius. Q. Ennii . . . Fragmenta ... ab 
H. Colunma conquisita . . . recusa accurante 
F. H. i.e. Accedunt. . . . M. A. Delrii opin- 
ationes. . . . G. J. Fossii castigaticnies et notae . . . 
Amsterdam. 1707. 

E. P. J. Spangenberg. Q. Enii An7ialium libb. 
XF III fragmenta. Post P. Merulae curas iterum 
recensita. . . . Opera et studio E. S. Leipzig. 
1825. 

F. H. Bothe. Poetae Latii Sceneci, V-VI. 1834. 

L. Mueller. Q. Ennii Carminum Reliquiae. . . . 

Emendavit et ad7iotavit L. M. (St. Petersburg). 

1885. 
Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. ed. J. P. Postgate. 

1894. I. contains L. Mueller's revision (in 1888) 

of his text of 1885. 
A. Baehrens. Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum. 

Leipzig. 1886. (Does not include Ennius' 

plays.) 
O. Ribbecic. Scaenicae Romanorum Poesis Fragmenta. 

I. Tragicorum Rom. Fr.; II. Comicorum Rom. 

Fr. praeier Plautum et Terentium. Leipzig ; 1st 

edition, 1852; 2nd edition, trag. 1871, com. 

1873 ; 3rd edition (' Teubner Texts '), trag., 

1897, com., 1898. 
J. Vahlen. Ennianae Poesis Reliquiae. Leipzig; 

1st edition, 1854 ; 2nd edition, 1903 ; 3rd edition, 

1928. 
L. Valmaggi. Q. Ennio ; i frammenti degli Annali 



INTRODUCTION 

editi e illustrati da Luigi Falmaggi. Turin. 

1900. 
E. Diehl. Poetarum Romanorum Veterum Reliquiae. 

Selegit E. D. Bonn: Weber. 1911. Kleine 

Texte, 69, pp. 17-49. 
G. Pascoli. Epos,\. Livomo : Giusti ; 2nd edition. 

1911. pp. 13 iF. {Annals.) 
Ethel M. Steuart. The Annals of Quintus Ennius ; 

edited by E. M. S. Cambridge. 1925. 

There are also R. Estienne, Fragmenta Poetarum 
Veterum Latinorum. 1564 ; Corpus Omnium veterum 
poetarum Latinorum, I. 1611. Geneva; Opera et 
Fragmenta Veterum Poetarum Latinorum. II. pp. 
1457 fF. Q. Ennii Fragmenta, ed. M. Maittaire. 
London, 1713, 1721 ; Collectio Pisaurensis omnium 
poematum. . . . Latinorum. IV. 1766, ed. P. Amati, 
pp. 264 ff ; J. B. Levee et G. A. Le Monnier, Theatre 
complet des Latins (Latin and French), XV. Paris, 
1823. But these are not important. 

There are selections from the fragments in J. 
Wordsworth, Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin. 
Oxford. 1874 ; and in W. W. Merrj', Selected Frag- 
ments of Roman Poetry. Oxford. 2nd ed., 1898. 

Caecilius 

Fragments will be found in the following, all of 
which are mentioned above under Ennius : R. and 
H. Stephanus, Fragmenta Poetarum Veterum Latinorum, 
1564; F. H. Bothe, Poetae Latii Scenici, 1834; 
O. Ribbeck, Comicorum Rom. Fr. (1st ed., 1852 ; 
2nd ed., 1873; 3rd ed., 1898); E. Diehl, Poet. Rom. 
Vet. Rel. 1911, pp. 59-65 ; also in the unimportant 
works cited above at the end of the Ennian list, 

xxxi 



INTRODUCTION 

especially in Merry's Selected Fragments. Lastly, 
the fragments were edited separately by L. Spengel, 
Caecilii Statii deperditarum fabularum fragmenia. 
Monachii. 1829. 

Abbreviations 

A large amount of important work in restoring 
and annotating fragments of the old poets has been 
done by scholars such as editors and emendators in 
their studies on the later writers who quote the frag- 
ments ; and by scholars who have recorded their 
labours on the poets themselves in separate books 
or in periodical publications. It is not possible to 
give a full list of these here. With regard to Ennius 
and Caecilius, the following are two works which 
have been often referred to in abbreviated form in 
notes : O. Ribbeck, Die rbmische Tragodie im Zeitalter 
der Republik, 1875 (Rwn. Trag.) ; and E. Norden, 
Ennius und Vergilius (Norden). Readers who refer 
to Ribbeck's editions of the dramatic fragments 
(Scaenica Romanorum Poesis) will find that it is his 
second edition (not his third, prepared for a special 
purpose) which contains the completest apparatus 
critici and the best introductions (corollaria) to the 
tragic and the comic fragments respectively. For 
this reason, where this work of Ribbeck is cited or 
referred to, without indication of the edition, the 
second edition is meant. In the case of Vahlen's 
Ennius, it is the third edition, published in 1928, 
which is meant; the Roman figures refer to his 
praefatio, other figures to the pages of his text, 
except in the concordances, where the figures refer 
to his lines of Ennius' poetry. 

With regard to the critical notes on the Latin 



INTRODUCTION 

text, in designating the names of scholars, the 
following abbreviations have been used : B = 
Baehrens ; D(I.) = Dousa (lanus) ; D(F.) = Dousa 
(Franciscus) ; H = Housman; lun. = lunius {i.e. 
Adriaan de Jonghe) ; L = Lachmann ; Linds. = 
Lindsay ; M = Marx ; Mr. = L. Mueller (the others 
of that name are given with their initials) ; Palmer. 
(Spic.) = J. M. Palmerius, Spicilegia ; Quich. = 
Quicherat; R or Ribb. = Ribbeck; S = Scaliger; 
St. = Ethel Steuart ; T = Turnebus ; V = Vahlen ; 
\V)SS. = Vossius (G. J. Voss). In some cases I have 
iriven the original name (for example, Colonna, 
Slercier, Saumaise) instead of a Latinised form of 
it : but I shrank from giving, for example, Jonghe 
for lunius, Schrijver for Scriverius ; while the 
(irifjinal name of Turnebus is, I beheve, not knoAVTi. 
1 iiiendations suggested by me are marked W. 
\ iriant readings, and the names or initials of scholars, 
have been sho-wn in Roman type ; codices and their 
■^iirla, and all other words, in italic t}'pe. 

I give sincere thanks to Mr. G. Noel-Armfield of 
C ambridge who put these three volumes into type- 
script ; and to the printers and publishers for their 
(are and skill in producing a very difficult piece of 
printing. 

E. H. Warmington. 

King's College, University of London, 
Strand, 

London, W.C. 2. 

29fA of May, 1935. 



ENNIUS 



VOL. I. 



ENNIUS 

LIBER I 



1 

Varro, L.L., VII, 19 : Ennii . . .— 

Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis Olympum ; 

caelum dicunt Graeci Olympum. 

Cp. Varr., R.R., I, 1, 4; Serv., ad Aen., XI., 660; Horn. //., 
II, 484 'ECTTrere vvv /xot MoCaai 'OAv/xTrto hdy^iar' €)^ovaai. 

2-3 

[Probus], ap. G.L., IV, 23, UK: Neutro genere . . . brevis 
est (syllaba). . . . Ennius in I — 

Nam populos . . . 

. . . Italos res atque poemata nostra cluebunt. 

Fronto, de Eloq., 146 N : Magistra Homeri Calliopa, magister 
Emii Homerus et Somnus. 

*~' Italos . . . cluebunt W coZ/. Lwcre<., I, 119, 'pergentes 
Italas hominum quae clara clueret ' cluvebunt D (I.) 

fort. Namque Italos . . . clarabunt (cp. Hor., C ., IV, 3, 4 
— clarabit). alii alia nam latos p. res cd. 

" This is clear from Varro, ^.jR. 1, 1, 4. Vahlen's second line 
must go — see p. 463. 



ANNALS 



BOOK I 

Prelude. From the Sack of Troy to the Death 
OF Romulus 

1 

* The first " line ; invocation of the Muses : 
Varro : In Ennius there is . . . — 

Muses, who with your feet beat mighty Olympus ; 

by Olympus the Greeks mean the sky. 

2-3 

Exhortation to readers : 

Pro bus : As for the neuter gender the syllable * is short. . . . 
Ennius in the first book — 

' for my subject and my poem shall have renown 
among the peoples of Italy. 

Homer, seen by Ennius on Mount Helicon in a dream, toaa the 
source of inspiration : 

Fronto : Homer's instructress was Calliope; Ennios' 
instructors were Homer and Sleep. 

* sc. the final syllable, nom. voc. ace. pi. 

' The readings and all proposals are doubtful (V., CXLVII). 
Miss Steuart puts this fr. later, joining it with line 14. St., 
pp. 95-7. 

3 
b2 



ENNIUS 

Fronto, Epp., Vol. I, p. 94 (cp. 98) Haines : Transeo nunc 
ad Q. Ennium nostrum, quern tu ais ex somno et somnio 
initium sibi scribendi fecisse. Sed profecto nisi ex somno 
suscitatus esset, numquam somnium suum narrasset. 

4 

Fronto, Epp., Vol. I, pp. 204 H : Si quando te — 

somno leni 
ut poeta ait — 

placidoque revinctus 

video in somnis, numquam est quin amplectar et exosculer 
. . . hoc unum ex Annalibus sumptum amoris mei argu- 
mentum poeticum et sane somniculosum. 

5 

Cicero, Ac. Pr., II, 16, 51 : Cum somniavit {Ennius) 
narravit— 

visus Homerus adesse poeta. 

Cp. Ac. Pr., -21, 88 : de Re Pub., VI, 10, 10. 

6 

Cicero, Ac. Pr., II, 27, 88 : Nisi vero Ennium non putamus 
ita totum illud audivisse — 



' O pietas animi ! 
si modo id somniavit ut si vigilans audiret. 
Cp. Donat. in Ter., Eun., Ill, 5, 12. 

7-10 



i 



Epicharmus, ap. Com. Cr. Fr. I, 123 Kaibel : Kal yo^P to 
0T]Xv TU)V aXeKTopiSuiv yevos, \ atXfjs KarafiaOetv, dreves ourtKTCi 
Teicva I ^wvt' oAA' inc^^eL Kol noiel tjivxav ex^'"* 

Varro, L.L., V, 59 : Haec duo caelum et terra quod anima 
et corpus. Humidum et frigidum terra, eaque corpus, caldor 
caeli et inde anima, sive — 

* < In somnis mihi > visus Colonna, Merula coll. Aen. II, 
270, fortasae recte. 

4 



i 



ANNALS 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto : And now I pass to our poet 
Ennius, who you say began to write after sleeping and 
dreaming. But surely if he had not been roused out of his 
sleep he would never have told the tale of his dream. 

4 

Fronto writes to Marcus Aurelius : If ever, — 

Fettered in soft calm sleep 

as the poet says, I see you in dreams,* there is no time when 
I do not embrace you and fondly kiss you . . . this is one 
proof of my love, which I take from the Annals, a poetic and 
dreamy one indeed. 

5 

Homer appears : 

Cicero : When Ennius hewl dreamed, this is what he told 
of it- 
Homer the poet appeared at my side. 

6 

Opening of Homer's speech : 

Cicero : Unless indeed we choose to believe that Ennius, 
merely because he dreamed it, did not hear the whole of that 
famous speech — 

' O lo^^ng kindness of thy heart, . . .* 

as well as he would have heard it if he had been awake, 

7-10 

Homer tells how his soul migrated into Ennius' body : 

Varro : These two, sky and earth, correspond with life and 
body. The wet and cold masses form the earth, and she is 
body; heat is the essence of the sky, whence comes life, 
whether we assume that — 

" This suggests that the fr. is rightlv placed here. 
* Thus Miss Steuart. 



ENNIUS 

' Ova parire solet genus pennis condecoratum 
non animam, 
ut ait Ennius — 

' et post inde venit divinitus pullis 
ipsa anima ; 

sive, ut Zenon Citieus, animalium semen ignis isque anima et 
mens. 

Cp. Diomed., ap. G.L., I, 383, 5 K; Priscian., ap. G.L., II, 
401, 3 K. 

11-12 

Varro, L.L., V, 60: Recteigitur . . . quod ait . . . Ennius — 

' terraque corpus 
quae dedit ipsa capit neque dispendi facit hilum . 



Cp. V, 111 ; IX, 53. 



13 



Donatus, in Ter., Andr., II, 5, 18 : ' Memini videre ' pro 
' vidisse * Ennius — 

' Memini me fiere pavum. 

Cp. Ter., in Addph., I, 2, 26; in Phorm., I, 2, 24; Charis., 
ap. O.L., I, 98, 4K; Tertull., de An., 33 pavum se meminit 
Homerus Ennio somniante. Lucret., I, 112-126. 

Schol. ad Pers., Prol., 2-3 : Tangit Ennium qui dixit se 
vidisse per somnium in Parnaso Homerum sibi dicentem quod 
eius anima in suo esset corpore. 



" It is difficult to believe that these fragments belong to any- 
thing but Epicharmus (see pp. 410 S..). In this part of his work 
Varro quotes several passages from Ennius' Epicharmus, and 

6 



ANNALS 

* The feather-furbished tribe is wont to be deUvered 
of eggs, not of life, 

according to the words of Ennius " — 

' and after that time life itself comes to the 
chicks by a god's will ; 

or, according to Zenon of Cition, that the seed of living things 
is fire and this is their life and soul. 



11-12 

Varro : Right therefore is the statement of . . . Ennius * — 

' And earth who herself bestowed the body takes 
it back and wastes not a whit. 



13 

Donatus : ' I remember seeing ' instead of ' having seen ' : 
Ennius — 

I remember becoming ' a peacock. 

A scholiast : Persius alludes to Ennius, who states that in a 
dream he saw a vision of Homer on Parnassus (mistake for 
Helicon) ; Homer said that his soul was in Ennius' body. 



not from the Annals. Yet we must agree with those who 
assign them to the first book of the Annals (V., CXLVIII ; and 
3-4). The metre is not the same as that of known frs. of Epi- 
charmus, and an allusion in Lucretius points to the Annals. 

* See preceding note. 

« Macrob., G.L., V., 645, not«s fiere for fieri in the tenth 
book also. 



ENNIUS 

U 

Persius, S., VI, 9-11:— 

' Lunai portum, est operae, cognoscite, cives.' 

Cor iubet hoc Enni posquam destertuit esse | Maeonides, 
Quintus pavone ex Pythagoreo. 

Schol., ad loc. : Hunc versum ad suum carmen de Ennii 
carminibus transtulit. Merito ergo ait ' cor iubet hoc Enni 
postquam destertuit.' Sic Ennius ait in Annalium suorum 
principio, ubi dicit se vidisse in somnis Homerum dicentem 
fuisse quondam pavonem et ex eo translatam in se animam 
esse secundum Pythagorae philosophi deiinitionem. 

Cp. Porphyr., ad Hor., Ep. II, 1, 50-3; Comment, in Stat., 
Theb., Ill, 484; Ov., Met., XV, 160 s. ; Hor., C, I, 28-9 s. 

15 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 97-8 K. : ' Veterrimus quasi a 
' veter.' . . . Ennius — 

Quom veter occubuit Priamus sub Marte Pelasgo, 

16-17 

Servius (auctus) ad Georg., Ill, 35 : Assaracus avus Anchisae. 
Ennius — 

Assaraco natus Capys optimus isque pium ex se 
Anchisen generat. 

11., XX, 239 : ^ AaodpaKOS 8e KaTruv, 58' dp' 'Ay)(icnjv t€K€ nalba. 

1* trib. Saturis H 

^' Anchisen Serv. and. Anchisam Valmaggi ^ro6. St. 

" I agree with Vahlen (CXLIX : cp. V., ' t)ber die A. des E.' 
in Abh. Kon. Ak., 1886, 37, 38), who concludes from Persius' 
language that the mention of Luna (Spezia) came after the 
tale of the dream. But Housman (C.R., 1934, 60-1) may well 
be right in assigning this fr. to the Satires. Of. also St., pp. 
95 ff . ' cor ' might be translated here ' a heart ' ; I suggest that 
Ennius' statement (Gellius, XVII, 17, 1) that he had three 
hearts because he spoke Greek, Oscan, and Latin, was made 
here in the Annals. 

8 



I 



ANNALS 

14 

Romans must remember the place where Ennius dreamed : 
rsius : — 

Take note, ye citizens, of Luna's harbour — it is 
worth while. 

Thus commanded Ennius in his senses after he had • snored 
out his dream that he was the Man of Maeonia — Quintus at 
last out of a Pythagorean peacock. 

A scholiast on this passage : This line he took from the poems 
of Ennius to put into his own poem. It is well then that he 
says, ' thus commanded Ennius in his senses after he had 
snored out.' That is what Ennius says in the beginning of his 
Annals where he states that in the course of a dream he saw 
a vision of Homer who said that he was once a peacock and 
from it, according to a rule * laid down by the philosopher 
P}-thagoras, his soul had been conveyed into Ennius. 

15 

Beginning of the narrative. The Fall of Troy : 

Priscianus : ' Veterrimus ' is as it were derived from a 
positive ' veter.' . . . Ennius has — 

When aged Priam was laid low beneath the warring 
Pelasgian, 

16-17 

The Lineage of Aeneas : Assaracus, Capys, and Anchises : 

Servius (supplemented) : Assaracus was grandfather of 
Anchises. . . . Ennius — 

From Assaracus sprang Capys best of men : and 
he was from his loins begetter of Anchises the 
loyal. '^ 

* See pp. 5-7. 

* In the story followed by Ennius, Achilles was the rescuer. 
v., CLII makes Aeneas (as in Homer) speak this line to the 
King of Alba, 

9 



ENNIUS 

1&-19 

Probus in Verg., Ed., VI, 31 : Ennius Anchisen augurii ac 
per hoc divini quoddam habuisse praesumit sic — 

Doctusque Anchisa, Venus quern pulcherruma 

dium 
fari donavit, divinum pectus habere. 
Cp. Schol. Ver. ad Aen., II, 687. 

20 

Servius (auctus) ad Georg., IV, 59 : ' Nare ' pro volare ut apud 
Ennium in primo — 

transnavit cita per teneras caliginis auras. 



A 



21 
Festus, 428, 11:' Sos ' pro ' eos ' . . . ut Ennius lib. I— 
Constitit inde loci propter sos dia dearum. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 429, 11. Cp. 11, XVIII, 388, etc., hla 
dedcov. 

22-3 

Festus, 234, 23 : ' Orare ' antiques dixisse pro agere testi- 
monio. . , . Ennius quoque cum dixit in lib. I Annalium — 

' face vero 
quod tecum precibus pater orat.' 

1* doctusque Anchisa Fleckeisen atque Anchises doctus 
S doctus parens Anchisa Mr. doctusque Anchises Prob. j 
doctus Anchisa Schol. Ver. pulcherruma dium Fleckeisen 

pulchra dearum Prob. pulcherrima diu Schol. Ver. 

1' fari donavit Prob. fata docet Schol. Ver. fari 

Bernays fari fata docet coni. V | 

^^ face vero Golonna facere vero cdd. tu face vero ( 

August. tum face vero (oUm tu vero face) V^ qui un. vers. I 

constit. f 

lO I 



ANNALS 

18-19 

Anchises : 

I'robus : Ennius pictures to himself Anchises as having 
-■ : le power of soothsaying by bird-lore, and, through this, 
thing of the prophet in him : thus — 

1 shrewd Anchises to whom Venus, loveliest of 

goddesses, granted power to foretell, yea to have 
a godly heart of prophecy." 

20 

An approach * of Venus : 

Servius (supplemented) : ' To float ' instead of ' to fly,* as 
in a passage of E. in the first book — 

Along she floated swiftly through rare wafts of 
mistiness. 

21 
Venus appears to Aeneas and his companions : 
Festus : ' Sos ' for. ' eos ' ; for example Ennius in Book I — 
Thereupon she, hallowed among the holy god- 
desses, took her stand close to them. 

22-3 

Sfie ' tries to perstuide Aeneas to obey Anchises and retire to 
Mount Ida : 

Festus : That the ancients used the term ' to plead ' ** for ' to 
deal.' Ennius also was a witness when he wrote in the first 
book of the Annals — 

' But be sure to do what your father pleads for 
in prayers with you.' 

• St., pp. 101-3. 

* Cf. the excellent note of Miss St., pp. 103-4; cp. V., CL. 

• For this variation of the legend cf . Dionys. Halic, 1, 48, 2 ; 
v., CLXIX; St., pp. 104, 105. 

* Festus means the use of orare cum aliquo (like agere c. a.) 
instead of orare alipiem. 

II 



ENNIUS 



24 



Macrobius, VI, I, 11 : ' Est locus, Hesperiam Grai cogno- 
mine dicunt ' (4era., I, 530; 111,163). Ennius in I — 

Est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant, 



25 

Varro, L.L., VII, 28 : ' Cascum ' vetus esse significat E. 
quod ait — 

quam prisci casci populi tenuere Latini. 

Cp. Cic., Tusc. Disp., I, 12, 27. 

26 

Varro, L.L., V, 42 {de Capitolio) : Hunc antea montem 
Saturnium appellatum prodiderunt et ab eo late Satumiam 
terrain ut etiam Ennius appellat — 

Saturnia terra 



27-8 
Nonius, 197, 2 : ' Caelum ' neutro. Masculino . . . Ennius — 

Saturno 
quem Caelus genuit. 
Cp. Charis., ap. G.L., I, 72, 13 K. 

29 
Nonius, 216, 31 : ' Obsidio ' . . . neutro Ennius — 
Quom saevo obsidio magnus Titanus premebat, _^M 

^* quam Macrob. quem St. lapsu typograph. ; sed rectef 
"• saevo lun. sos Havet suo cdd. 



' Sc. Greeks, V., CL. » V., CL-CLI. 

« v., CLI. 



12 



I 



ANNALS 

24 

Italy and the Latins : 

Macrobius : ' There is a region which the Greeks call by 
name " Western Land." ' Ennius in the first book — 

There is a region which mortals" used to call 
Western Land,' 

25 

Varro : That ' cascus ' means ' old ' is shown by Ennius 
because he says — 

which the ancient Latin folk of eld did hold.* 

26 

The early connexion of Latium with Saturn : ' 

Varro says of the Capitoline Hill : Men have recorded that 
once upon a time this hill was called ' Saturn's ' and hence in a 
broad sense they record — 

Saturn's Land 

as Ennius among others calls it. 

27-8 

The fortunes of Saturn : 

Nonius : ' Caelum ' neuter. In a masculine form . . . 
Ennius — 

To Saturn whom Sky begat. 

29 

Why he fled to Italy : 

Nonius : ' Obsidio ' . . . neuter in Ennius — 
When great Titan was afflicting him with cruel 
duress.** 

"^ Enniushimself in £'uAe7n€ru« (see pp. 420-3) told how Titan 
kept Saturn imprisoned, and how Saturn fled to Italy. This 
line, however, is a hexameter and surely belongs to the Annals, 
not to Euhemerus, which was UTitten in septenarii. 

13 



ENNIUS 

30 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 337, 26 K : ' Laurentis ' etiam pro 
' Laurens.' Eiinius in A. — 

quos homines quondam Laurentis terra recepit. 

31 

Atilius Fortunat., ap. G.L., VI, 284, 20 K : Maximus qui est 
versus syllabas habet XVII . . . minimus habet XII ut est 
Ennianus — 

Olli respondit rex Albai Longai. 

Cp. Donat., ap. Q.L., IV, 396, 19 K : Pompeius, ap. O.L., 
V, 297, 30 K : Explanat. in Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 548, 2 K, 

Servius, ad.4en., VI, 777: . . . Secundum Ennium, referetur 
(Romulus) inter decs cum Aenea. 

Servius, ad Aen., VI, 777 : Dicit . . . Iliam fuisse filiam 
Aeneae. 

32-48 

Cicero, de Div., I, 20, 40 : Narrat . . . apud Ennium Vestalis 
ilia— 

Excita quom tremulis anus attulit artubus lumen, 
talia turn memorat lacrumans exterrita somno : 
' Euridica prognata, pater quam noster amavit, 
vires vitaque corpus meum nunc deserit omne. 35 
Nam me visus homo pulcher per amoena salicta 
et ripas raptare locosque novos ; ita sola 
postilla, germana soror, err^e videbar, 
tardaque vestigare et quaerere te, neque posse 

^^ excita, et cita cdd. Cic. de Div. fortasse Vestalis 

Ilia ' excita 

« This is Vahlen's decision (V., CLIII); but St., p. Ill, 
includes the fr. in the story of Ilia's fate. 
* Cp. p. 39. 
Cf. St., pp. 106 £f. ; v., CLIII £f. 

14 



ANNALS 

30 

Aeneas and his followers arrive at Laurenium in Latium : 

Priscianus : * Laurentis ' for ' Laurens.' Erinius in the 
Annals — 

These men one day Laurentum's land received. 

31 

Concourse of Aeneas and the King of Alba : ' 

Atilius : The shortest hexameter has 12 syllables like this of 
Ennios — 

To him answer made the King of Alba Longa. 

Aeneas is deified : 

Servius : According to Ennios, he (RomuluB) will be reckoned 
with Aeneas among the gods.* 

The story of Ilia : 

Servius goes on : He says that Ilia was a daughter of Aeneas. 

32-48 

The dream of Ilia,' daughter of Aeneas, after his death : 
Cicero : in Ennius the famous vestal tells her story — 
When the old woman '^ roused up, had %vith limbs 
a-tremble brought a light, then the maid,* frightened 
out of sleep, spoke thus in tears : — ' O daughter of 
Eurydica,-^ you whom our father loved, now strength 
and hfe too leave all my body. For a man of 
beautiful looks seemed to hurry me away among 
pleasant sallow-thickets and banks and places 
strange ; so, my own sister, after that did I seem 
to wander alone, and slow-footed to track and 
search for you, but to be unable to catch you to 

' Probably some attendant or nurse. ' Ilia. 

■^ According to Ennius, wife of Aeneas and mother not of 
Ilia but only of Ilia's step-sister, though both sisters were 
daughters of Aeneas. 

15 



ENNIUS 

corde capessere ; semita nulla pedem stabilibat. 40 

Exin conpellare pater me voce videtur 

his verbis : " O gnata, tibi sunt ante ferendae 

aerumnae, post ex fluvio fortuna resistet." 

Haec ecfatus pater, germana, repente recessit, 

nee sese dedit in conspectum corde cupitus, 45 

quamquam multa manus ad caeli caerula templa 

tendebam lacrumans et blanda voce vocabam. 

Vix aegro turn corde meo me somnus reliquit. 



Ovidius, Tr. II, 259-260 : 

Sumpserit annales (nihil est hirsutius illis) 
facta sit undlk parens Ilia nempe leget. 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., I, 273 Naevius et Ennius Aeneae 
ex filia nepotem Romulum conditorem urbis tradunt. 
Cp. Senr., ad Aen., VI, 777. 



49-50 

Nonius, 378, 15 : ' Parumper,' cito ac velociter. . . . Ennius 
Annali lib, I — 

' Te nunc sancta precor Venus, te genetrix patris 

nostri 
ut me de caelo visas cognata parumper,' 

** ferendae Davis gerendae cdd. frdb. V 

*® turn Voss. A. cum Voss. B. Vind. foriasse rede 

** nunc sancta Colonna sale nata V sane alta 

Pascoli dea sancta Ilberg venerata B te te 

sancta coni. St. sane neta cdd. 

*" rogitata Haupt 

i6 



ANNALS 

my heart: no path made sure my stepping. Then 
it was father who seemed to hft up his voice and 
■^peak to me in these words : — " O daughter, first 
there are hardships to be borne by you; but after 
that, your fortunes will rise" again from a river." 
With these words, my own sister, did father suddenly 
withdraw, and no longer gave himself to my gaze 
though my heart longed for him ; no, even though 
many a time and ^nth tears did I keep holding out 
mv hands tow^ards the blue precincts of the sky, 
and called and called him with caressing voice. 
l^ven then did sleep scarcely leave me all sick at 
heart. 

Ilia, laved by Mars, gives birth to Romulus and Remus : 

Ovid: 

If a woman should take the Annals (there'a no poem 
shaggier than they) she will perforce read how Hia became a 
mother.* 

Servius (sapplemented) : Naevius and Ennius record that the 
founder of the city was Romulus, grandson of Aeneas through 
his daughter. 

49-50 

Ilia, arraigned for Tier fault, appeals to Venus : 

Nonius : ' Parumper,' speedily • and quickly. . . . Ennius 
in the first book of the Annals — 

' Thee, hallowed Venus, thee now the mother of 
my father, I pray look down on me from heaven 
a little while, my kinswoman.' 

" A very rare use of the verb. The vision mysteriously 
mophesies the salvation of Romulus by a flooding of the Tiber. 
This might imply that the council of the gods had taken place 
already; but see note on line 57, p. 20. 

» Cf. S. G. Owen, Ov. Nas. Trist., II, pp. 164-5. 

* Nonius here mistakes the meaning of parumper. 

I? 
VOL. I. C 



ENNIUS 



51 



Macrobius VI, 1, 12: 'Tuque o Thybri, tuo genitor cum 
flumine sancto ' {Aen., VIII, 72). Ennius in I — 

' Teque pater Tiberine tuo cum flumine sancto, 



52 

Charisius, ap. O.L., I, 90, 26 K. : ' Neptis ' grammatici 
nolunt dici . . . et advocant Ennium quod dixerit ita — 

' Ilia dia nepos, quas aerumnas tetulisti 

Cp. Non., 215, 8 : Test., 402, 15; Serg., Explanat. in Donat., 
ap. G.L., IV, 563, 14 K. 



53-4 

Servius (auctus) ad Atn., IX, 653 : ' Cetera ' id est in 
ceterum; est autem Ennianum — 

'cetera quos peperisti 



55 

Nonius, 306, 26 : ' Facessere ' est facere, ... — 

Haec ecfatus, ibique latrones dicta facessunt. 

Porphyrio, ad Hor., C, I, 2, 17 : Ilia auctore Ennio in 
amnem Tiberim iussu Amulii regis Albanorum praecipitata ; 
antea enim Anieni matrimonio iuncta est. 

" Aeneas, according to Norden, 162, because he is the 
speaker in Virgil's Ime. But cf. St., pp. 109-10, V., CLIX. 
The speaker might be even Horatius Codes (Livy, II, 
10, 1 1 — turn Codes ' Tiberine pater ' inquit ' te sancte 
precor. . . .'). 

* If these are words of comfort to Hia, we might conclude 
that the council of the gods had already taken place (cp. 

l8 



I 



ANNALS 

51 

Ilia ' appeals also to Tiber : 

Macrobius : ' And thou, sire Thybris with thy hallowed 
toeam ' ; Enniiis in the first book — 

' And thee, Father of the Tiber, >\ith thy hallowed 
Ixeam, 

52 

Ventis answers Ilia's prayer : 

Charisius : The grammarians would have it that the form 
neptis ' should not be used . . . and Ennius is appealed to 
lecause he wrote ' nepos ' as a feminine, thus — 

* Ilia, godly granddaughter, the hardships you 
lave borne . . . 

53-4 

Serviua (supplemented), on ' cetera ' in Virgil : ' Cetera 
;hat is, ' in ceterum ' ; and it is an Ennian usage — 

' For the rest, take ^ you no care for the boys to 
Nrhom you gave birth. 

55 

Amulius orders Ilia to he thrown into the Tiber : 
Nonius : ' Facessere ' means ' to do.' . . . — 
Thus he spake out ; and then the hirehng warriors 
prang to carry '^ out his word. 

Porphyrio : According to Ennius' account Ilia was thrown 
leadlong into the river Tiber by order of Amulius, King of 
;he AlbSns; but before this she was joined in marriage to 
;he Anio. 



3. 17, n. a). But I have put this debate later. See below, 
3. 20. 

facessere means more than merely facere. 

c2 



ENNIUS 

56 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., Ill, 333 : ' Reddita ' more veteri 
pro ' data ' accipiendum est . . . Ennius Annalibus — 

At Ilia reddita nuptum, 



57 

Tertullianus, adv. Vol., 7 : Ennius poeta — 

cenacula maxima caeli 

simpliciter pronuntiavit de elati situs nomine vel quia lovem 
illic epulantem legerat apud Homerum. 

Cp. Schol. Ver. ad Aen., X, 1. 

58 

Servius, ad Aen., X, 5 : — 

bipatentibus 

Eat tem sermo Ennianus, tractus ab ostiis quae ex utraque 
parte aperiuntur. 

59 j 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 9: ' Axem humero torquet stellifl ] 
ardentibus aptum.' {Aen., IV, 4^2, VI, 797.) Ennius in I— 

qui caelum versat stellis fulgentibus aptum. 

" At Ilia Commelinus ut ilia Daniel ut Ilia V 

ad ilia cd. nuptum vulg. nupta B nuptam cd. 
*'-* trib. Ann. I ed. Lips. 



" It is not known where the debate of the gods should be 
placed. I put it here because the strange preservation of 
the twins might well be the result of divine intervention. 
Cp. v., CLIX ft. I suggest that the passage in Ovid, Met., 
XIV, 812 ff. leads us to put the council a long while before 
Romulus' death ; Mars speaks at a time when Rome was well 

20 



ANNALS 

56 

Ilia w married to Tiber : 

Servius (supplemented) on ' reddita ' in Virgil: ' reddita ' 
aust, as an archaic usage, be taken to mean ' data ' ; 
Simius in the Annais — 

But Ilia, rendered into wedlock, 

57 

The god« assemble to decide " the fate of Eomidus : 

Tertullian : Ennius the poet spoke simply of — 

nost mighty dining-halls of heaven 

lither on account of their lofty position or because in a 
iBSsage of Homer * he had read of Jupiter feasting there. 

58 

Servius, on ' bipatentibus ' in Virgil : — 

with tviin openings ' 

This mode of expression is Ennian, and is drawn from the 
o of doors which we unclose both to right and left. 

59 

The tissemUed gods ; Jupiter : * 

Macrobius : (Atlas) ' whirls on his shoulders the sky dotted ' 
irith blazing stars. Ennius in the first book — 

who spins round the sky dotted with shining 
stars. 

38tablished, and he refers to a concilium held quondam and 
jan only recall Jupiter's promise by an effort of memory. 

* Not in the extant poems. 

* The attribution to this context is suggested by the 
passage in which Virgil (Aen., X, Iff.) uses the word. 

' Or Atlas; if so, we should place this fr. among those 
which describe the ancestors of Aeneas, p. 9 (V., CLII). 

'tangled in a skein of — ^Miss Steuart. But Eimius 
was a man, and he meant simply dotted. 

ax 



ENNIUS 



60-1 



Martianus Capella, I, 42 : Ipsius collegae lovis . . . bis 
seni cum eodem Tonante nuraerantur quos . . . distichum 
complectitur Ennianum — 

luno Vesta Minerva Ceres Diana Venus Mars 
Mercurius lovis Neptunus Vulcanus Apollo 

Cp. Apulei., de deo Socr., 2, 6, 23. 



62 

Servius ad Aen., IV, 576: Aut distinguenduin 'sancte' 
aut ' sancte deorum ' secundum Ennium dixit — 

Respondit luno Saturnia sancta dearum. 

Cp. Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 394, 1 K. : Serg., explanat. in 
Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 563, 20 K. : Pompei., ap. O.L., V, 291, 
17 K.: Mar. Plot. Sac, ap. G.L., VI, 450, 20 K. {jndchra 
dearum). 



63-4 

Varro, L.L., VII, 5 : Dicam in hoc libro de verbis quae a 
poetis sunt posita . . . incipiam hinc — 

' Unus erit quern tu toUes in caerula caeli 
tempi a.' 

Cp. Ovid., Met., XIV, 812 ff.; Fasti., II, 485 ff. 



60-2 (j-if,^ ^„^. lif,^ J Merula 
22 



i 



ANNALS 

60-1 

Martianus Capella : The colleagues of Jupiter himself 
amount to twice six in number, including the Thunderer just 
mentioned; whose names are contained in a pair of lines in 
Ennius " — 

Juno Vesta Minerva Ceres Diana Venus Mars 
Mercury Jupiter Neptune Vulcan Apollo 

62 

Speech of Juno ; she agrees * to the deification of Romulus : 

Servius, on ' sancte deorum ' in Virgil : We must either put 
a comma after ' sancte ' or else he used the phrase ' sancte 
deorum ' after Ennius — 

Juno, hallowed among goddesses, daughter of 
Saturn, made answer, 

63-4 

Jupiter foretells to Mars that ordy one of his sons shall he 
deified : 

Varro : In this book I shall speak of words which find a 
place in the poets. ... I will begin with this — 

' One there will be whom thou shalt raise up to 
the blue precincts of the sky/ 

* If, as is probable, there was only one council, this list of 
gods is rightly placed here. 

* This fir. may belong to Book VIII; see p. 109. But cf. 
Hor. 0., Ill, 3, 16 : 

Quirinus | Martis equis Acheronta fugit ] gratum elocuta 
consiliantibus | lunone divis. . . . 

<= The attribution to Ennius is not certain, but provided 
that this is right, the fr. certainly belongs to the description 
of the council, if we may judge from the passage in Ovid, 
Met., XIV, 812 £E. Ovid seems to recall the unplaced fr. 
'divumque hominumque pater rex ' (see p. 168), which might 
be placed somewhere in this context. 

23 



ENNIUS 

65 
Festus, 392, 35 : ' Remanant,' repetunt. Ennius lib. I — 
. . . destituunt rivos camposque remanant 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 393, 11. 

66-9 

Fronto, de Oral., 160 N : ' Factum est ' : eodem hoc 
verbo Ennif. urmiak ... — 

(\dy ca claudi : 

ait — 

factum est , . . <Tiberis) 

. . . et facinua commemorabile. Tiberis est Tusce Tiber 
quern iubes cludi. Tiber aranis et dominus et fluentium 
circa regnator undarum. Ennius — 

Postquam fl 
constituit sese fluvius qui est omnibus princeps 
cui succidit Ilia 

Cp. Cic, Oral., 48, 161. 



*^ destituunt S clivis decedunt olim V desubito 
linquent Bergk desunt Fest. prcb. V qui (Rh. Mus. XIV, 

552) < iam stabulis d. > add. rivos camposque Fest., Paid, 
campos ripisque Mr. (qui unda« add.) campos rivoque B (an 
rede 1) alii alia. 

** Fronto, de Orat., 160 Jortasse verbo Ennius utitur in I A. 
< lO ca supplevi. vocabula loca claudi . . . factum 

est. . . . Tiberis puto esse Ennii postquam constituit 

sese W postquam consistit Bekker Postquam- 

consisiiiiseiluuiu cd. 

®' cui succidit (vel subiacet, succubat, succinit) Ilia W lac. 
indicavi sec. Kuebler qui sub civilia cd, trib. Ann. lib. I 
ed. Lips. 

24 



I 



ANNALS 

65 
The Tiber overflows a second time : 

Festus : * Remanant,' they seek again. E. in the first book — 
The waters left their channels and flowed back 
into the plains.** 

66-9 

Jupiter orders * Tiber to subside : 

Fronto : ' It was done.' This same verb is used by 
Ennius ... — 

the broken places to be dammed up ; 

he says — 

it was done . . . the Tiber 

. . . and a noteworthy act. ' Tiberis ' is in Tuscan dialect 
' Tiber,' which you order to be dammed up. The river Tiber 
is lord and ruler of all flowing waters round those parts. 
Ennius — 

After the river which is chief over all settled 
down . . . for whose sake Ilia did sink beneath 

<» I keep the order of Festus — rivos camposque — which 
points to a second flooding of the river; otherwise the fr. 
expresses the return of flooding waters to their right channel, 
v., CLXI seems to me to be wrong. 

* I suggest that we have here fragments of Ennius describing 
how Jupiter commanded Tiber to draw back his waters, and 
how Tiber obeyed. However, even such meagre scraps as I 
have added to Fronto's text are quite uncertain. But com- 
pare Horace, Odes, I, 2, 17-20 : 

Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
iactat ultorem vagus et sinistra 
labitur ripa love non probante u- 
xorius amnis. 

Cp. also Virgil, E., Ill, 14; Claudite iam rivos pueri; sat 
prata biberunt. 

25 



ENNIUS 



70 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 128, 31 K : ' Fici.' 
fici dulciferae lactantes ubere toto 



Ennius — 



71 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., II, 355 : Sane apud veteres 
' lupus ' promiscuum erat, ut Ennius — 

lupus femina feta repente 

Cp. Fest., 402, 4 ; Quintil., I, 6, 12. 

Servius, ad Aen., VIII, 631 Sane totus hie locus Ennianus 
est. 



72-4 
Nonius, 378, 15 : ' Parumper ' cito ac velociter ... 
Indotuetur ibi lupus femina, conspicit omnis : 
hinc campum celeri passu permensa parumper 
coniicit in silvam sese. 



75-6 
Nonius, 134, 11 : ' Licitari,' congredi, pugnare. Ennius — 

pars ludicre saxa 
iactant, inter se licitantur 



'o-'i trih. lib. I Colonna 
" hinc campum Colonna 
75-6 ij.^1, iijj J ^_ Lips. 



in campo cdd. 



<• ubere, perhaps an udder-shaped mass; cp. Pall., Jun., 
7, 6, 9 ; so that Ennius maybe simply completes a metaphor 
of milk and udder. But the tree was indeed ' rumirudis ' 
and I take vhere as the tree's udders of figs. 



26 



1 



ANNALS 
70 

The trough holding Ilia's twins Romulus and Remus is cast 
up by a fig-tree which was later called the ' Fig-Tree of the Paps.' 

Charisius : ' Fici.' Ennius — 

sweet-bearing figs, dripping milk from the whole 
udder.* 

71 

The she-wolf: 

Serviusn (supplemented) : The noun ' lupus ' was in old 
writers certainly common to both genders, as in Ennius — 

Suddenly a she-wolf big with young 

jS^e suckles Romulus and Remus : 

Servius : The whole * of this passage {Aen., VIII, 630-4) 
is certainly modelled on Ennius. 

72-4 
The wolf sees the shepherds and flees : 
Nonius : ' Parumper,' speedily and quickly ... — 
Thereupon the she-wolf gazed and saw them all ; 

then she, passing over the plain with quick lope, 

hurriedly betook herself into a wood. 

75-6 
Romulus and Remus sport with the shepherds : 
Nonius : ' Licitari,' to engage in battle, to fight. E. — 
Some hurled stones in play and justled one with 
another. 

" I suggest that in that passage the words tereti cermce 
rtflexam (cp. Lucret., I, 35) are directly copied from Eimius, 
for Cicero, in a passage of translation from the Phaenotnena 
(de Nat. Deor., II, 41), has obstipum caput a tereti cenice 
reflexum where obstipum is a word favoured bv Ennius 
(see lines 278, 398). 

27 



ENNIUS 



77 



Fesfcus, 376, 22 : ' Ratus sum ' significat ' putavi ' : sed 
alioqui pro ' firmo,' ' certo,' ponitur ' ratus est,' et ' ratum.' 
Ennius — 

Occiduntur ubi potitur ratus Romulus praedam. 



78 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 13 : ' Accipe daque fidem, sunt nobis 
fortia bello | pectora ' (Aen., VIII, 150). Ennius in I — 

' Accipe daque fidem foedusque feri bene firmum. 



79 

Macrobius, VI, 1, 14 : ' Et lunam in nimbo nox intempesta 
tenebat ' (Aen., Ill, 597). Ennius in I — 

Quom superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, 



80-100 

Cicero, de Div., I, 48, 107 S. : Itaque Romulus augur ub 
apud Ennium est, cum fratre item augure — 

" Or perhaps as a defender of the shepherds against the 
attacks of robbers, whose spoils Romulus captured. V., 
CLXII. Miss St. takes the incident as one in a conflict with 
royal shepherds (St., 113). Some take occiduntur as the last 
word of a sentence. Balus was probably a permanent nick- 
name of Romulus. 

* v., CLIX sees in this fr. an agreement between Aeneas 
and the King of Alba ; Miss Steuart makes it a part of Hersilia's 
speech (see below); there can be little doubt, however, that 
Macrobius, in his quotations from Ennius in VI, 1, 11-15, 
has given them in the order of Ennius' text (cf. G. Regel, De 
Vergilio poetarum imitatore testimonia, 37, n. 36), which 
Miss Steuart (Pref., X) admits as a possibility. This forces 
28 



ANNALS 

77 

Romulus as a hunter ' : 

Festus : ' Ratus sum ' means ' I thought ' : bat apart 
from this ' ratus ' and ' ratum ' are put for ' firm,' ' sure.' 
Ennius — 

They were cut down when Romulus the Resolved 
won his quarr}'. 

78 
Romulus is reconciled * toith Numitor : 

Macrobius quoting Virgil : ' Give and take you plighted 
troth : there are within us hearts brave in war.' Ennius in 
the first book — 

' Give and take you plighted troth and make a 
treaty truly firm. 

79 

Romulus and Remus are about to take the auspices for fouruiing 
a city ; ' they wait for daybreak : 

Macrobius : ' And the dead of night held hid the moon in 
a black mist.' Ennius in the first book — 

When the dead of night held hid the light above, 

80-100 

Romulus and Remus take the auspices at dawn ; Romulus 
stands on the Aventine, Remus on the Remuria.* 

Cicero : And thus Romulus, as augur with his brother, 
likewise as augur, as takes place in a passage of Ennius — 

us to put this fr. earlier than that which is rightly beheved 
to refer to Remus (p. 32). The context which I suggest here 
seems to me to be the most natural one. 

' St., 113 is I think right (V., CXIV differs). On the 
position of this fr., cf. preceding note. 

"* On this point, cf. St., 113 ff. The Remuria may have 
been part of the Aventine. Cf. also V., CLXII fit., and in 
Sitzungsber. d. k. Ak 1894, 1143 ff. ; and Mommsen, Herm., 
XVI, 13 ff. 

29 



ENNIUS 

Curantes magna cum cura turn cupientes 
regni dant operam simul auspicio augurioque ; 

in monte 

. . . Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam 
solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcher in alto 
quaerit Aventino, servat genus altivolantum. 85 

Certabant urbem Romam Remoramve vocarent. 
Omnibus cura viris uter esset induperator : 
expectant, veluti consul quom mittere signum 
volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras 
quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus : 90 

sic exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat, 
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni. 
Interea sol albus recessit in infera noctis. 
Exin Candida se radiis dedit icta foras lux ; 
et simul ex alto longe pulcherruma praepes 95 

laeva volavit avis, simul aureus exoritur sol. 
Cedunt de caelo ter quattuor corpora sancta 
avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant. 
Conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse propritim 
auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque. 100 

Cp. Cell., VI, 6, 9. 

Excerpta ex cod. Cassin. 90 C, ap. C.G.L., V, 578, 3 : Romae 
conditor certus nescitur. Ennius et alii a Romulo. 
Cp. Servius (auct.) ad Aen., I, 273. 



•^ ore timebat cdd. opt. 

** propritim Mr. propriam Voss A Vind. priora 

Voss B 



° Here sol has been taken to mean the moon. But if 
Ennius meant moon, why did he not write ' hina alba ' ? 
It may be that Romulus and Remus went out at night and 

30 



ANNALS 

Then, careful A\ith a great care, each in eagerness 
for royal rule, they are intent on the watching and 
soothsapng of birds ... on a hill. . . . Remus 
devotes himself to watching and apart looks out for 
a favourable bird. But handsome Romulus makes 
his search on high Aventine and so looks out for 
the soaring breed. Whether they should call the 
city Roma or Remora — this was their contest. 
Anxiety filled all the men as to which of the two 
should be ruler. As, when the consul means to 
give the signal, all men look eagerly at the barrier's 
bounds to see how soon he will send the chariots 
forth from the painted mouths — so they waited. 
Thus were the people waiting, and held their tongues, 
wondering to which of the two the ^^ctory of right 
royal rule should be given by the event. Meanwhile 
the white sun " withdrew into depths of night. Then 
clear shot forth, struck out in rays, a light : just 
when, winging to the left, there flew from the height 
a bird, the luckiest far of flying prophets, just then 
all golden there rose up the sun. Thrice four 
hallowed forms of birds moved down from the sky, 
and betook themselves to places lucky and of happy 
omen. From this saw Romulus that to him, to be 
his own, were duly given the chair and throne ^ of 
royalty, estabUshed firm by the watching of birds. 

Romulug founds the city of Rome : 

An excerpt from a glossary : Of Rome there is no known 
foxmder common to tradition. . . . Enniua and others say 
it was founded by Romulus. 

waited; at dawn came the crowd of followers. The sun has 
risen; is hidden by a cloud (infera noctis); it shines again 
brightly. Then come the birds. 

* Or perhaps ' land,' ' territory.' Cp. Bk. Ill, line 155. 

31 



ENNIUS 

101 
Festus, 348, 4 : ' Quamde ' pro quam ... — 
' luppiter, ut muro fretus magis quamde manus vi ! ' 



102-3 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 15 : Tu tamen interea calido mihi 
sanguine poenas | persolves {Aen., IX, 420). Ennius in I — 

' Nee pol homo quisquam faciei inpune animatus 
hoc nee tu; nam mi calido dabis sanguine poenas.' 

Cp. Serv. auct. ad Aen., IX, 420. 



104 
Nonius, 516, 11: 'Torviter' . . . — 
' Ast hie quem nunc tu tam torviter increpuisti 

105 
Festus, 426, 2 : ' Sum ' pro ' eum ' — 
' At tu non, ut sum summam servare decet rem, 



I 
I 



^"^ manus vi S manu stat Lambinus manu sa 
imperat olim 0. Mueller manus vi ide in secundo V 
manus impe . . . secto cd. fortasse manum vi 

^"^ nee B prob.' St. neque Morula nisi cdd. prob, V 
dabis Serv. auct. das Macrob. prob. V 

^"^ at tu cd, astu non vi coni. V at te non ut 
Colonna 

32 



ANNALS 

101 

Remits scoffs at Eomidus and his wall on the Palatine : 

Festua : ' Quanide,' for quam ... — 

' Jupiter ! Yes, truly relies he more on a wall 
than the might of his arm ! ' 

102-3 

Romulus threatens Remus with death : 

Macrobins, quoting Virgil : Meanwhile yon shall none the 
le33 pay full recompense to me with your life-blood. Ennius 
ill the first book — 

Neither you nor any man alive shall do this 
unpunished : no, you shall give recompense to me 
with your life-blood.' 

104 
A mediator {or Romulus ?) seeks to heal the quarrel : " 
Nonius : ' Torviter ' . . . — 
' But he whom you just now so fiercely noised at 

105 

Festus : ' Sum ' for ' enm ' . . . — 

' But it is not your part to guard the state, as it 
behoves him to do.* 

" v., CLXII doubtfully assigns this to Romulus upbraiding 
Amulius for treating Remu£ roughly before he was recognised. 
» v., CLXIII and p. 15. 



ENNIUS 

106 

Orammat., Brevis Expos. Verg. Georg., ad II, 384 : Romulus 
cum aedificasset templum lovi Feretrio pelles unctas stravit 
et sic ludos edidit ut caestibus dimicarent et cursu contende- 
rent, quam rem Ennius in Annalibus testatur. 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., Ill, 384 : Et quidam ' lentandua ' 
nove verbum fictum putant, sed in Annalibus legitur — 

conque fricati oleo lentati adque arma parati. 



Paulus, F., 25, 17 : ' Bellicrepam ' saltationem dicebant 
quando cum armis saltabant, quod a Romulo institutum 
est, ne simile pateretur quod fecerat ipse cum a ludis Sabinorum 
virgines rapuit. 



107 

Festus, 476, 17 : ' Sas ' Verrius putat significare ' eas ' 
teste Ennio qui dicat in lib. I — 

[* virgines ;] nam sibi quisque domi Romanus habet 

sas.' 

Pavl., 25, 17 bellicrepa vocab. trib. Enn. 0. Mueller, Ann. 
lib. I Ilberg. 

^''* confricati o. 1. paratique a. a. Serv. auct. corr. B 
confricti ... et ad a. p. Ilberg confricati . . . paratique 
ad arma Servius auct. fortasse cumque ficati trib. Enn. Ann. 
Barth, lib. I, Ilberg 

107 virgini sive virgine L fortasse sedudend. ut gloss. 

" V. in his first ed, (p. 16) kept this fr. in Bk. I of Ennius' 
Annals but rejected it in the 3rd ed. (p. 16). Valmaggi may 

34 



ANNALS 

106 

The war with the Sabines. Having huUt temples after the 
defeat of tht Sabines, Romulus celebrates public games and 

I dances : 
A grammarian : When Romulus had built a temple to 
Jupiter Feretrius, be caused greased hides to be spread out 
and held games in such a manner that men fought with 
gauntlets and competed in running races; Ennius bears 
iritness to this fact in the Annals. 

Serviua (supplemented) on ' lentandus ' in Virgil : And 
some think that 'lentandus' is a coined word of Virgil's; 
but in the Annals " we read — 

Rubbed down with oil, suppled and ready for 
taking arms. 

Paulus * : ' Noise o' War ' was a term the Romans were wont 
to use of dancing when they danced with weapons; this was 
an institution of Romulus bo that he should not suffer the Uke 
of what he himself did when he dragged off the maidens of the 
Sabines at their public games. 



107 

Sape of the Sabine women. A Sabine speaks : 

Festus : ' Sas.' Verrius believes it means ' eas,' his witness 
being Ennius on the ground that he says in the first book — 

' maidens ; for the Romans have each their own at 
home. 

where it seems rather to mean ' suas.' ' 

1 be right in his bebef (op. Miiller) that what Servius' augmenter 
quotes is prose. 
* Paulus probably alludes to a passage of Ennius. 
•■ It is impossible to decide this matter. 



35 
d2 



ENNIUS 

108 

Priscianus, ap, G.L., II, 591, 5 K: . . . nominativo . . . 
brevem te syllabam pro met . . . addere solent auctores. 
. . . Ennius — 

O Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti ! 

Cp. Pompei., ap, G.L., V, 303, 33 K : Priscian. ap. Ill, 
492, 25 K : al. 

109 

Festus, 460, 12 : ' Stolidus ' stultus . . . — 

nam vi depugnare sues stolidi soliti sunt. 



110 

Charisius, ap. O.L., I, 196, 15 K : ' Concorditer' . . 
' Aeternum seritote diem concorditer ambo. ' 

111 

Gellius, XIII, 23, 19 : Ennius ... in primo Annali , 

Nerienem Mavortis et Herem 

si quod minime solet numenim servavit, primam syllabam 
intendit, tertiam corripuit. 

108 trib. Lucil. St., C.Q., XVIII, 24. 
"» soliti S solidi cd. 

" Steuart (Ann., 235; and C.Q., XCIII, 24) attributes 
this fr. to Lucilius as one of the hundred solecisms which 
he enumerated. I suggest that we have here a scornful 
speech (of Romulus?) uttered against Tatius during one 
of the indecisive struggles of which tradition tells. I would 
point out that Sophocles (Oed. Tyr., 371 ) makes Oedipus in a 
rage say to Teiresias, with a similar alliteration, rv<f>X6s to. t' 

36 



\ 



ANNALS 

108 

Bage of the Romans ofjainst Titus Tatius : 

Priscian : In the nominative . . . authors are wont to add 
the short syllable te instead of met. . . . Ennius — « 

' Thyself to thyself, Titus Tatius the t\Tant, thou 
tookest those terrible troubles.' 

109 

Hersilia mediates between the Romans and the Sabines : 

Feetiis : ' Stolidus,' silly ... — 

' for to fight out a quarrel by force — it is a thing 
of boorish boars beloved. 

110 

Charisius : ' Concorditer ' . . . — 

' Both of you, while away your days in friendliness 
for ever.' 

Ill 

Hersilia's prayer : * 

Gellius : Ennius also in the first book of Annals — 

' Nerio, consort of Mars, and Here like\nse ' 

if he has preserved the metre (which is certainly not always 
the case with him), has lengthened the first syllable and 
shortened ' the third. 

ctrra tov tc vovv ri t' ofifiar' el. Cp. Homer's TroMa o avavra 
K.T.X., quoted on p. 70. Others refer the fir. to the death of 
Tatius. 

» Cp. Gell., XIII, 23, 13 : V., CLXIV : St., p. 121, suggests 
settlement of Sabines on the Aventine or a general gift of land 
to citizens. 

' Gellius scans Nerienem; but the true scanfflon ia 
Nerifenem. 

37 



ENNIUS 

112-13 

Nonius, III, 39 : ' Fortunatim,' prospere ... — 

' Quod mihi reique fidei regno vobisque, Quirites, 
se fortunatim feliciter ac bene vortat. 



Varro, L.L., V, 55 : Ut ait Ennius, Titienses a Tatio, 
Ramnenses a Romulo, Lucenis, ut Junius, ab Lucumone. 

Servius, ad Aen., VI, 777 : secundum Ennium, referetur 
{Romvliis) inter deos cum Aenea. 



114-15 

Servius, ad Aen., VI, 763 : ' Aevum, proprie aetemitas est 
quae non nisi in deos venit. Ennius — 

* Romulus in caelo cum dis genitalibus aevum 
degit. 

Cp. Cic, Tusc, Disp., I, 12, 29. C.I.L., IV, 3135. 

116 
Nonius, 120, 1 : ' Hora,' iuventutis dea ... — 
' Teque Quirine pater veneror Horamque Quirini. 

^^* quod olim V ea cdd. reique fide M (reique 
Roth) reliquae fidei cdd. quod mihi meaeque fide et olim V 
(mique meaeque vel quae mihi meaeque fide et Grauert) 
et postea ea uti res (vel ea res ut) mique meaeque fidei vel 
resque ea mi, fidei B 

114-15 ijrif) j[nn. lib. II Colonna 

^^* <teque> ckW. Colonna <bene> Horamque Mr. 

38 



ANNALS 

112-13 

Romulus to Titus Tatius after the establishment of double 
kingship ? : 

Nonius : ' Fortunatim,' prosperously ... — 

' And may this, I pray, turn out in fortune 
, prosperous and fair for me, our task, our plighted 
troth, our kingdom, and for you, my citizens." 

The Sabines form a new tribe at Rome : 

Varro : According to Ennius, the Titienses were so called 
from Tatius, the Ramnes fix)m Romulus; the Luceres, 
according to Junius, &om Lucumon. 

Romulus is deified : 

Servius : According to Ennius, Romulus will be reckoned 
with Aeneas among the gods. 

114-15 

Proculus tells the people of his vision of Romulus : 

Servius : ' Aevum ' properly means eternity, which comes 
to none but gods. Ennius — 

' Romulus lives from age to age in heaven with the 
gods that gave him birth.' 

116 

Romulus and Hersilia are worshipped by the Romans : 

Nonius says : ' Hora,' goddess of youth. . . . 

' Thee I worship, sire Quirinus, and thee, Hora,* 
consort of Quirinus.' 

• Cp. v., CLXV. 

* Hersilia deified. Quirinus was the name given to deified 
-Romulus. 

39 



ENNIUS 

LIBER II 

117-21 

Cicero, de Rep., I, 41, 61 : lusto quidem rege cum est 
populus orbatus pectora diu tenet desiderium, sicut ait 
Ennius, post optimi regis obitum — 

simul inter 
sese sic memorant : ' O Romule Romule die 
qualem te patriae custodem di genuerunt ! « ■ 

O pater o genitor o sanguen dis oriundum ! * 

Non eros nee dominos appellabant eos qui bus iuste paruerunt 
denique ne reges quidem, sed patriae custodes sed patres et 
decs. Nee sine causa; quid enim addunt ? — 

* Tu produxisti nos intra luminis oras. 

Cp. Lactant., Div. Inst., I, 15, 30 : Priscian., ap. G.L., II, 
250, 15 K. 



122 

Festus, 492, 6 : ' Speres ' antiqui pluraliter dicebant, ut E' 
lib. II— 

' Et simul effugit speres ita funditus nostras . . . 

11' it- trib. lib. II Prise, lib. I Colonna sec. vetws exemplar 
Prise. vocabvla pectora tenet desiderium fortasse Ennio 

tribuenda. diu cd. m. 1 dia m. 2 dura Steinacker fida Krarup 

" There is no need to question Priscian's authority for 
putting this fr. in Bk. II. I make the direct quotation begin 
from simul. At any rate it is clear that Cicero began by 

40 



1 



ANNALS 



BOOK II 

The Reigns of Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius 
AND Angus Marcius 

117-20 

The people mourn Bomidus : 

Cicero : Indeed when a people is bereaved of a jnst king, 
then even as Ennius says," after the passing of the best of 
kings, for many days longing filled their breasts — 

And at the same time they talked thus among 
themselves — ' O Romulus, godly Romulus, what a 
guardian of your country' did the gods beget you ! 
O father and begetter, O blood sprung from the gods ! 

They used to call those whom they had lawfully obeyed 
not lords and masters, nor yet again kings, but guardians of 
their country, yes and fathers and gods. Nor was this 
without reason. For what do they say next ? — 

' You it was who brought us forth into the world of 
light. 

122 

Feetus : ' Speres.' The archaic writers used this plural 
form, for example Ennius in the second book * — 

' And so soon as he fled away, our hopes he thus 
utterly . . . 

a paraphrase which slips into the real quotation, and all 
changes are doubtful. St., p. 123. 

* v., CLXVI suggests the combat of the triplets as the 
context — see lines 131 ff. 

41 



ENNIUS 



123 



Festus, 346, 5 : ' Quadrata Roma ' in Palatio ante templum 
Apollinis dicitur . . . eius loci Ennius meminit cum ait — 

Et qui se sperat Romae regnare Quadratae ? 



124 

Varro, L.L., VII, 42 : Apud Ennium — 
Olli respondit suavis sonus Egeriai, 
* olli ' valet dictum ' illi ' ab ' olla ' et ' olio.' 

Cp. Serv., ad Aen., XI, 236. 



125-6 

Varro, L.L., VII, 4 : 3 Apud Ennium — 

Mensas constituit idemque ancilia ; 

dicta ab ambecisu quod ea arma ab utraque parte ut 
Thracum incisa ; — 

libaque fictores Argeos et tutulatos. 

Liba quod libandi causa fiunt : fictores dicti a fingendis 
libis, Argei ab Argis . . . tutulati dicti hi qui in sacris in 
capitibus habere solent ut metam. 



1*' qui se sperat Saumaise qui sextus erat Hertz quis 
est erat cd. 

1** ancilia <primus> S <bis sex> Corssen 

42 



ANNALS 

123 

Question of a successor to Romulus : " 

Festus : ' Square Rome,' a name given to a site on the 
Palatine in front of the temple of Apollo. . . . Ennins has 
this place in mind when he says — 

And what man hopes that he will be king of Square 
Rome? 

124 

The reign of Numa PompUiv^. Intercourse of Numa and 
Egeria : 

Varro : In a passage of Ennins — 

To him replied Egeria with sweet sound, 

The word ' olli ' has the force of ' illi,' from ' ollus,' ' olla.' 

125-6 
The religious institutions of Numa : 
Varro : In a passage of Ennius — 
He established the Tables, he also the Shields . . . 

* ancUia ' is a word derived from ' ambicisus,' because those 
arms were indented on either edge like those of Thracians ; — 

. . . and the Pancakes, the Bakers, the Rush- 
Dummies, and the cone-haired Priests. 

' liba ' are so called because they are made to be used at 
libations. The ' fictores ' are so called ' a fingendis Ubis ' ; 
the t^im Argei is derived from Argos. . . . ' tutulati ' is a 
term used for those who at sacrifices are accustomed to wear 
a kind of cone on their heads. 

* My chief reason for not reading sextus erat and putting the 
fr. in Bk. Ill (V., CLXIX-CLX) is that when Servius Tullius 
came to rule, the city was no longer Square Rome. 

43 



ENNIUS 

127-9 

Varro, L.L., VII, 45 : Eundem Pompilium ait fecisse flamines 
qui cum omnes sunt a singulis deis cognominati . . . sunt 
in quibus flaminum cognominibus latent origines ut in his 
qui sunt versibus plerique — 

Volturnalem Palatualem Furinalem 
Floralemque Falacrem et Pomonalem fecit 
hie idem. 

130 

Festus, 156, 5 : ' Me ' pro ' mihi ' dicebant antiqui ut 
Ennius cum ait lib. II — 

' Si quid me fuerit humanitus ut teneatis. 

Propertius, III, 3 (IV, 2), 5-7 : 

Parvaque tam magnis admoram fontibus ora 

unde pater sitiens Ennius ante bibit : 
et cecinit Curios fratres et Horatia pila. . . . 



131 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., III, 3, 6 K : Sic ergo e'/ioC aov oS mei 
tui sui €fiovs aovs ovs mis tis si . . . Ennius — 

' Ingens cura mis cvun co'ncordibus aequiperare ; 

^*'~* hexam. constit. 0. Mueller iamb. scaz. T saturn. 

alii Volturnales | Palatuales Furinales Floralesque | 
Falacres et Pomonales f. h. i. L alii alia 

" It is not certain whether Varro has here quoted Ennius; 
if he has, then this is clearly the right place for the fr. The 
proper names excuse the ugliness of the lines. Cf. Skutsch, 
in Pavly, s.v. Ennius, 2623 ; Norden, 78. 

* Elsewhere called Curiatii. Whether we read cecinit or 
cecini we can assume that the examples given by Propertius 
were incidents which Ennius described in noteworthy passages 
of poetry. 

44 



ANNALS 

127-9 

He inatitutea the flamines : 

Varro : Ennius states that Pompilius also established the 
' special priests ' ; although all are sumamed from individual 
gods . . . there are special priests whose surnames remain 
obscure in origin . . . as is the case with most of the following 
which are enumerated in these verses — 

He likewise established the priests of Voltumus, 
of Palatua, of Furina, of Flora, of Falacer, and of 
Pomona,** 

130 

Xuma desires that his institutions he maintained : 

Festus : The ancients used to say ' me ' instead of ' mihi,' 
as does Ennius when he says in the second book — 

If something of man's fate should happen to me, 
do you keep my ordinances. 

The reign of TuUus HostUius. War between Borne and Alba, 
which agree to settle their quarrels by a combat between two sets of 
triplet brothers. 

Propertius : 

And I had already put puny lips to m^hty fountains, 
whence once father Ennius did slake his thirst and sang of 
the brothers Curii* and of the Horatii and their spears. . , . 

131 

The triplets are ready to fight ' : 

Priscianus : In this way, therefore, efioO oov and ov 
correspond to mei tni and sui, ifiovs, aoCs, ovs to mis tis 
sis. . . . Ennius — 

' A great and strong anxiety is mine to do equal 
deeds with my heartfellows. 

' I take it one of them speaks. Others (St., p. 127 and 
v., CLX\^-CLXVII) put this later as spoken by the surviving 
Horatins. Certainly the meaning is doubtful; Ennius seems 
to use Concordes in a special sense — ' men nearest to my 
heart.' Note that the s in mis is elided in recitation. 

45 



ENNIUS 

132 

Festus, 194, 12 : ' Occasus ' interitus vel solis cum decidit a 
superis infra terras; quo vocabulo Ennius pro occasione 
est usus in lib. II — 

Hie occasus datust : at Horatius inclutus saltu . . . 



133 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., II, 504, 22 K : Vetustissimiinveniuntur 
etiam produxisse . . . paenultimam. ... — 

* Adnuit sese mecum decernere ferro. 



134 
Festus, 540, 10 : ' Tolerare,' patienter ferre ... — 
ferro se caedi quam dictis his toleraret. 

135 
Festus, 348, 4 : ' Quamde ' pro quam ... — 
' quamde tuas omnes legiones ac populares. 

136 

Festus, 426, 2 : ' Sum ' pro ' eum '. . . — 
At sese, sum quae dederat in luminis oras, 

1'* datus est cd. trib. lib. IV Ilberg (de Horatio Codite 

cogitans) 

" St., p. 126, refers this fr. to the conference between 
Mettius and TuUus in Livy, I, 23. Cf. also V., CLXVI, 
CLXVII, who refers the words to Tullus. 

46 



ANNALS 

132 

The fight : the surviving Horatius escapes a thrust : 

Festua : ' Occasus,' a passing away of the sxin, for example, 
when it drops down firom the heights to r^ons beneath the 
earth ; Ennius used this noon for ' occasio ' in the second 
book — 

This chance was given him, but renowned Horatius 
with a leap . . . 

133 

Horaliua justifies kimsdf to his sister, who loved one of the 
Curiatii : 

Priscianus : We find very ancient writers who even 
lengthened the penultimate (sc. of perfects in -tti) . . . — 

' He agreed that he would join issue with me by 
the sword. 

134 
Horatius^ sister heaps reproaches on him t 
Festns : ' Tolerare,' to bear patiently ... — 
She would fain suffer slaughter by the sword 
rather than by words such as these. 

135 

She cares more for her dead Curiatius than for all the Romans : ' 
Festns : ' Qnamde ' . . . for ' quam ' . . . — 
' than for all your legions and commoners. 

136 

Horatius' father pleads for his son at his trial for killing his 
sister ; he pictures the mother's grief f : 

Festus : ' Sum ' for ' eum * . . . — 

' But that him whom she gave forth into the world 
of light, she . . . 

47 



ENNIUS 

137 

Festus, 188, 30: ' Ningulus ' nullus . . . — 
' qui ferro minitere atque in te ningulus . . .' 

138 

Festus, 630, 25 : ' <Tu>ditante8,' tundentes, <negotium id 
est ag/'entes ... — 

Haec inter se totum egere diem tuditantes. 



139 

Quintilianus, I, 5, 12 : Nam duos in uno nomine faciebat 
barbarismos Tinga Placentinus . . . preculam pro pergula 
dicens. ... At in eadem vitii geminatione — 

Mettoeoque Fufetioeo 

dicens Ennius poetico iure defenditur. 



Macrobius, ap. O.L., V, 651, 32 K: ' Tractare ' saepe 
ahere. . . . Ennius — 

traetatus per aequora campi 



^" egere diem {olim turn certabant) V se tota vi tudi- 
tantes S tota turn vi Mr. sese t.v. illi tuditantes O. 
Mueller sese tuditant vi contendentes Ilberg se totum 
. . . tes cd. 

i" Mettoeoque Fufetioeo Skutsch alii alia, cf. St. ad \ 
loc. 

^*" trib. Ann. lib. II Colonna 

48 



ANNALS 

137 

The prosecutor {or one of the two judges ? ") accuses Horatius : 
Festus : ' Ningulus,' no one ... — 
' Who are one to threaten -with the sword, while 
against you no one ..." 

138 

Progress of the tried : 

Festus: ' Tuditantes' means ' tundentes,' that is, conduct- 
ing an affair ... — 

They spent the whole day threshing out this trial 
among themselves. 

139 

The punishment of Metiius Fufettius by TitUus for refusing 
to help Rome : 

Quintilian : Tinga of Placentia ... by A^-riting ' precula ' 
for ' pergula ' was guilty of two barbarisms in one noun. 
. . . But Ennius arraigned on a like charge of a double mis- 
take * by saying — 

Mettoeoque Fufetioeo 
is defended on the plea of poet's licence. 

140 

He is torn apart by horses : 

Macrobius : ' Tractare ' means to pull again and again. 
. . . Ennius — 

Dragged over the smooth flat plain 

• Or it may be Horatius' sister. 

* I translate Gellius ambiguously here because it is not 
oertain in what form Ennius reaUy wrote the names Mettius 
Fufettius. If Ennius committed two faults in the names, 
then vilii geminaiione means ' with the commission of two 
fifialts.' Perhaps eiusdem should be read. Ennius apparently 
imitates the Homeric genitive — /xeyaAoio Kpovoio and the like. 

49 

VOL. I. E 



ENNIUS 

Ul-2 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 206, 22 K : Vetustissimi . . . 
' homo homonis ' declinaverunt. Ennius — 

Vulturus in silvis miserum mandebat homonem. 
Heu ! Quam crudeli condebat membra sepulchre ! 

Cp. Charis., ap. O.L., I, 147, 15 K : Serv., ad Aen., VI, 595. 
Schol. Bamb., ad Stat., Theb., Ill, 508. 

143 

Servius, ad Aen., II, 313 : ' Clangor' : Plerumque ... ad 
tubam evertuntur civitatea sicut Albam TuUus Hostilius 
iussit everti. 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 450, 2 K : ... in nominationibus 
id est ovofiaroTTouats, sive nominuiu seu verbomm novis 
conformationibus non omnes declinationes motus sunt 
quaerendi . . . taratantara Ennius — 

At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit. 

Cp. Serv., ad Aen., IX, 501 : ' At tuba terribilem sonitum.' 



Serviua ad 486 : ' At domus interior ' : de Albano excidio 
translatus est locus. 

U4 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., Ill, 333 : ' Reddita ' more veteri 
pro ' data ' accipiendum est ... — 

isque dies postquam Ancus Marcius regna recepit, 

pro ' accepit.' 

1*1-* trib. Ann. lib. II Merula 

1*^ silvis Prise, Serv. cdd. CSM campo cdd. HFC in campos 
cd. R spineto Charis. spinis Koch coll. Aen. VIII, 645 

i« trib. Ann. lib. II V 

^** trib. lib. II Ilberg postquam A. M., Ilberg post 

aut Marcus quam Serv. auct. 

50 



I 



ANNALS 

141-2 

and birds devour his corpse : 

Priscianus : The oldest writers declined ' homo,' gen. 
' homonis.' Ennios — 

A vulture did craunch the poor wight in the forest. 
Ah ! In what a cruel tomb buried he his limbs ! 

143 

The destruction of Alba Longa by TuUus : 

Servius, on ' clangor ' in Virgil : States are generally 
overthrown to the sound of a trumpet, in the way in which 
Tullus HostUius ordered Alba to be overthrown." 

Priscianus : In ' nominationes,' that is in onomatopoeias 
whether nouns or verbs, of unusual structure, we must not 
look for all the turns of inflexion . . . ' taratantara.' 
Ennius — 

And the trumpet in terrible tones taratantara 
blared. 



Servius on Virg., Aen., II, 486 : ' And the dwelling within.* 
This passage (II, 486 fi.) is taken from the Sack of Alba. 

lU 

The reign of Anciis Marcius. His accession : 

Servius (supplemented), on ' reddita ' in Virgil : ' Reddita' 
must, as an archaic usage, be taken to mean ' data "... — 

and that day when Ancus Marcius * received the 
kingship, 

Here ' recepit ' stands for accepit. 



• Servius is probably thinking here of Ennius* narrative in 
iinb Annals. 

* The text is not clear, but the reference is c«tain. 

e2 



ENNIUS 



145 



Macrobius, S., VI, 4, 3 (ad Georg., II, 462) : Pulchre ' vomit 
undam ' et antique : nam Ennius ait— 

et Tiberis flumen vomit in mare salsum, 



146-7 

Festus, 346, 14 : ' Quaesere ' ponitur ab antiquis pro 
quaerere ... — 

Ostia munita est : idem loca navibus celsis 
munda facit nautisque mari quaesentibus vitam. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 397, 3; 121,3; Feat., 20, 7. 

148 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., XI, 326 : Quidam ' texamua ' 
proprie dictum tradunt quia loca in quibus naves fiunt Graeco 
vavm^yia Latine textrina dici : Enniua — 

Isdem campus habet textrinum navibus longis, 

Cp. Cic, Oral., 47, 157. 

149 

Festus, 400, 29 : Ennius iocatus videtur . . . et lib. II — 

i caerula prata. 



"« celsis Fest., 120 pulchris Fest., 346 
"« Cf. St., pp. 129-30 : V. 85-6 
^** pont>i S Neptuni T caeli Lindsay 
Reichardt 



campi 



" v., p. 25, attributes this fr. to Bk. II of the Annals, and 
cites Ov., Fast., IV, 291-2; Fest., 228, 14. 



S2 



ANNALS 

U5 

The foundaiion of Ostia : fortificaiions and other works : 

Macrobius : A most happy expression of VirgU's is ' belches 
forth a flood,' and archaic too, for Ennius " says — 

and the river Tiber belches into the salt sea, 

146-7 

Festus : ' Quaesere ' is put by archaic writers instead of 
' quaerere ' . . . — 

Ostia was fortified. He like^nse made the channel 
clear for tall ships and for sailors seeking a livelihood 



the 



148 



Servius (supplemented) : Some say that ' texamus ' is the 
right term to use because the places in which ships are made 
are called in Greek votnnjyto, in Latin ' textrina.' Ennius * — 

for them too the plain holds a workshop for their 
long ships. 

149 

Festus : Ennius ' seems to have made a jest . . . and in 
the second book — 

the blue-dark plains. 

* St., pp. 129-30 rightly, I think, saya that the harbour 
works are contrasted with others further inland. 

' The jest or joke is lost and may have belonged to the 
Satirts. As for this passage firom the An-ncUs, it is not clear 
what Ennius was describing, but it is tempting to supply 
<pont>i (Scaliger) and to refer the fr. to the sailors of Une 147. 
It is just possible that i is a complete word — ' go tramp the 
blue meadows.' 

53 



ENNIUS ■ 
LIBER III 

150 

Nonius, 51, 7: ' Laevum ' significari veteres putant quasi 
a levando. . . . Ennius annali lib. Ill — 

Olim de caelo laevum dedit inclutus signum. 



151-2 

Probus, ad Verg., Ed., VI, 31 : Pro aere veati hie extrin- 
secus accipiuntur : ad quod argumentum coUegimus Ennii 
exemplum de Annalium tertio — 

et densis aquila pinnis obnixa volabat 

vento quem perhibent Graium genus aera lingua. 



153 

Schol. Bern, ad Georg., IV, 7 : ' Laeva,' prospera . . . ut 
Ennius ait — 

ab laeva rite probatum. 



154 

Festus, 428, 11: ' Sos ' . . . interdum pro suos . 
Ennius — 

Postquam lumina sis oculis bonus Ancus reUquit, 

Cp. Paul, ex F., 429, 10. Lucret., Ill, 1025 : Lumina sis 
oculiB etiam bonus Ancus reliquit. 

153 trib. lib. Ill St. 
54 



ANNALS 



BOOK III 

The Reigns of Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tuluus, 
AND Tarquinius Superbus ; Establishment of 
THE Republic 

150 
Jupiter's omen to Priscus on his way to Borne : 

Nonius : ' Laevum.' The old critics believe this word to 
take its meaning as it were from ' levare.' . . . Ennius in the 
third book of Annals — 

The All-glorious sent down one day from the sky a 
favourable sign. 

151-2 
The omen : 

Probus, on ' anima ' in Virgil : ' Air ' is here taken, by 
inductive reasoning, to mean ' winds ' ; in proof of this we 
have taken an example of Ennius from the third book of the 
Annals — 

and there came flying on thick-set wings an eagle, 
battling ^vith the breeze which the Greek nation calls 
in its tongue ' aer.' <* 

153 
TanaquU (?) accepts the omen as favourable : 
A scholiast : ' Laeva,' prosperous ... as Ennius says — 
on the left hand and duly taken as good. 

154 

The death of Ancus Marcius : 

Festus : ' Sos ' . . . now and then writers put it for suos 
. . . Ennius — 

After good Ancus quitted the light with his eyes, 

" Ennius' philology was here more accurate than he knew^ 
Greek root of, Sanscrit va ' blow,' vatas ' wind.' 

55 



ENNIUS 

155 
Festus, 426, 33 : ' Solum,' terrain. Ennius lib. Ill — 
Tarquinio dedit imperium simul et sola regni. 

156 
Festus, 428, 11: ' Sos ' pro ' eos.' . . . Ennius lib. Ill — 
Circum sos quae sunt magnae gentes opulentae. 

157 

Servius, ad Aen., VI, 219 : ' lavant frigentis et ungunt ' : 
versus Ennii, qui ait — - 

Tarquinii corpus bona femina lavit et unxit. 

Cp. Donat., in Ter., Hec, I, 2, 60. 

158 
Festus, 284, 22 : ' Prodinunt,' prodeunt ... — 
Prodinunt famuli : turn Candida lumina lucent. 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 285, 8. 



159 

Macrobius, S., I, 4, 17 : Animadvertendum est . . . 
quod etiam ' qua noctu ' dixerit (Ennius). Et hoc posuit in 
annalium septimo, in quorum tertio clarius idem dixit — 

' Hac noctu filo pendeblt Etruria tota. 

**^ Tarquinii corpus 8erv. Exin Tarquinium bona 
Donat. 

" It is more likely, however, that sola (from solum) means 
throne. 

56 



ANNALS 

155 
Tarquinius Priscws is tnade King : 
Festus : ' Solum,' earth. Ennins in the third book — 
gave to Tarquin both sway and soil " of the kingdom. 

156 
War oj Priscu-s with the Latins * (or Etruscans ?) : 
Festus : ' Sos ' for ' eos.' ... E. in the third book — 
The clans of might and wealth which are around 
them, 

157 

Tanaquil decks dead Prise us : 

Servius, on ' And they wash and anoint his body in the chill 
of death ' in Virgil : a Une from Ennius, who says — 

The good woman washed and anointed Tarquin 's 
body. 

158 
The funeral of Prisons : 

Festus : ' Prodinunt,' the same as ' prodeunt ' . . . — 
The thralls moved on : then beamed bright lights. 

159 

The reign of Servius TuUius ; tears with Etnaria. Speech 
of an Etruscan (?) general before battle 1 : ' 

Macrobius : We must notice that he used even ' qua noctu.' 
And this he put in the seventh book of the A nnals, in the third 
book of which he wrote the same sort of thing more clearly — 

' On this night all Etruria's fate will hang by a 
thread. 

" v., CLXIX (Dion. Halic, III, 51 : 57) : St., pp. 133-4, 
suggests the Etruscan wars of Servius TuUius (Livy, I, 42). 
' St. suggests the battle noticed by Livy in I, 42. 

57 



ENNIUS 

160-61 

Macrobiua, 5., VI, 1, 16 : Concurnint undique telis | indomiti 
agricolae ' (Aen., VII, 520-1 ). Ennius in III— 

Postquam defessi sunt stare et spargere sese 
hastis ansatis, concurrunt undique telis. 



162 

Macro bius, S., VI, 1,9: ' Axem humero torquet stellis 
ardentibus aptum ' (Aen. IV, 482 ; VI, 797) . . . — 

Caelum prospexit stellis fulgentibus aptum. 



163 

Grellius, I, 22, 14 : An ' superesae ' dixerint veteres pro 
' restare et perficiendae rei deesse ' quaerebamus . . . inveni- 
mus in tertio Enni Annalium in hoc versu — 

Inde sibi memorat unum superesse laborem : 

id est reliquum esse et restare, quod quia id est, divise pro- 
nuntiandum est. 



^*' stare et V stando Pontanus stantes Scriver. 

stant et cdd. 

^•' prospexit Macrob. suspexit V 



i 



58 



ANNALS 

160-61 

A battle " in Serviiis* Etruscan wars : 

Macrobias : ' The unruly husbandmen engage with javelins 
on all sides.' Ennius in the third book — 

After they were tired out from standing and 
spattering each other with loop-handled lances, they 
engaged with javelins on all sides. 

162 

Tarquinius Superbus. Lucretia outraged lies on a roof : 

Macrobius : (Atlas) ' whirls on his shoulder the sky dotted 
with blazing stars ' . . . — 

She looked up at the sky dotted with shining 
stars. 

163 

Lucretia * prepares for death : 

Gellius : We used to investigate the question whether 
' superesse ' in the archaic writers was a term used for 
' remain and be lacking for the completion of a thing ' . . . 
we find in the third book of Ennius' AnruUs this line — 

Then she says that for herself one labour still 
waits over : 

* superesse,' ' is left ' and ' remains ' undone ; this being the 
meaning, it must be spoken as two words. 

" See previous note; V., CLXIX compares Dion. Halic, 
UI, 52, 2-3. 

' Thus St., p. 133. Others refer the fr. to the foundation 
of a temple of Diana by Servius Tullius, or to the building 
of the area of the temple of Jupiter by Tarquinius Priscus; 
cf. v., CLXX. 

59 



ENNIUS 

LIBER IV 

164 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 17: ' Summa nituntur opum vi ' 
{Aen., XII, 552). Ennius in quarto — 

Romani scalis summa nituntur opum vi. 

Cp. Serv., ad Aen., XII, 552. 



165 

Paulus, ex F., 16, 22 : Anxur vocabatur quae nunc Tarracina 
dicitur Vulscae gentis, sicut ait Ennius — 



Vulsculus perdidit Anxur. 



166 

Cicero, de Re Pub., I, 16, 25 : Id . . . poatea ne nostrum 
quidem Ennium fugit, qui ut scribit, anno trecentesimo 
quinquagesimo fere post Romam conditam — 

— nonis lunis soli luna obstitit et nox. 

*•* trib. Ann. lib. IV Merula 

166 <;quom> nonis Bergk trib. Ann. lib. IV ed. Lips. 



" This number, according to the year (753 B.C.) accepted 
in Cicero's time for the foundation of Rome, leads us to the 
year 400 B.C. when there was an eclipse of the sun on the 
21 st of June ; 5th must be a mistake of Ennius. Note that 
since Ennius put the foundation of Rome in the ninth century 

6o 



ANNALS 



BOOK IV 

The Early Republic, probably to the 
Gallic Invasion of 390 or 387 b.c. 

164 

The siege of Anxur by the Romans : 

Macrobiua : ' They strain with all their might and main * 
(Virgil). Ennius in the fourth book — 

The Romans on their ladders strain with all their 
might and main. 

165 
Anxur is stormed, 406 B.C. 

Paulus : The town which is now spoken of as Tarracina, 
belonging to the Volscian tribe, used to be called Anxur, as 
Ennius' words show — 

The wretched Volscians lost Anxur. 

166 

Eclipse of the sun, 21st of June, 400 B.C. : 

Cicero, on the true cause of solar eclipses : 

In later times this did not escape the notice even of our 
Ennius, who writes that, about three hundred and fifty " years 
after the foundation of Rome — 

On June's fifth day the moon blocked out the sun 

in darkness. 

B.C., he must have given a much larger number than 353 or 
350 for the year of this eclipse. On this problem cf. St., 
135; Beloch, in H., LVII, 119 ff.; another view: Soltau, 
Woch. f. Kl. Phil., Ill, 979 ff. 

6i 



ENNIUS 

LIBER V 

167 

Festus, 194, 12 : ' Occasus ' . , . E. pro occasione est usus 
... in Ub. V— 

Inicit inritatus, tenet occasus, iuvat res. 



168 
Nonius, 556, 19 : ' Ansatae ' iaculamenta cum ansis . 
ansatas mittunt de turribus 



169 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., II, 428, 14 K : ' Misereo ' 
vetustissimi sunt usi ... — 

Cogebant hostes lacrumantes ut misererent. 



170 

Aero, ad Hor., Ep., II, 2, 98 : . . . Romani quondam 
pugnaverunt cum hostibus Samnitibus usque ad noctem ; 
unde et Ennius inquit — 

Bellum acquis manibus nox intempesta diremit. 

^®8 hastas add. Colonna altis Quich. 
^"* aequum St. fortasse recte 

" The context of all the frs. is uncertain. 
* Livy, VII, 10; or Titus Manlius and a Tusculan? Livy, 
VIII, 7 : Vahlen, CLXXIV. 

62 



I 



ANNALS 



BOOK V 

Samnite Wars and the Rise of Pyrrhus, 
TO B.C. 295 " 

167 

A single combat ; Mardim and a Gaul ? : * 

Festua : ' Occasus.' . . . E. used it for ' occasio ' ... in 
the fifth book — 

Vexation drives him on, the chance holds him to 
it, the fact helps him. 

168 

Defence of FregeUae against (he Romans ? : 

Noniua : ' Ansatae,' missiles with loop-handles ... — 

They send down loop-handled lances from the 
towers. 

169 

Appeal of vxymen at FregeUae at its capture, 313 B.C.* 

Priscianus : ' Misereo ' . . . was used by the oldest 
writers ... — 

They caused even the enemy to have pity on them 
shedding tears. 

170 

A battle between the Romans and the Samnites ? : <' 

Aero : At one time the Romans fought with Samnite 
enemies until nightfall; whence Ennius also says — 

The dead of night wTested from them a drawn 
battle. 

' St., p. 137. 

<* Livy, X, 12; or Livy, VII, 33; Vahlen, CLXXU. 



63 



ENNIUS 



171 



Macrobius, S., VI, 4, 4 : ' Agmen ' pro actu et ductu 
quodam ponere non inelegans est, ut ' leni fluit agmine Thybris ' 
(Aen., II, 782). Immo et antiquum est. Ennius enim in 
quinto ait — 

quod per amoenam urbem leni fluit agmine flumen. 



172 

Nonius, 226, 29 : ' Stirpem ' . . . masculino E. Annalium 
lib. V— 

nomine Burrus uti memorant a stirpe supremo. 

Cp. Fest., 454, 28 : 402,16. 

Note on Books 

There can be no doubt that Ennius did not include the First 
Punic War in the detailed narrative of his Annals; the state- 
ment of Cicero (see pp. 82-83) is explicit, and it is unreason- 
able to believe that we know better than he did. He teUs 
us that Ennius did not desire to rival Naevius, who had 
already written a poem about this war (see Remains of 
Old Latin, Vol. II); it is further probable (see St., pp. 163-4) 
that Ennius had before him other poems covering the same 
ground. It is quite possible that in Book VII Ennius gave 
a mere sketch, or enumerated only the chief events of this 
war; but I have no hesitation in following Miss Steuart in 
her refusal to attribute to it a number of fragments on which 
she offers attractive suggestions (St., pp. 149 fif.). Cf. also 
Norden, Enn. u. Verg., 63 ff., 143 ff., 170. For the old view, 
which goes back to Morula, see V., CLXXIX ff.; Miiller, 
Q. Enn., 166 and C. Q. XIII, 113 flf.; Skutch, Pauly, s.v. 
Ennius, 2607, etc. 

Non. 226 lib. V cdd. VI Merula "» numine Fest. 

Pyrrhus cdd. Burrus Ennitis — cf. Cic., Oral., 48, 160 

64 



ANNALS 

171 

The River Liris cU ItUeramna * Lirenas, whore the fields were 
laid waste in 294 B.C. : 

Macrobius : It is not inelegant to put ' agmen ' in the sense 
of a certain ' actus ' and ' ductus ' ; for example, ' Thybris 
flows with gentle train.' Indeed it is also an antique usage; 
for Ennius in the fifth book says — 

because the river flows with gentle train through 
the pleasant to^\'n. 

172 
Rise of Pyrrhus : * * 

Nonius : ' Stirps ' . . . Ennius has it in the masculine in 
the fifth book of the Annals — 

by name Burrus, a man they say of highest stock. 

VI AND VII 

On the other hand, I cannot believe that Ennius allowed 
his history of Pj-rrhus to extend into the seventh book so 
that at the beginning of that book it was interrupted by 
three things : (i) the elaborate prologue to the book; (ii) an 
accoimt of the origin of Carthage; (iii) an apology for not 
describing the First Punic War. I suggeet that the war with 
Pj-rrhus was contained wholly in Book VI, which was thus 
devoted to a man whom Ennius, it is clear, admired; and 
that Book VII, after a prologue and an apology, sketched the 
origins of Carthage, brushed aside, as it were, the First Punic 
War with a short outline, and narrated the winning of 
Sardinia ' and Corsica by Rome, her reduction of the piratic 

* Thus St., pp. 137-8, who explains quod as introducing an 
etymological remark. But quod could go ■v^ithfiumen and the 
town could be Mintumae, where a colony was founded in 
295 B.C. 

* We may keep this fr. in the book to which Nonius 
apparently assigns it (St., p. 138). 

* Where Ennius himself served as a soldier. 

65 
VOL. 1. F 



ENNIUS 

lUyrians to submission (here we may put some of the disputed 
fragments), and the conquest of Cisalpine Gaul. It is possible 
that the achievements of Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, and Hannibal 
in Spain were also sketched. Thus Book VIII began with 



LIBER VI 

173 

Servius, ad Aen., IX, 526 (528) : (' ingentis) oras evolvite 
belli.' Hoc est . . . ' narrate non tantum initia sed etiam 
extrema bellorum ' ; nam orae sunt extremitates. Servius 
aiictus : Est autem Ennianum — 

Quis potis ingentis oras evolvere belli ? 

Cp. Quintil., VI, 3, 36 (. . '. annali sexto 'quis e.q.s.); 
Macrob., 8., VI, 1, 18; Diomed., ap. G.L., I, 386, 1 K. 



174-6 

Cicero, de Div., II, 56, 116: Herodotum cur veraciorem 
ducam Ennio ? Num minus ille potuit de Croeso quam de 
Pyrrho fingere Ennius? Quis enim est qui credat Apollinis 
ex oraculo Pyrrho esse responsum ? — 

* Aio te Aiacida Romanos vincere posse.' 

Primum Latine Apollo numquam locutus est; deinde ista 
Bors inaudita Graecis est; praeterea Pyrrhi temporibus lam 
Apollo versus facere desierat; postremo, quamquam semper 
fuit, ut apud Ennium est, — 

' stolidum genus Aeacidarum 
bellipotentes sunt magis quam sapientipotentes ; 

1'* oras Serv. axict. causas Quintil. 
!'*-« trib. lib. VI Merula 

" Here again I disagree with Steuart. Other views — 
Norden, 75, 128, 131 S. 

66 



ANNALS 

the outbreak of the Second Punic War and carried events 
down to the departure of Scipio Africanus for Africa in 
204 B.C." This left Enniua free to devote all Book IX to the 
crowning achievement of his friend Scipio. 



BOOK VI 
The War with Pyrrhus, 281-271 b.c. 

173 

Prologue : 

Serviua, on ' Unroll ye this great war from end to end,' in 
Virgil : that is . . . Tell ye not only the beginnings, but also 
the conclusions of these wars; for by ' orae ' is meant 
' extremities.' An augmenter of Servius adds : It is further an 
expression of Ennius — 

\Mio can unroll this great war from end to end ? 

174-6 

Pyrrhus receives an oracle of Apollo : 

Cicero : Why should I take Herodotus to be more truthful 
than Ennius ? Surely he was quite as capable of inventing 
stories about Croesus as Ennius was about Pyrrhus. For 
who is there who could believe that Apollo's oracle gave this 
answer to Pyrrhus ? — 

' I say that you, O man sprung from Aeaeus, 
The Romans can defeat.' * 

In the first place, Latin is a tongue in which Apollo never 
spoke; again, that particular reply is not known among the 
Greeks; and, moreover, in the time of P\-rrhu8 ApoUo had 
already ceased to make verses; and lastly, although it has 
always held good, as we find in Ennius, that — 

' That tribe of blockheads, stock of Aeaeus 
Are war-strong more than wisdom-strong ' ; 

* A famous example of advice which can be taken in two 
opposite ways. 

6? 
f2 



ENNIUS 

tamen hanc amphiboliam versus intellegere potuisset ' vincere 
te Romanes ' nihilo magis in se quam in Romanes valere. 

Cp. {vers. 174) : QuintiL, VII, 9, 6 : ' Aurel. Vict.,' de vir. 
illustr., 35, 1 ; Ammian. Marcell., XXIII, 5, 9 ; Porphyr. 
ad Hor., A.P., 403; Charisius, ap. O.L., I, 271, 28 K : et 
alibi. 

177 

Valla, ad luv., VII, 134 : ' Stlataria.' Probua exponit 
illecebrosa. Ennius — 

et melior navis quam quae stlataria portat. 



178 

Festus, 170, fin. : ' Navus ' celer ac strenuus. . . . Ennius, 
lib. VI— 

Navus repertus homo, Graio patre Graius homo, rex. 



179 

Festus, 424, 27: <Summ>us8i dicebantur <mTirmura- 
tores> .... Ennius in sexto ... — 

Intus in oceulto mussabant. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 425, 5 : 127, 6. 

180 

Maerobius, 8., VI, 1, 54: ' Pulverulentus eques furit; 
omnes arma requirunt ' {Aen., VII, 625) ... — 

Balantum pecudes quatit ; omnes arma requirunt. 

1" trib. lib. VI St. VII Menila 

^^" balatum vel balantum cdd. palatur t-el palatus B 



" The line is commonly taken to refer to the model ship 
used for training the Romans in the First Punic War (V., 
CLXXX). 

68 






ANNALS 

still, Pyrrhus would have had the sense to see that the double 
meaning of the line ' you the Romans . . . defeat ' apphed 
equally to himself and to the Romans. 



177 

Pyrrhus' stormy crossing to Italy ; his ship : " 
Valla: 'Stlataria.' Probus expounds: 'alluring.' 
Ennius — 

and a better ship than such as carries foreign 

fripperies. 

178 
Pyrrhus teas at first welcome in Tarentum, 281 B.C. : 
Festus : ' Xavus,' swift and active. ... E. in the sixth 

book — 

A man of deeds they found him, a Greek son of a 
Greek father, and a very king.* 

179 

but he shewed himself a stem master : 

Festus : ' Summussi ' is a t€rm which was applied to 
murmurers. . . . Ennius in the sixth book . . . — 

Within they grumbled in secret. 

180 

A sudden raid near Tarentum by Lucius Aemilius Barbida ? : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil "^ : ' Through the dust the horsemen 
raged ; all cried for weapons.' ... — 

He harried the bleating sheep; all cried for 
weapons. 

* This fr. might refer to Pyrrhus' promised help to 
Tarentum. 
' v., CLXX\T[. But cf. Havet, Rev. de Phil., IX, 166. 

69 



ENNIUS 

181-5 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 27 : 

Itur in antiquam silvam stabula alta ferarum. 
Procumbunt piceae, sonant icta securibus ilex 
fraxineaeque trabes cuneis, et fissile robur 
scinditur; advolvunt ingentes montibus omos. 

(Aen., VI, 179 ff.; cp. Aen., XI, 134 ff.) 

, Ennius in VI — 
/ 

Incedunt arbusta per alta, securibus caedunt. 

Percellunt magnas quercus, exciditur ilex, 

fraxinus frangitur atque abies consternitur alta, 

pinus proceras pervortunt ; omne sonabat 

arbustum fremitu silvai frondosai. 

Homerus, /;., XXIII, 114: 

01 8* laav vXoTOfiovs neXfKeas iv xtpaiv exovres 
oeipas t' €VttX(ktovs' npo 8' ap' ovpijes kLov oi)twv 
TToAAa S' dva;^a Karavra Trapavra, re Soxi^id t' ■^XBov. 
aAA' 0T€ 8rj KVTjfiovs irpoae^av noXvniBaKOS 'IBrjSt 
amiK dpa Spvs vipiKOfiovs ravaiJKel ;^aAKa> 
rafivov eTreiyo/xeroi- rat Se fieyaXa KTweovaai 
TTiTTTOV. rds fJ.kv eneira SianXijaaovTes 'Axaiol 
e/fScov T]fu6vojv Toi Se x^ova noaal Sarevyro 
iXSofifvcu neSioM Std poyirqla rrvKvd. 



186-93 

Cicero, de Off., 1, 12, 38 : Pyrrhi quidem de captivia reddendis 
ilia praeclara — 

* Nec mi aurum posco nee mi pretium dederitis 
' nec cauponantes bellum sed belligerantes 

^*' non Pal. Harl. nec rell. 
70 



ANNALS 

181-5 

Preparations for burning the dead after the battle of Heraclea, 
280 B.C. : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : 

They went into an old forest, deep dens of the wild ; forward 
fell pitch-pines, clattered holms under hatchet- blows, clattered 
beams of ash-trees against wedges; splitting oakwood too 
they cleft, and rolled along lofty rowans of the mountains. 

Ennius in the sixth book — 
Then strode they through deep thicket-woods and 

he-wed 
With hatchets ; mighty oaks they overset ; 
Down crashed the holm and shivered ash outhacked ; 
Felled was the stately fir ; they \\Tenched right down 
The lofty pines ; and all the thicketwood 
Of frondent forest rang and roared and rustled. 

Homer has : 

And they went holding in their hands hatchets for cutting 
wood, and ropes well twisted, while mules walked on in front 
of them. And oft strode they uphill and downhUl, and side- 
ways and crossing. But when they came nigh unto the 
shoulders of Ida which is full of fountains, then straightway 
they hewed leafy-topped oaks, pressing on with the long edge 
of bronze; and the trees crashing mightily fell ; whereon these 
the Achaeans split up and hung from the mules, and these 
tore up the ground with their feet through thick underwood, 
eager for the plain. 

185-93 

Pyrrhus replies to Fabricius, who came to ransom prisoners 
taken at Heraclea : 

Cicero : And of Pyrrhus too there is that illustrioos speech 
on the restoration of prisoners — 

* Gold for myself I ask not ; no, to me ye shall not 
pay a price. Not chaffering war but waging war, 

7? 



ENNIUS 

ferro non auro vitam cernamus utrique ; 

vosne velit an me regnare era, quidve ferat Fors, 

virtute experiamur. Et hoc simul accipe dictum : 190 

quorum virtuti belli fortuna pepercit, 

eorundem libertati me parcere certum est. 

Dono, ducite, doque volentibus cum magnis dis.' 

Cp. Serv. ad Aen., X, 532; XII, 709; Verg., Aen., V, 385 : 
Ducere dona lube. Ill, 12 cum sociis natoque Penatibus et 
magnis dis. VIII, 679 cum . . . magnis dis. 

194-5 

Cicero, de Senect., 6, 16: Ad Appii Claudii senectutem 
accedebat etiam ut caecus esset; tamen is cum sententia 
senatus inclinaret ad pacem cum Pyrrho foedusque faciendum, 
non dubitavit dicere ilia quae versibus persecutus est Ennius — 

* Quo vobis mentes rectae quae stare solebant 
ante hac, dementes sese flexere viai ? 

Horn., II., XXIV, 201 : d> fioi, tt^ 8ij rot (fpeves o')(Ov9' py 
TO ndpos TTep \ IkAc' ew' av9p<I)iTovs ; 

196 

Donatus, ad Ter., Phorm., V, 4, 2 : ' Parare animo'; et 
venuste additum animo. Ennius sexto — 

' Sed, quid ego hie animo lamentor ? 

Od., XI, 418 : 6\o<f>vpao 6v[iu>. 

197 
Varro, L.L., VII, 41 : Apud Ennium — 
Orator sine pace redit regique refert rem, 
orator dictus ab oratione. 

^'^ libertati me L m.l. cdd. 
195 yij^j Lambinus via cdd. 
72 



I 



ANNALS 

not ^^^th gold but with iron — thus let us of both 
sides make trial for our Uves. To see what Mistress 
Chance may bring, whether it be you or I she wishes 
to be king — let it be by bravery that we make the 
test. And withal hear this word of mine : of those 
warriors to whose bravery war's fortune has been 
kind, to the freedom of those same have I too 
planned to be kind. I give them to you, take them 
home — and with them I give you the blessing of the 
great gods.' 

194-5 

Fruitless embassy of Cineas to Rome. Appiws Claudius 
Caucus protests against any acceptance of Cineas^ offers : 

Cicero : When Appius Claudius was in old age it happened 
that he was also blind; nevertheless, when the opinion of the 
Senate was inclined towards peace and alliance with Pyrrhus 
he did not hesitate to utter those famous thoughts which 
Ennius set forth in poetry — 

' \\'hither on your road have senseless turned your 
senses which hitherto were wont to stand upright ? 

196 

Donatus on ' in animo parare ' in Terence : the addition of 
' animo ' is graceful. Ennius in the sixth book — 

' But wherefore do I grieve now in my heart ? 



197 

Cineas reports to Pyrrhus his failure at Borne : 

Varro : In a passage of Ennius — 

The spokesman came back without a peace, and 
brought the news to the king, 

* spokesman ' is a term derived from speech. 

73 



ENNIUS 

198-9 

Schol. Veron., ad Aen., V, 473 : ' Hie victor superans 
(animistauroquesuperbus '). . , . EnniusinVI — 

* aut animos superant atque aspera prima ^ 

. . . fera belli spernunt . . . 



200-2 
Nonius, 150, 5 : ' Prognariter,' strenue fortiter et constanter. 

Divi hoc audite parumper 
ut pro Romano populo prognariter armis 
certando prudens animam de corpore mitto. 



203 

Festus, 488, 28: <Scitae attas quae 8uiit> bona facie, 
a<li>as bonis <artibu8 mulieres a p>oetis usurpantur. 
. . . Ennius in lib. VI — 

lumen <ta > scitus agaso 

^•' aut cd. ast olim V animos cd. animo Keil fort. 
animis aspera prima Keil (Bh. Mus. VI, 375) asperrima 
Mai asp . . . rima cd. 

^'^ iumenta Ilberg lumen Fest. iumentiaque parum 
iam prodest scitus agaso coni. Havet, Rev. de Phil., IX, 167 

74 



ANNALS 

198-9 

The courage of the Romans ? : " 

A scholiast, on ' Here the conqueror towering in pride of 
soul ' in Virgil : Ennius in the sixth book — 

' Or they mount high in pride, and the rough 
beginnings ... of war they spurn. 



200-2 

The battle of Atiaculum, 279 B.C. Decius Mus devotes 
himsdf to the ' di manes ' ; 

Nonius : ' Prognariter,' actively, valiantly and stead* 
fastly. ... — 

' Ye gods, hear this my prayer a little while as 
from my body I breathe my last for the Roman 
people's sake, knowingly and steadfastly, in arms and 
in battle. 



203 

Pyrrhiis' mahouts cut the traces of the Roman chariot-horaes 
in the battle of Ausculum : * 

Festus : ' Scitae ' is a term applied by poets sometimes to 
women of good looks, sometimes to women who are of good 
accomplishments. . . . Ennius in the sixth book — 

The skilled driver the beasts. 

' Spoken by Cineas to Pyrrhus? or it may be part of 
Appius' speech at Rome. 

* Thus Steuart, pp. 148-9. iumenta is surely right. Havet 
{Rev. de Phil., IX, 167) refers the fr. to plague-ridden flocks 
and connects it with fr. 180. 

75 



ENNIUS 

204 

Macrobius, S., VI, 22 : ' Quadrupedante putrem sonitu 
quatit ungula campum ' (Aen., VIII, 596). Ennius in VI — 

Explorant Numidae, totam quatit ungula terrain 



205 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 8 : ' Vertitur interea caelum et ruit 
Oceano nox ' (Aen., II, 250). Ennius in libro VI — 

Vertitur interea caelum cum ingentibus signis. 



206 

Achilles Tatius, ad CatulL, LXIII, 40 : ' Lustravit aethera 
album ' : . . . Ennius de sole ... in VI — 

Ut primum tenebris abiectis indalbabat, 

Cp. Apulei., Met., VII, 1. 



207-8 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 10: ' Conciliumque vocat divum 
pater atque hominum rex ' {Aen., X, 2). Ennius in VI — 

Turn cum corde suo divum pater atque hominum rex 
effatur. 

Horn., //, I, 544 : Trarrjp avSpwv re deojv re. 



^''* totum cdd. (tota Par.) tostam Stowasser trib. lib. 
VII Kuypers 

""* inalbabat dies Ach. dies inalbebat Apidei. indal- 
babat I orta dies Wakefield cuncta dies coni. V. reicit 
hoc fr. Bergk prob. Norden 

" So I take it. The fr. is generally put in Book VII 
(Norden, 128). 

76 



ANNALS 

204 

Operations of Pyrrhus against the Carthaginians in Sicily, 
277-276 B.C. : « 

Macrobixis, quoting Vixgil : * The four-footed beat of ihe 
hoofs shook the crumbling plain.' Ennius in the sixth book — 

The Numidians went scouting ; their hoofs shook 
the whole ground. 

205 

The battle of Beneventum, 275 B.C. ; Pyrrhus moves to attack 
the Roman catnp by night ? ; * 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Meanwhile round toUb the 
sky and night sets in from the Ocean.' Ennius in the sixth 
book — 

Meanwhile the sky rolls round with its vast 
constellations. 

206 
and daxcn reveals his approach : 

Achilles Tatius : ' He scanned the white ether ' . . . 
Ennius on the sun ... in the sixth book ... — 

When darkness was cast away and the day was 
first whitening/ 

207-8 
A soliloquy of Jupiter (during the battle of Beneventum / ) ' : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' and the father of the gods and 
king of men called a council.' Ennius in the sixth book — 

Then -vriih all his heart the father of the gods and 
king of men spoke forth. 

* v., CLXX\'III-CLXXIX (Plut., Pyrrh., 25). Miss St. 
(p. 148) points to the battle of Auscidum. 

' indaibabat is archaic for inalbabat ; cp. indaudio for 
inaudio; indu for in. 

•* Compare Homer, //., X\T;I, 441-2 : Kpovicjv . . . Trporl ov 
(ivd-qaaTo Ovfiov, but ' cum corde suo effatur ' can hardly mean 
' converses with his own heart.' Cf. also IJ., X\T!I, 200. 

77 



ENNIUS 

209 

Cicero, cZe Re PuU., Ill, 3, 6 : ex qua vita {«c. civili) sic 
summi viri omantur, ut vel M' Curius — 

quern nemo ferro potuit superare nee auro. 



Note on 

The clash between Rome and Carthage. 

On this book see pp. 64-5. Steuart includes in it the end 
of the war with Pyrrhus. Norden, pp. 143-52 has devoted 
special attention to a reconstruction of the book ; he would 

LIBER VII 

210-27 

Gellius, XII, 4, 4 : Descriptum definitumque est a Quinto 
Ennio in Annali septimo graphice admodum sciteque sub 
historia Gemini Servilii, viri nobilis, quo ingenio, qua comitate 
qua modestia . . . amicum esse conveniat hominis genere 
et fortuna superioris — 

Haece locutus vocat quocum bene saepe libenter 
mensam sermonesque suos rerumque suarum 
comiter inpertit, magnam cum lassus diei 
partem trivisset de summis rebus regendis, 

2»» trib. lib. XII V (Irib. olim lib. VI) 

*i* trivisset B fuvisset Lips fuisset cdd. (fuisse 
cd. B) magna cum lapsa dies iam | parte fuisset T 

" Or 3rd consulship (274) or censorship (272). Or the fr. 
may be a later reminiscence. At any rate Ennius was 
probably the author. 

* Servllius is rightly supposed to be Cn. Servilius Geminus 
who was consul in 217 and was killed at the battle of Carmae 

78 



ANNALS 

209 
Triumph (275 ?) or death (270) " of Manius Curius Dentatus : 
Cicero : From such a life (i.e. of a statesman) men of the 
highest rank are honoured, aa for example Manius Curius — 

whom none could overcome with iron or crold. 



Book VII 
Events leading to the Second Punic War 

carry the narrative at least as far as the battle at the Trebia. 
Vahien, CLXXIX ff., believes that Ennius did include a 
fairly detailed narrative of the First Punic War. 

BOOK VII 
210-27 

Prologue : 

Gellius : There is a very clever and graphic description and 
definition by Ennius in the seventh book of the Annals (in 
a sketch of Geminus ServiliuB, a man of noble birth), of what 
temper and cheerfulness and modesty ... it is seemly a 
man shotdd show who is a friend of another his superior in 
birth and forttines * — 

So saying he called to one with whom he shared 
>villingly and cheerfully and right often his table, 
his talks, and his affairs, when, tired out, he had 
spent long hours of the day in managing the 

(in 216) ; but the fr. is supposed to be connected in some way 
with that battle. This, however, forces us either to upset the 
probable construction of Books VII and \'Tn or to alter 
the book-niunber given by GeUius. Perhaps E. honoured 
Servilius by representing him as a special source of inspiration 
to a poet deaUng with the Pixnic Wars. See Xorden, 131 ff. ; 
Vahien, CLXXXIII-CLXXXI V ; Steuart, 152 f.; Havet, 
Rev. de Phil., II, 93-96. 

79 



ENNIUS 

consilio indu foro lato sanctoque senatu ; 

quoi res audacter niagnas parvasque iocumque 215 

eloqueretur sed cura, malaque et bona dictu 

evomeret si qui vellet tutoque locaret ; 

quorum multa volup ac gaudia clamque palamque, 

ingenium quoi nulla malum sententia suadet 

ut faceret facinus levis aut malus ; doctus fidelis 220 

suavis homo facundus, suo contentus, beatus, 

scitus, secunda loquens in tempore, commodus, 

verbum 
paucum, multa tenens antiqua, sepulta vetustas 
quae facit, et mores veteresque novosque, tenens res 
multorum veterum, leges divumque hominumque, 225 
prudenter qui dicta loquive taeereve posset. 
Hunc inter pugnas Servilius sic conpellat. 

L. Aelium Stilonem dicere solitum ferunt, Q. Ennium de 
semet ipso haec scripsisse picturamque istam moruin et 
ingenii ipsius Q. Ennii factam esse. 

228 
Festus, 340, 24 : ' Quianam ' pro quare ... — 
— quianam dictis nostris sententia flexa est ? 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 341, 9. 

*^* sed cura malaque Hosius et haud cunctans Bergk nee 
cunctans M et incunctans Huschke tincta mails et 
quae bona Lips et cuncta simul malaque Hug eloqu. et 
unose olim V et cuncta malaque et bona vel et cuncta 
malusq. (cunctam aliisq N) et bona cdd. 

*i* volup ac gaudia Colonna volup sibi fecit coni. olim 
V (qui gaudia seclitd.) voluptate gaudia T, ¥ volujj 

gaudia cett. 

*** tenens res olim V. tenentem cdd. prob. Havet 

*2* prudenter olim V. prudentem cdd. prob. Havet 

"7 S. s. c. Dousa (F.) c. S. s. cdd. 

228 <-; lieu ^ quianam Augustinus, S 

8o 



ANNALS 

greatest affairs, by counsel given in the wide mart 
and sacred senate-house ; one to whom care-free " 
he would often speak out boldly matters great 
and small, and joke the while, and blurt out words 
good and bad to say, if so he wished at all, and store 
them in loyal keeping ; one ynth whom he could 
share many a pleasure and many a joy both openly 
and secretly ; whose nature no thought of mind led 
to do a bad deed lightly or viiih wrong intent ; 
a learned, trusty, winsome man and a fine talker, 
content -with his own, happy and shrewd ; one who 
spoke the right thing at the right time, and 
obUging ; of few words ; keeping many old-time 
ways of which a bygone age long buried is the 
maker, and manners old and new ; keeping also 
to the modes of many a one of our elders, and the 
laws too of gods and men ; one who could prudently 
speak out hearsay or keep it to himself. Him did 
Senilius, in the midst of battles,* thus address. 

They say that Lucius Aelius Stilo used to state that 
Quintus Ennios wrote this about none other than himself,' 
and that the passage given here is a picture of the manners 
and temper of Quintus Ennius himself. 

228 
Prologue continued ? ^ 

Festus : ' Quianam ' for ' quare ' and ' cur ' . . . — 

For why has your intent been turned by my words ? * 

* sed is an archaic word for sine. 

* Apparently metaphorical ' battles,' 

' i.e. that Servilius' friend was Ennius himself. But 
cf. v., p. 43; Norden, 131 ff. 

' Steuart (159) refers the fir. to the war with Pyrrhus — his 
Italian allies resent his plan to withdraw to Sicily. 

' Or, ' why has the meaning of our words been distorted ? ' 
(Norden 46). 

8i 

K^ VOL. I. G 



ENNIUS 

229-30 
Festus, 476, 17 : ' Sas.' . . . Eiusdem lib. VII fatendum 
est earn significari cum ait — 

nee quisquam sophiam sapientia quae perhibetur) 
in somnis vidit prius quam sam discere coepit. 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 477, 4. 

231-2 

Cicero, Brut., 19, 76 : Tamen illius quern in vatibua et 
Faunis adnumerat Ennius, Bellum Punicum quasi Myronis 
opus delectat. Sit Ennius sane ut est certe perfectior : qui 
si ilium ut simulat contemneret, non omnia bella persequens 
primum illud Punicum acerrimum bellum reliquisset. Sed 
ipse dicit cur id faciat — 

Scripsere alii rem 
versibus 

et luculente quidem scripserunt etiam si minus quam tu 
polite : nee vero tibi aliter videri debet, qui a Naevio vei 
sumpsisti multa, si fateris, vel si negas, surripuisti. 

232-4 
Cicero, Brut., 18, 71 : Quid? Nostri veteres versus ubi sunt ? 
quos olim Fauni vatesque canebant, 
quom neque Musarum scopulos. . . . 

. . . nee dicti studiosus quisquam erat ante hune 
ait ipse de se nee mentitur in gloriando. 

22»-3o philosophiam quae doctrina Latina lingua non (vel 
nomen) habet Fest. sophiam S qui vocabula q. d. L. I. n. h. 

aedud. 

231-6 gi(. constit. V. (' Vber die Annal. des E.') Abh. B. Akad. 
d. W., 1886, 12 5. -'^ scripsere inquit Cic. 

"'' scopulos < quisquam superarat > ed. Victor, auxilio s. , 
superarat Pascoli fortasse superaverat ullus | umquam j 
nee d. s. erat ed. Victor. ' 

« St., 156: v., CLXXXI, a,nAin Abh. Berl. Akad., 1886, 13. | 
* Naevius; cf. Norden, 145 ff. ; Steuart, 157-9; V., i 

CLXXXI, and in Abh. Berl. Akad., 1886, 12-14. ' 

82 



ANNALS 

229-30 
Prologue continued : Enniu-s alludes " to his tale of his dream 
in Pie first book : 

Festus : ' Sas.' ... In the seventh book of the same poet it 
must be confessed that ' eam ' is meant \rhen he says — 

nor has any man seen in his dreams Wisdom (a 
name we give to knowledge) before he has begun to 
learn her secrets. 

231-2 
The first Punic War ; Ennius chooses to omit a detailed 
narrative of the tear because Naevius and others have already 
sung about it : 

Cicero : Xevertheless, the Punic War of this poet,* whom 
Ennius counts among the seers and Fauns, gives delight as 
though it were a work of Myron.' I grant you, to be sxire, 
that Ennius is the more perfect poet as he certainly is; but 
if he really scorned Naevius, as he pretends, he would not, 
in working through all our wars, have left undone the famous 
First Punic War, a most bitter one. But in his own words he 
tells us why he does it. He says- 
Others have wTitten of the matter ** in verses 

And nobly indeed they wrote, even though they did it in 
less finished fashion than you did ; nor indeed ought it to 
appear otherwise to you who took many points fiom 
Naevius, if you confess it ; or if you deny it, filched them. 

232-4 

Cicero : Well ? Our old verses, where are they ? In his 
own words he speaks of himself (nor lies in his boasting) — 

which once upon a time the Fauns and Seers used 
to sing, when no one had surmounted * the rough 
rocks of the Muses . . . nor was anyone mindful of 
style before this man , . . 

' The sculptor, of Eleutherae in Attica. 
' The First Punic War, in Satumians. (See Naevius, 
in Rimains of Old Latin, Vol. II.) 

' We might supply ' superaverat ullus umquam.' 

83 
g2 



ENNIUS 



235 



Cicero, Oral., 51, 171 : Ergo Ennio licuit vetera contem- 
nenti dicere ' versibus quos olim Fauni vatesque canebant,' 
mihi de antiquis eodem modo non licebit ? Praesertim cum 
dicturus non sim ' ante hunc,' ut ille, nee quae sequuntur — 

Nos ausi reserare 

Cp. Cic, OraL, 47, 157 ; de Div., I, 50, 114; Varro, L.L., VII, 
36; Quintil., IX, 4, 115; Serv. auct., ad Gemg., I, 11; Fest., 
476, 10. 



236 

Probus, ad Georg., II, 506 : ' Sarrano dormiat ostrc' 
Tyriam purpuram vult intelligi Sarranum ostrum. Tyron 
enim Sarram appellatam Homerus docet, quern etiam Ennius 
sequitur auctorem cum dicit — 

Poenos Sarra oriundos 



237 

Festus, 324, 15 : ' Puelli ' per deminutionem a pueris dicti 
sunt. Itaque et Ennius ait— 



Poeni suos soliti dis sacrificare puellos 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 325, 5; Nonius, 158, 20. 



***~^ . . . quisquam, nee dicti studiosus erat. . . . | ante 
hunc. ... I nos ausi reserare St. {pp. 157-8) 

**' Poeni suos soliti dis V dis soliti sos Hug di§ 
Poeni 8. s. Mr. p^nisoUtis vos Fest. Poeni soliti suot 
Paul. Ennius suos divis Non. 

84 



ANNALS 

235 

Cicero : Therefore since it was allowed to Ennius, when he 
scorned the old poetr\% to say ' in verses which once upon a 
time the Fauns and seers used to sing,' must I be forbidden 
to speak of archaic writers in the same fashion? Especially 
since I am not going to say ' before me ' as he does, nor what 
follows — 

Twas I durst unbar . . . 



236 

The origins of Carthage. The Carthaginian stock ; * the 
worship oj Moloch : 

Probus, on ' that he may sleep on shell-dye of Sarra ' in 
Virgil : By shell-dye of ' Sarra ' he wishes us to imderstand 
Tyrian purple. For that Tyre was called Sarra we are 
informed by Homer ; * Ennius also follows him as an 
authority when he says — 



Phoenicians '^ sprung from Sarra 



237 

Festus : ' Puelli ' is a word derived in a diminutive form 
from ' pueri.' Thus Ennius ** says — 

Phoenicians accustomed to offer up to the gods 
their own little sons 

« Norden, 77 ff., 89, 92, 150. 

* Not in the extant poems. 

' Generally meaning Carthaginians, but here probably the 
original race. 

* Norden, 77 ff., 89 ff. He refers the fir. to a definite 
occasion in 310 B.C. The fr. might belong to Book \Tn — 
embassv to Hannibal demanding his sons for sacrifice — 
St., 157*. 



85 



ENNIUS 

238 

Cicero, de Inv., 1, 19, 27 : Hisfcoria est gesta res ab aetatia 
nostrae memoria remota, quod genus — 

Appius indixit Karthaginiensibus bellum. 



239-40 

Servius (auctus) ad Georg., II, 449 : ' Buxum ' lignum non 
arborem dixit, quamvis Ennii exemplo et arborem potuerit 
dicere neutro genere. Ille enim sic in septimo — 

longique cupressi 
slant sectis foliis et amaro corpora buxum. 



241 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 130, 29 K : ' Frus.' ' Haec fhis' 
quia sic ab Ennio est declinatum Annalium libro VII — 

russescunt frundes 



*" trib. Enn. ed. Lips. 

2*" sectis cdd. rectis Ursinus 



" Provided that Ennius wrote this line and that it was in 
the Annals and not in Scipio, the fr. is perhaps best placed j 
here. It does not follow that Ennius went on to tell the story 
of the war in detail. Cf. Norden, 71 ff. for another view (also 
St., 150-1); it may well be a ' reference back ' (preceded by; 
' postquam ') made near the end of Book IX in which the 
end of the Second Punic War was described. 

* Sc. by his actions, not as an envoy. 

86 



ANNALS 

238 

How the Romans and the Carthaginians first came into 
conflict ? ; * Appius Claudius Caudex enters Sicily, 264 B.C. : 

Cicero : ' History ' means public events remote from the 
recollection of our own age; such as — 

Appius proclaimed * war against the Cartha- 
ginians. 

239-40 

Events between the First and Second Punic Wars. Rome 
obtains Corsica (239 B.C.) and Sardinia ' (238) : 

Senrius (supplemented) : By ' box ' Virgil meant the wood 
and not the tree, although in using the neuter gender he 
could have meant even the tree after the example of Ennius; 
for that poet has it thus in the seventh book — 

and tapering cj-presses with crenelled leaves,'' 
and the box too, with bitter body,* stand straight. 



241 

Charisius : ' Frus.' Fem. gender because it is thus inflected 
by E. in the seventh book of the Annals — 

the leaves turn ruddy 

* Ennius himself served in Sardinia (see inirod.) and so may 
have introduced personal impressions into his narrative. 

' seciis means divided up into small parts. Cypress- 
leaves appear so, being scale-like and imbricated. In line 565 
rectosque cupressos, ' upright cypresses,' is quite right. We 
may note these expressions as good examples of Enniua' 
verbal jiccuracy. 

• Because honey from the flowers is bitter; it was especially 
true of Corsican honey (Pliny, X^^, 70). 



87 



ENNIUS 

242-3 

Nonius, 385, 5 : ' Rumor,' favor, auxiliatio ... — 

Legio aggreditur Romana ruinas, 
mox auferre domos, populi rumore secundo. 

244 
Festus, 428, 1 : ' Sos ' pro eos . . . ^ 
Dum censent terrere minis, hortantur ibi sos. 

245-6 

Festus, 538, 34 : ' Tonsam ' Ennius significat remum, quod 
quasi tondeatur ferro, cum ait lib. VII — 

* Poste recumbite vestraque pectora pellite tonsis.' 

Item — 
Pone petunt, exim referunt ad pectora tonsas. 

Cp. Paul., ex. F., 539, 13. 

2*2 aggreditur Romana W reducta minis Hug red- 
ditu rumore ruinas mox a. d. p. r. s. Non. reddit murumque 
ruinas V reddit urbemque Ribb. redit ut B rediit 
olim V 

2*' rumore secundo (deinde ut init. alterius citationis) 
ruina | mox e.q.s. Mr. prob. St. Cf. V., Sitz.-Ber. K. Ak., 
1888, 48. 'legio rediit rumore' et 'ruina mox a. d. e.q.s. 
Linds. (de legionis reditu ' ruina e.q.s. coni.) 

2" ibei 0. Mr. ibe cd. 

2** premunt Mr. ferunt B jrrob. Valmaggi 

" In the following fr. I keep one quotation ; and suggest that 
it describes a scene in the narrative where the Romans helped 
the Carthaginian mutineers (populus) in Sardinia. 



ANNALS 

242-3 

Rome obtains Sardinia (238 B.C.) : * 
Nonius : ' Rumor,' favour, aid. ... — 
The Roman army , cheered on by the crowd, attacked 
the ruins, and soon made away with the dwelUngs. 

244 

War tcith the lUyrian pirates, 230-228 B.C. Complaints of 
the Greeks about half-hearted measures ? : 

Festus : ' Sos ' for ' eos ' . . . — 

While they were minded to startle them with 
threats, therewith they encouraged them, 

245-6 

Advance of the Roman fleet under Cn. Fulvius and L. 
Po-stumius : * 

Festus : ' Tonsa.' By this word Ennius, when he says in 
the seventh book — 

' Lean ye right backward and beat ye your breasts 
with the trimmers ' ; 

means an oar, because as it were ' tonditur,' it is trunmed, with 
a knife; again — 

Backward they reach, then again pull the trimmers 
to their breasts. 

* This seems to me to be the only possible context. These 
frs, are usually assigned to a narrative of the First Punic 
War (of. Vahlen, CLXXX ; Xorden, 66-71, 76, 94 ff., 151 
is suggestive). But this can hardly be right (see pp. 64-5 and 
St., 150-2), though at first sight it does look as if Ennius is 
describing the building of the first Roman fleet, and the 
training of the crews, in 260 B.C. 

89 



ENNIUS 

247 
Festus, 170, 28 : ' Nare ' a nave ductum Comificius ait . . . — 
Alter nare cupit, alter pugnare paratust. 

248 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 486, 13 K : ' Mulgeo ' quoque 
mulsi facit ... — ■ 

Mulserat hue navem compulsam fluctibus pontus. 

249 ^ 



Paulus, ex F., 500, 10 : ' Sibynam ' appellant lUyrii teluin 
venabuli simile. Ennius — 

lUyrii restant sicis sibynisque fodentes. 



I 



250 

- « 



Nonius, 116, 2 : ' Gracilentum ' pro gracili . 
Deducunt habiles gladios filo gracilento. 

2" trib. lib. VII Merula 



" Pun on nare, pugnare. St., p. 152, would attribute this fr. 
also to the history of Pyrrhus ; I take alter as referring to an 
lUyrian Umbos. But of. Norden, 67-70, 151 ; KviCala, Eos, 
VIII, 8 ff. refers the fr. to Hannibal at the Tagus in 220 B.C. 

* So I interpret this fr., which is usually attributed to the 
First Punic War (Norden, 65 &., 69, 151 — a stranded Cartha- 
ginian ship which served the Romans as a model in 260 B.C. 
Cp. Vahlen, CLXXX ; on p. 41 he says ' Mulserat Ennii 
ad mulcendum h. e. leniter movendum referri oportet '). 

90 



ANNALS 

247 

.4 sea-fight ; lUyrians Jiard-pressed : 

Festus : ' Nare.' Comificius states that this word is derived 
from ' navis ' . . . — 

The one <» \vishes to float in flight ; the other is 
ready to fight, 

248 

An Illyrian ship is driven ashore : * 

Priscianus : ' Mulgeo ' likewise takes ' mulsi ' for its perfect 
tense ... — 

Hither the sea had gently washed a ship buffeted 
by the billows. 

249 

The lUyrians resist stoutly : 

Paulus : ' Sibyna,' a name given by the Illyrians to a 
javelin resembling a hunting-spear. Ennius * — 

The lUyrians stood fast and stabbed with curving 
knives and hunting-spears. 

250 

War of the Boii and other Cisalpine and Transalpine Celts 
against Rome, 226-222 B.C. Preparations of the Gauls ? : ^ 

Nonius : ' Gracilentum ' for ' gracilis.' ... — 

They beat out handy swords like slender thread. 

St., 151 suggests that the reference is to the storm which 
Pyrrhus experienced on his voyage to Italy, and puts the 
fr. in Book VI. 

' This fragment should perhaps be assigned to a later 
book— cf. v., CLXXXV (Livy, XXXI, 34; 200 B.C.). 

** Or possibly Spanish swords are meant; thev were used 
by the Romans. Cf. Norden, 119 fE., 152. 

91 



ENNIUS 

251-2 

Macro bius, /S., I, 4, 17 : . . . — 

qua Galli furtim noctu summa arcis adorti 
moenia concubia vigilesque repente cruentant. 

Quo in loco animadvertendum est non solum quod ' noctu,' 
'concubia' sed quod etiam 'qua noctu' dixerit {Ennius)\ 
et hoc ponit in Annalium septimo. ... 



253 

Macrobios, S,, VI, 1, 19 : ' Ne qua meis dictis esto mora : 
luppiter hac stat ' [Aen., XII, 565). Ennius in VII — 

' Non semper vestra evertit ; nunc luppiter hac stat.' 



254 

Msicrobius, 8., VI, 1, 52 : ' Audentes fortuna iuvat.' {Aen., 
X, 284). E. in VII— 

' Fortibus est fortuna viris data. 



255 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 223, 4 K : Sed Nar servavit a 
productam etiam in obliquis ... — 

Sulphureas posuit spiramina Naris ad undas. 

° The Gauls were ultimately not successful. 
* qua is generally taken as qua via. 

' ' To men of pluck is given luck.' See last fragm. for the 
context, and cf. Norden, 43 ff. 

92 



1 



ANNALS 

251-2 

The Gauls near Clusium, 225 b.c. ; terror at Rome ; 
reminiscence of the intxision of 390 ( ? 387) B.C. : 

Macrobius : — 

on that night the Gauls with stealth attacked the 
wall-tops of the citadel in the sleep-time, and on a 
sudden brought bloodshed " on the sentinels. 

In this passage we must notice that Enniua not only used 
' noetu ' and ' concubia ' but also ' qua noctu ' ; * he puts 
this expression in the seventh book of the Annals. . . . 

253 

Defeat of the Gauls at Telamon ? 225 B.C. Speech of Gaius 

Atilius or of Lucius Aemilius : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Let there be no delay to my 
commands. Jupiter stands on our side.' Ennius in the 
seventh book — 

Not always does Jupiter upset your plans; now 
he stands on our side. 

254 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Fortune favours the daring.' 
E. in the seventh book — 

To men of fortitude is fortune granted.' 

255 

Tfie Via Flaminia is completed by Flamintus as far as 
Ariminum (220 B.C.); icorks built at the crossing of the river 
Nar between Xamia and Carsulae P : 

Priscianus : But ' Nar ' has kept the a long ev^i in oblique 
cases. ... — ■ 

He built blow-holes by Nar's sulphury waters. 

93 



ENNIUS 

Propertius, III, 3, 9 : 
Et cecinit . . . 
Regiaque Aemilia vecta tropaea rate 

256-7 

Servius (auctus) ad Georg,, III, 116 : Hie equitem . . . 
equum dicit. . . . Ennius AimaUum septimo — 

Denique vi magna quadrupes eques atque elephanti 
proiciunt sese. 

Cp. GeU., XVIII, 5, 2; Non., 106, 30; Macrob., 8., VI, 
9,10. 

Praeconia ex libris VIII-XV 

Cicero, pro Archia, 9, 22 : Carus fuit Africano superior! 
noster Ennius, itaque etiam in sepulchro Seipionum putatur 
is esse constitutus ex marmore; cuius laudibus certe non 
solum ipse qui laudatur sed etiam populi Romani nomen 
omatur. In caelum huius proavus Cato tolUtur; magnus 
honos populi Romani rebus adiungitur. Omnes denique 
illi Maximi, Marcelli, Fulvii non sine communi omnium nostrum 
laude decorantur. Ergo ilium qui haec fecerat, Rudinum 
hominem, maiores nostri in civitatem recepenint. 

" See p. 44. It is, of course, tempting to see an allusion 
by Propertius to the victory of Aemilius PauUus over Perseus 
in 168 B.C. (which Ennius did not live to see); but such an 
intrusion between the event of TulMus' reign and a reference 
to Fabius of the Second Punic War would be inartistic. 

* It is possible that the reference is to the battle at the 
Trebia in 218; cf. Norden, 126 ff., 152. The attribution to 
a narrative of the First Punic War (V., CLXXIXff. ; 
CLXXXIV) is not acceptable. St., pp. 151-2, suggests that 
we have here the stampede of Pyrrhus' elephants at the 
battle of Beneventum. But apart from what I have said 
above, the words of Gellius show that this was nearly at the 
end of the book. 

94 



ANNALS 

Second Illyrian War, 219 B.C.; suppression of Demetrius 
of Pharos by L. Aemiliu^ PauUus : 

Propertius " says : 

And he sang ... of the royal trophies carried by Aemilius' 
ship. 

256-7 

Second Punic War begins ; * Hannibal advances from ' New 
Carthage,^ spring 218 B.C. : 

Servius (supplemented) : Here by ' equitem ' Virgil means 
' equum.' . . . Ennius in the seventh book of the Annals — 

At last mth mighty rush the horseman at a four- 
footed gallop "^ and the elephants too hurl them- 
selves onwards. 

Some great men of whom Ennius wrote in Books VIII-X V 

Cicero : Our poet Ennius was a dear friend of the elder 
Africanus, and that is why a marble statue of him, it is thought, 
was set up in the tomb of the Scipios. But his verses of praise 
are surely an adornment not only for him who is praised but 
also for the name of the Roman people. Cato, ancestor of 
Cato here, is extoUed to the skies ; this carries with it great 
honour for the historj' of the Roman people. In short, all 
those great names — the Masdmi, Marcelli, Fulvii — are 
honoured by praise which is shared by all of us. Hence it 
was that he who had done "* all this, a native of Rudiae, was 
received by our ancestors into their citizenship. 



' On this use of ' eques ' cf. St., p. 1 60. Later Roman 
writers were themselves at variance whether eques could be 
used of the horse only. Gellius, XVIII, 5, insists that Ennius 
really did write quadrupes eques. 

^ Ennius told of the achievements and sang the praises of 
Scipio Africanus chiefly in Book IX and Scipio (pp. 394 ff,); 
of Cato in Book XI ; of Q. Fabius Max. Rulllanus in Book V 
and of Fabius Cxmctator in Book VIII (and, by reminiscence, 
in Book XII); of M. Claudius Marcellus in Book VIII; and 
of M. Fulvius Nobilior in Book XV and Ambracia (pp. 358 ff.), 

95 



ENNIUS 

LIBER VIII 

258-9 

Horatius, S., I, 4, 60 : Non, ut ai solvas — 

Postquam Discordia taetra 
belli ferratos postes portasque refregit, 

invenias etiara disiecti membra poetae. 

PorphjTio ad loc. Est sensus : Si dissolvas versus vel meos 
vel Lucilii, non invenies eadem membra quae sunt in Ennianis 
versibus, qui magno scilicet spiritu et verbis altioribus com- 
positi sunt, velut hi sunt ' Postquam e.q.s. 

Cp. Verg., Aen., VII, 622 : Belli ferratos rupit Saturnia 
postes. Serv., ad 622 ; Aero, ad Hor., Lc. 



260-1 

Probus, ad Verg., EcL, VI, 31 . . . Hie (aer) est . . . qui 
nobis Vivendi spirituum commeatum largitur. Hoc illud et 
Ennius appellavit in Annalibus — 

corpore tartarino prognata paluda virago, 
cui par imber et ignis spiritus et gravis terra. 

Cp. Varr., L.L., VII, 37; Test., 546, 2. 



"8-9 irib. Ann. lib. VII Norden 
"0-1 trib. lib. VIII St., VII Norden 



" St. takes the narrative to the departure of Hannibal 
from Italy — see notes on pp. 65-7. But fr. 300-5 of Book IX 
rules this out (see p. 112). 

96 



1 



ANNALS 



BOOK VIII 

The Second Pumic War to the Departure '» 
OF SciPio FOR Africa 

258-9 
Outbreak of Discord : 

Horace: You would not still find the limbs of a dismembered 
poet as you would if you were to break up the following — 

After foul Discord broke open the ironclad doors 
and doorposts of war, 

Porphyrio on this passage : The sense is : If you analyse 
my verses or Lucilius', you will not find the same sort of 
' limbs ' as you would in Ennius * verses, which are to be sure 
composed with mighty inspiration, with the use of a loftier 
diction as these are : ' After . . . 



260-1 

/ Probus : Air surely is the thing which gives us supplies of 
t»*ie breath of life. ' Spiritus ' is the name given to it by 
Ennius ' also in the Annals — 

<(Discord,) of hellish body daughter bred, woman 
of war in warrior's cloak, for whom water and fire and 
breath and heavy earth are equal. 

* This fr. is doubtless rightly put in the eighth book — 
St., 171; v., CLXXXV, CLXXXVI (but Norden, 146, puts 
it in the seventh). 

' On this fr. cf. St., 170-171. Discordia is here ' an incarna- 
tion of chaos ' ; only when Empedocles' four elements (here 
mentioned by Ennius) were unequaUy mixed did separate 
things come into being — cf. Norden 10 ff. (esp. 12-14). Festus, 
4.56, 2, explains tartarino as horrible and fearful. 

97 

VOL. I. H 



ENNIUS 
262-8 

Gellius, XX, 10, J : ' Ex iure manum conscrtum ' verba 
sunt ex antiquis actionibus. . . . Ennius . , . verbis hisce 
usus est . . , turn ego hos versus ex octavo Annali absentes 
dixi . . . — 

<(proeliis promulgatis) 

pellitur e medio sapientia, vi geritur res, 
spernitur orator bonus, horridus miles amatm* ; 
baud doctis dictis certantes, sed maledictis 265 

miscent inter sese inimicitiam agitantes ; 
non ex iure manum consertum, sed magis ferro 
rem repetunt regnumque petunt, vadunt solida vi. 

Cp. Cic., Pro Mur., 14, 30 (proeliis promulgatis ' pellitur . . .) ; 
Cic., ad Fam., VII, 13, 2; Lactant., Div. InM., V, 1, 5. 



269 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 209, 6 K : Dido, Didonis. 
(210, 10 K) Ennius in VIII— 

Poenos Didone oriundos 



270 

Gellius, VI, 12, 7 : Q . . . Ennius Carthaginiensium — 
tunicatani iuventutem 
non videtur sine probro dixisse. 

Cp. Non., 536, 31. 

**" promulgatis add. ex Cic, 'pro Mur., 14, <8i sunt 
proelia promulgata> B 2*' tollitur Cic., pro Mur. 
'^"^ sed Colonna nee cdd. (n Z) 

" This clause is supplied from Cic, pro Mur., 14, 30, and 
may belong to Ennius. 

98 



ANNALS 

262-8 

The people in time of war : 

( Jellius says : ' Ex iure manum consertum ' are words drawn 
from ancient cases at law. . . . Ennius used these words . . . 
Then I myself recited from memorj- these lines from the eighth 
book of the Annals ... — 

WTien news of battles is proclaimed," away from 
view is Wisdom thrust, with \-iolence is action done, 
scorned is the speaker of good counsel, dear is the 
rude warrior. Not vrith learned speeches do men 
strive, but * with e\il speaking fall foul one of another, 
brewing unfriendliness. They rush to make joint 
seizure '^ — not by law ; rather by the sword do they 
seek a due return and aim at the first place, and 
move on with pack and press. 

269 

Rome thinks lighily of the Carthaginians f : 

Priscianus : Dido, Didonis. . . . £. in the eighth book — 

Phoenicians sprung from Dido 

270 

GeUius : Quintus Ennius doee not appear to have spoken 
of the Carthaginians s 

petticoated lads 

without scorn. 



* nee may be right — men strive, not with speech of any 
kind, but with force. 

' consertum, supine (after vadunl) as the ' end of motion '; 
or supply ' vocant ' — the legal phrase was ' vocare consurium.' 
There may likewise be a legal sense in agitantes 'pressing 
accusations of . . . 

99 

h2 



ENNIUS 



271 



Ekkehart, ad Oros., VI, 6, 21 (de Hamilcare Rhodano) : 
Enniua — 

qualis consiliis quantumque potesset in armis. 



272-3 

Ekkehart (?), ad Oros., IV, 14, 3 (de Hannihale) : De quo 
Ennius — 

at non sic duplex fuit hostis 
Aeacida Burrus. 



Propertius, III, 3, 9-10 : 

Et cecinit . . . 

victricesque moras Fabii pugnamque sinistram 
Cannensem et versos ad pia vota deos. 

274 
Nonius, 150, 18 : ' Praecox ' et ' praecoca ' . . . — 
* praecox pugna est. 

"1 trih. Ann. lib. VIII St., VII V 

2" duplex B dims Mr dubius Ekk. ? prob. V., 
Norden foriasse durus 

"" phyrrus Ekk. (?) at n.s. dubius Pyrrhus (Burrus) 

fuit A.h. coni. V trib. Ann. VIII Mr. 

"* Non., loO seclud. et Linds. (coni. praecox est p. vel 
praecox et praecoquis) praecox Non. praecoca Mr. 



" It is possible that this fr. should be put in Book VII as 
part of the primordia Carthaginis; it is generally referred to 
the mission of Hamilcar Rhodanus (given by Orosius in the 
passage against which Ekkehart wrote the fr. of Ennius) in 



ANNALS 

271 

The Romans vxre unaware of HanniboTa character : 

Over a passage of Orosius, in a codex Sangallensis, referring 
to Hamilcar Rhodanus, Ekkehart wrote the following : 
Ennius " has — 

what kind of man he was in counsek, and how great 

his prowess in arms, 

272-3 

Over another passage of Orosius, in the same codex, referring 
to Hannibal, Ekkehart: (?) wrote the following : On Hannibal 
Ennius * has — 

But not such a double-faced foe was Burrus sprung 
from Aeacus. 

Election in 217 B.C. of Quintus Fabius Maximus (Cunctator) 
as dictator : Battle of Cannae, 216 b.c. ; crisis of the war : 

Propertins : And he sang ... of Fabius' delays that were 
fraught with victory : and of the ill-starred fight of Cannae; 
and how the gods were turned to hear our heartfelt prayers. 

274 

The Battle of Cannae." Aemilius PauUus, on the em of 
Cannae, tries to persuade Terentius Varro not to accept battle : * 

Nonius : ' Praecox ' and ' praecoca ' . . . — 

' Time is unripe for fighting. 

331 to inquire into Alexander's achievements. Cf. Norden, 
80 ff., 86-7, 150. But cf. St., p. 173. 

^ Norden, 80 fF., 87-8, 151, retains the reading dubius 
and puts the fr. in Book VII, referring it to Hannibal's oath. 

' A probable order for some of the fragments can be deduced 
from Ijvy's account, references to which are given below where 
thev seem to applv. 

"" Livy, XXII, 44; Polyb., Ill, 110, 4, 8 ; Silius, IX, 44 ff. 
* Praecox ' generally means ripening early. 

lOI 



ENNIUS 

275 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 382, 11 K : Apud veteres et abnueo 
dictum annotamus ... — 

* Certare abnueo ; metuo legionibus labem. 



276-7 

Cicero, pro Balbo, 22, 51 : Neque enim ille summus poeta 
noster Hannibalis illam magis cohortationem quam communem 
imperatoriam voluit esse — 

' Hostem qui feriet mihi erit Karthaginiensis, 
quisquis erit ; quoiatis siet . . . 



278 
Festus, 220, 25 : * Obstipum,' obliquum ... — 
amplius exaugere obstipo lumine solis 

279 
Nonius, 217, 7: ' Pulvis ' generis . . . feminini . . . — 
iamque fere pulvis ad caelum vasta videtur 

"^ feriet erit inquit mihi Par. feriet inquit mihi erit 
reU. 

*'' quoiatis siet < non anxius quaero > co«i. V siet, 
quoiatis siet Merula 

"• vegetur Bergk 

" Silius, IX, 209-211. Or possibly the battle at the Ticinus 
— Livy, XXII, 45. On lx»th occasions Hannibal made 
promises of Carthaginian citizenship. 



ANNALS 

275 
Fears of Pauttus : 

Diomedes : In the old writers we notice that ' abnueo ' 
is used . . . — 

' I refuse to join issue ; I fear ruin for my legions. 

276-7 

Hannibal to his troops on the occasion of the hatQe of Cannae, 
B.C. 216 : • 

Cicero : And further our renowned and greatest poet did 
not wish that famous encouragement to be Hannibal's any 
more than one common to all commanders — 

* He who \^-ill strike a blow at the enemy — hear 
me ! he will be a Carthaginian, whatever his name 
will be ; whatever his country, 

278 
The battle. The position of the »uh favours * both side* : 
Festus : ' Obstipum,' slanting. ... — 

to grow much greater because of the slanting sun- 
light 

279 
But the wind raised dust-douds which hindered the Ttomans : ' 
Nonius : ' Pulvis ' in the feminine gender ... — 

and just then a huge dust-cloud was seen to reach 
the sky. 

* Livy, XXII, 46 sol . . . peropportune utrique parti 
obliquus erat. In Ennius' fr. we might supply vires or umbrae. 
(Cp. Val. Max., VII, 4, ext. 2. Hannibal takes account of the 
sunlight and the dust.) 

' Liry, I.e.. ventus . . . adversus Romanis coortua multo 
pulvere , . . prospectum ademit. 

1 03 



ENNIUS 

280 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., III, 479, 4 K: 'Denseo* . . . (480, 5) 
' denso ' . . . — 

Densantur campis horrentia tela virorum. 

281 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 52 : 'Ac ferreus ingruit imber ' 
(Aen., XII, 284). Ennius in VIII— 

Hastati spargunt hastas ; fit ferreus imber. 

282 

Paulus, ex F., 439, 7 : ' Suppemati ' dicuntur quibus 
femina sunt euccisa in modum suillarum pemarum. Ennius^ 

His pernas succidit iniqua superbia Poeni. 

Cp. Fest., 438, 14. 

283 

Macrobius, S., XI, 1, 22 : ' Quadrupedante putrem sonitu 
quatit ungula campum ' (Aen., VIII, 596). Ennius . . . 
in VIII— 

Consequitur ; summo sonitu quatit ungula terrain. 

Livius, XXII, 50 : Haec ubi dicta dedit stringit gladium, 
cuneoque facto per medios vadit hostes. 

282 his Pavl. is Fest. 

" Probably as described by Livy, XXII, 47 ; cp. especially : 
Romani . . . aequa fronte acieque densa impulere hostium 
cuneum. 

* I compare Livy, XXII, 48, adversum adoriuntur 
Romanam aciem, tergaque ferientes ac poplites caedentes 
stragem ingentem . . . fecerunt. Cp. Val. Max., CII, 4, 
ext. 2. But it may be that he describes how the Roman 
wounded were found mutilated after the battle — Livy, id., 
51 quosdam et iacentes vivos succisis feminibus popUtibusque 
invenerunt. Pema (= poples) is not used elsewhere of a man. 
J04 



ANNALS 

280 

The infantry engagement : " 

Priscian : ' Denseo ' inflected as firom ' denso ' . . . — 
The bristling spears of the warriors crowded thick 
upon the plain. 

281 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' And a shower of iron comes 
thick.' Ennius in the eighth book — 

The hne of lancers scattered its lances ; came a 
shower of iron. 

282 
Attack of the Numidians ; Romans are mutilated : 

Paulas : Men are called ' suppemati ' (ham-strung) whose 
upper thighs are cut through in the manner of pigs' haunches. 
Ennius — 

These the Poeni houghed,, wicked haughty foes.* 

283 

Hasdrubal sends the Numidians in pursuit of the Romans : ' 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' The four-footed beat of the 
hoofs shook the crumbling plain.' Ennius in the eighth 
book — 

They gave chase : with mightiest clatter their 
hoofs shook the ground. 

The military tribune, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, leads a 
remnant through to Canusium : 

Livy : When he had made this speech, he drew his sword, 
formed the men into a wedge, and charged through the 
midst of the enemy.'' 

' I would compare Livy, XXII, 48, Hasdrubal . . . sub- 
actos ex media acie Xumidas ... ad persequendos passim 
fugientes mittit. 

■' It seems probable that Livy has really preserved frag- 
ments of two lines. — V., CXC; Xorden, 141, 

105 



ENNIUS 
284-6 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 16 : ' Multa die? variusque labor 
mutabilis aevi | rettulit in melius, multos altema reviaens | 
lusit et in solido rursus fortuna locavit (Aen., XI, 425-7). 
Ennius in VIII — 

' Multa dies in bello conficit unus . . . 
et rursus multae fortunae forte recumbunt ; 
haudquaquam quemquam semper fortuna secuta est, 

287 

Nonius, 435, 13: 'Quartum' et 'quarto' . . .Ennius 
recte — 

Quintus pater quartum fit consul. 

Cp. Cell., X, 1, 6. 

288 

Paulus, ex F., 193, 7 : ' Ob ' . . . pro ' ad,' ut E.— 

Ob Romam noctu legiones ducere coepit 

Cp. Fest., 192, 15; id., 218, 9; Exc. ex cd. Casain. 90, 
ap. C.G.L., V, 573, 45. 

Propertiofl, III, 3, 11 : 

Et cecinit . . . 

Hannibalemque Lares Romana sede fugantes. 

289 

Festus, 234, 29 : ' Oscos ' quos dicimus ait Verrius Opscos 
ante dictos teste Ennio cum dicat — ■ 

De muris rem gerit Opscus. 

28* < infit > multa coni. V post 284 spativm stat. V 
287-90 frib. Ann. lib. VIII Merula 

lo6 



ANNALS 

284-6 

The Senators prevent panic at Rome ? : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Many a day fUKi change of 
work in ever-varying life have brought back countless men 
to better state; and fortune, her eye now here now there, 
has had the laugh and set men anew on foundation fi^rm.' 
Ennius in the eighth book — 

Many things does one day bring about in war . . . 
and many fortunes through chance sink low again. 
In no wise has fortune followed any man all his days. 

287 

The fourth consulship of Fainus, 214 B.C. : 

Nonius : ' Quartum ' and ' quarto.' E. rightly has 
' quartum ' in — 

Quintus the father " was made consul for the 
fourth time. 

288 

During the siege of Capua. Hannibal marches on Rome, 

211 B.C. 

Paulus : ' Ob,' . . . for ' ad '; for example Ennius — 

He began by night to lead his hosts against Rome. 

His retreat : 

Propertius : And he sang . . . how our Guardian fiods * 
put Hannibal to flight from their Roman home. 

289 
Capua is stormed, 211 B.C. : 

Festus says : ' Oscans.' Verrius states that the people we 
call by this name were formerly called the ' Opscians,' his 
witness being Ennius, since he says — 

The Opscan gives battle from the wall. 

" As distinguished &om his son, who was made praet<H' 
at the same time. 

* Elspeeially the god Tntamis (Non., 47, 26). 

107 



ENNIUS 

290 

Paulufl, ex F., 88, 34 : ' Medclix ' apud Oscos nomen 
magistratua est. E. — 

Summus ibi capitur meddix, occiditur alter. 



291 
Schol. Bern, ad Qeorg., IV, 67 : Ennius in VIII ait — 
Tibia Musarum pangit melos, 



292 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., III, 192, 9 K : Solent auctores variare 
figuras . . . ut Ennius — ■ 

Optima caelicolum, Saturnia, magna dearum 



293 

Servius, ad Aen., I, 281 : ' Consilia in melius referet ' 
quia bello Punico secundo, ut ait Ennius — 

Romanis luno coepit placata favere. 

Servius, ad Aen., I, 20; In Ennio . . . inducitur luppiter 
promittens Romanis excidium Carthaginis. 



^** hexametr. constit. Hug non prob. Norden placata luno 
coepit favere Romanis Serv. 



" ad lunonem Eeginam (Livy, XXVII, 37) attributed to 
Livius Andronicus (see Remains, etc., Vol. Il, Loeb) — St., 
pp. 177-8. Vahlen, CXC and p. 52 sees a reference to Mar- 

Io8 



ANNALS 

290 

Fale of Seppius Loesius and others of Cajnia : 

Paulus : ' Meddix ' is among the Oscans the name of a 
magistrate. Ennixis — 

There the chief magistrate was made prisoner, the 
other was put to death. 

291 
Hymn of Livxua Andronicus {?) to Juno, 207 b.c. ? : " 
A scholiast : Ennios says in the eighth book — 
The flute composed a song of music, 

292 

Juno begins to favour the Romans : 

Priscianus : Authors are wont to varj' their figures . . . 
for example, Ennius — 

Saturn's daughter, mighty among goddesses, 
dearest of those that dwell in heaven, 

293 

Servius : ' She will change her counsels for the better,' 
because in the Second Punic War, accortling to Ennius — 

Juno was appeased and began to shew the Romans* 
her good-will. 

And Jupiter promises that destruction awaits Carthage : 

Servius : In Ennius Jupiter is introduced as promising the 
Romans that Carthage shall be overthrown. 

cellus, who, after the recovery of Syracuse in 212, was granted 
an ovation only. 

* Servius, however, perhaps gave a paraphrase, not a 
jumbled line of Ennius — Norden, 169. 

109 



ENNIUS 

294 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 20 : * Invadunt urbern somno vinoque 
sepultam ' {Aen., II, 265). Ennius in VIII — 

Nunc hostes vino domiti somnoque sepulti, 

Cp. Lucret., V, 974, somnoque sepultr. 

295 
Festus, 194, 12 : ' Occasus ' . . . pro occasione . . . — 
Ast occasus ubi tempusve audere repressit, 

296 

Servius (auctus), ad Aen., IX, 641 : ' Mactus.' Etiam 
mactatus dicebatur, ut Ennius — 

Livius inde redit magno mactatus triumpho. 

297-9 

Nonius, 151, 18: ' Portisculus ' proprie est hortator 
remigum, id est qui earn perticam tenet quae portisculus 
dicitur qua et cursum et exhortamenta moderatur . . . — 

tonsam ante tenentes 
parerent, observarent, portisculus signum 
quom dare coepisset. 

^** sepulti 1 <con3iluere> add. V ex Paul., 41, 5 (' con- 
silucre ' Ennius pro conticuere posuit) coll. Aen., IX, 234 
somno vinoque soluti | conticuere 

2^^ ast Colonna aut cd. 

2*' tonsam ante S tonsas Colonna tonsam arte 
Merula tonsamque Carrio tusam Linds. tusante 

cdd. fortasse tunsam ante trib. lib. VIII Non. VII Merula 



" I would compare Livy, XXVII, 48. But Steuart, p. 179, 
suggests the attack by Scipio in 203 on the camps of the 
Carthaginians and the Xumidians. 



ANNALS 

294 

The drunken Gauls at the Battle of the Metaurus, 207 b.c. : ■ 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' They rushed on the city, 
which was buried in sleep and wine.' Ennius in the eighth 
book — 

And now the enemy, mastered by wine and buried 
in sleep, 

295 
Festus : ' Occasus ' . . , for ' occasio ' . . . — 

But when the occasion or the time smothered 
their daring, 

296 

Triumphant return of the two consuls : 

Servius (supplemented): ' Mactus.' Even the form 
' mactatus ' was used for this; for example, Ennius — 

Thence returned Livius ^ magnified vdih a great 

triumph. 

297-9 
New fleet of Scipio Africanus {consul, 205) in training ? : ' 
Nonius : ' Portisculus ' is, in its proper sense, the term for 

the time-beater of a ship's oarsmen ; that is to say, the man 

who holds the staff for which the term ' portisculus ' is used; 

by means of this he times the rhythm and ' lay to ' . . . — 

that, holding the oar forAvard, they should obey and 
watch when the boatswain began to give them the 
signal. 

' Almost certainly Livius Salinator is meant ; after the 
battle of Metaurus he enjoyed a triumph superior to Claudius 
Xero's (Liyy, XXVIII, 9). It is, however, possible that the 
reference is to Livius' earlier triumph over the Illyrians 
(Polyb., Ill, 19, 12), in which case the fr. belongs to Book 

VII— v., CXCI. 

' So I suggest; St., 151, points to the sham fights whereby 
the Romans kept up their training. This is one of the firs, 
usually pat in Book VII— V., CLXXIX; Norden, 66-7, 151. 

Ill 



ENNIUS 

LIBER IX 

300-5 

Cicero, Brut., 15, 58 : Est ... sic apud ilium (Ennium) 
in nono ut opinor Annali — 

Additur orator Cornelius suaviloquenti 
ore, Cethegus Marcus, Tuditano collega, 
Marci filius. 

Et oratorem appellat et suaviloquentiam tribuit . . . 
sed est ea laus eloquentiae certc maxima — 

... Is dictust ollis popularibus olim 

qui turn vivebant homines atque aevum agitabant, 

' Flos delibatus populi 

Probe vcro. Ut enim hominis decus ingenium sic ingeni 
ipsius lumen est eloquentia, qua virum cxcellentcm praeclare 
turn illi homines florem populi esse dixerunt — • 

Suadaeque medulla.' 

. . . hie Cethegus consul cum P. Tuditano fuit bello Punico 
secundo quaestorque is consulibus M. Cato modo plane 
annis CXL ante me consulem, et ipsum nisi unius esset 
Ennii testimonio cognitum, hunc vetustas, ut alios fortasse 
multos, oblivione obruisset. 

Cp. Cic., de SenecL, 14; GclL, XII, 2, 3 ff. ; Quintil., II, 
15, 4; XI, 3, 31 ; Serv. auct., ad Aen., VIII, 500; et fortasse 
Hor., Ep., II, 2, 115 ff. 

'" dictus popularibus Cic. cdd. dictus toUis p. cdd. Gell. 
dictust ollis p. Gronov. 

*•* agitabant Gell. agebant Cic. 

" It seems natural to take the fr. as describing either the 
election of the two consuls for 204 in the summer of 205, or 
to their entry into ofi&ce on 15th of March, 204. Thus we could 
not, as Steuart does, extend Book VIII down to Hannibal's 
recall from Italy, which took place in 203. She suggests that 



ANNALS 
BOOK IX 

SciPIo's CAMPAIGNS IN AfRICA *, PeACE, 201 B.C. 

300-5 

31. Cornelius and P. Sempronius consuls, 204 B.C. ; " 

Cicero : The following is a passage in Ennius' work, in the 
ninth book, I think, of the Annals — 

Then Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, son of Marcus, 
an orator whose mouth spoke winsome speech, is 
put in as a colleague to Tuditanus. 

He calls him an orator and also grants him winsomencss 
of speech . . . but the greatest stroke in praise of his 
eloquence is surely this — 

. . . By those fellow-countrj^men who were then 
alive and had their being he was once upon a time 
called the ' choice flower ' of the people, 

Well said indeed. For, as the glon,' of a man is his natural 
talents, so the lustre of those very talents is eloquence; and 
a man surpassing in eloquence was admirably called by the 
men of that time ' flower of the people — 

and the marrow of Persuasion.' * 

. . . This Cethegus was consul with Publius Tuditanus in 
the Second Punic War, and Marcus Cato was a quaestor in 
their consulship, in round numbers only one hundred and 
fifty years before my own consulship ; and were this fact not 
known through the testimony of Ennius alone, antiquity 
would have buried this very Cethegus, as maybe it has buried 
many others, in oblivion. 

Cethegus and Tuditanus were connected with some mission, 
possibly the negotiations for peace begun in 203. Cicero's 
uncertainty about Book IX is feigned; on this cf. St., pp. 
180-81. They were both censors in 209, so that the fr. may 
belong to Book VIII. 

* Suada, riet^ol, goddess of Persuasion. 

113 

VOL. I. I 



ENNIUS 

306 

J'estus, 140, 21 : ' Metonymia ' . . . quae continet quod 
continetur, ut Ennius ait — 

Africa terribili tremit horrida terra tumultu. 



307 
Nonius, 472, 5 : ' Luctant ' pro luctantur ... — 
Viri validis cum viribus luctant. 

308 

Nonius, 217, 8 : ' Pulvis ' . . . Feminini . . . — 

Pulvis fulva volat 

309 

Nonius, 95, 30 : ' DebU,' debilis ... — 

debil homo 

310-11 

Priscianus, ap. G.L.,' II, 485, 17 K : In geo desinentia . 
(486)— 

Cyclopis venter velut olim turserat alte 
carnibus humanis distentus 



312 
437: 

praeda exercitus undat. 



Servius ('!) ad Oeorg., II, 437: ' Undantem,' abundantem 
. . E. Ub. IX— 



»«« trib. lib. IX Hug 

'"' viri ed. princ. <;fortuna>> varia V Illyria 

Havet (Bev. de Phil., XV, 72) varia vel viri a cdd. cum 
add. D (I.) 

*"* iamque fere pulvis f.v. cdd. iamque fere 7iaia ex 

priore citat. seclud. Hug 

3i» alte D (I.) alti Prise, 

114 



ANNALS 

306 

Scipio'a campaigns in Africa? ' 

Festus : ' Metonymia ' . . . when the meaning of a word 
contains exactly the contents of its equivalent ; for example, 
Ennius when he says — 

Trembled Africa, land rough and rude, with a 
terrible tumult. 

307 
Ballle of Zama ? 202 B.C. : 
Xonius : ' Luctant ' for ' luctantur ' . . . — 
The soldiers struggled vfith sturdy strength. 

308 
Nonius : ' Pulvis ' ... of the feminine gender . . . 
Brown dust flies aloft 

309 
Nonius : ' Debil,' the same as ' debilis ' . . . — 
a feeble fellow 

310-11 
Priscianus : Verbs ending in gco ... — 
Just as the Cyclops* belly once swelled high, 
stretched tight with human flesh 

312 

The spoils tfon after the battle of Zama : 

Servius ( ? ) : ' Undantem,' the same as ' abundantem.' . . . 
Ennius in the ninth book of the Annals — • 

the army billowed in booty. 

• Cf. Hug, Q. Enn. Annal, VII-IX, p. 10. The fr. may 
belong to Book VIII (Carthage's war with her mercenaries) 

or to ' Scipio ' (pp. 394 S.). 

"5 
i2 



ENNIUS 

313-14 

Nonius, 110, 8 : ' Famul,' famulus . . . — 

. . . Mortalem summum Fortuna repente 
reddidit e summo regno ut famul oltimus esset. 

Lucret., Ill, 1034-5 : 

Scipiadas belli fulmen Carthaginis horror, 

Ossa dedit terrae proinde ac famul infimus esset. 

315 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 278, 12 K : Ennius ... in IX 
pro frugi homo frux ponit quod est adiectivum — 

' Sed quid ego haec memoro ? Dictum factumque 
facit frux. 

316 

Varro, L.L., V, 182 : ' Militis stipendia ' ideo quod earn 
stipem pendebant; ab eo etiam Ennius scribit — 

Poeni stipendia pendunt. 

317 

Macrobius, S., VI, 4, 17 : (Vergilius) inseruit operi suo et 
Graeca verba, . . . auctorum . . . veterum audaciam secutus 
. . . Ennius in IX^ 

lyehnorum lumina bis sex 

^1* reddidit e s. r. ut famul V oltimus Linds. ultimus 
Faber infimus Lips. frob. V reddiderit s. ut r. f. vel 

reddidit ut s. (e) r. f. edd. reddidit summo regno famul 
ut optimus cdd. (of. V. Sitz.-Ber. B. Ak., 1888, 45) 

"6 trih. lib. VII Merula 

'^' < fiorebant flammis > suppl. V, Sitz.-Ber. B. Ak., 1896, 
720, coll. Serv., ad Aen., VII, 804 Ennius et Lucretius fiorere 
dicunt omne quod nitidum est ; et Lucret., I V, 450 bina lucer- 
narum florentia lumina flammis 

Il6 



ANNALS 

313-U 
HannibaVs defeat ? : " 

Xonius : ' Famul,' the same as ' famulus "... — 
Fortune on a sudden casts down the highest 
mortal from the height of his sway, to become the 
^ liest thrall. 

315 
Scipio to Hannibal ? : 

Priscianus : Ennius ... in the ninth book puts ' frux,' 
which is an adjective, for ' frugi homo ' — 

' But to what end do I speak so ? " No sooner 
said than done " — so acts your man of worth.* 

316 

Terms oj 'peace imposed an Carthage, 201 b.c. : 

Varro says : ' Militis stipendia ' (soldier's pay) is a term 
used because' they paid it as a ' stips ' (small coins in piles). 
This is the derivation of ' stipendia ' as used by Ennius among 
others — 

The Poeni paid payments of money. 

317 

Funeral of the slain ? : 

Macrobius : Virgil inserted into his work even Greek words 
. . . following the daring of ancient authors. . . . Ennius 
in the ninth book — 

twice six lighted lamps 

* Lucretius (see opposite) had this passage in mind. It is 
possible that Ennius was thinking of the downfall of Hannibal 
in 195 B.C., an event which would come in Book XI. 

* ■ Proverbium celeritatis ' says Donatus, ad Ter. Andr., 
381. Cp. ' suits the action to the word.' 

' Varro means that since ' stipendia ' is used here of a 
payment in coin, it shows its derivation from stips. 

117 



ENNIUS 

318-19 
Nonius, 66, 18 : Politiones agrorum cultus diligentes 
' Rastros dentiferos capsit causa poliendi 

atrri. 



agn 

320-21 

Nonius, 150, 37 : ' Perpetuassit ' sit perpetua, aetema 

' libertatemque, ut perpetuassit 
quaeque axim 



LIBER X 

322-3 

Gellius, XVIII, 9 : ' Inseque ' quasi ' perge dicere ' . . . 
itaque ab Ennio scriptum in his versibus — 

Insece, Musa, manu Romanorum induperator 
quod quisque i n bello gessit cum rege Philippe. 

Alter autem . . . perseverabat Velio Longo . . . fidem 
esse habendam, qui . . . scripserit non ' inseque ' apud 
Ennium legendum sed ' insege ' . , . Cp. Paul., ex F., 79, 29. 
Horn., Od., I, 1 . . . ewcTre Vlovaa 

324 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 541, 13 K : ' Campso, campsas ' 
solebant vetustissimi dicere. Ennius in X — 

Leucatan campsant. 

*i* dentiferos Hug dentifabres Roeper dentifabros 
Onions dentefabres cdd, fortasse recte 
**' vide Linds. ad loc. 
^22 insece prob. Gell. inseque Gell. XVIII, 9, 5 Paul. 

" capsit, fut. perf . ; perpetuassit, axim, pcrf. subj. 
ii8 



ANNALS 

3ia-19 
Italy after the tear ? the soldiers must return to the soil : 
Nonius : ' Politiones,' diligent cultivations of fields . . . 
' He \*ill take toothed rakes for to dress the 

fields. 

320-21 
Let Ronu's liberty be maintained : 

Nonius : ' Perpetuassit,' may it be perpetual, eternal ... — 
. . . ' and liberty, that it may last for ever and 

all that I may have done '^ 

BOOK X 

Wars with Macedox to the settlement with 
Philip, 196 b.c, after the Battle of Cvxoscephalae 

322-3 
Prologue : 

Gellins : ' Inaeque ' has the sense of ' go on to tell,' and 
this therefore is the form used by Ennius in these verses — 

Go on to tell what each commander of the Romans 
wrought with his troops in war with King Philip. 

But the other . . . insisted that we must trust Velius 
Longus, . . . who wrote that in Ennius we should read not 
' inseque ' but ' insece.' . . . 

324 

First Macedonian War (214-205 B.C.); expedition of 
Valerius Laevinus (214) : 

Priscianus : The oldest writers used to say also campso,* 
campsas,' bend. Ennius in the tenth book — 

They doubled Leucate. 

* Clearly derived from Kaftirro). 

119 



ENNIUS 

325 

Isidorus, Orig., I, 35, 3 : ' Zeugma ' est clausula dum plures 
sensus uno verbo clauduntur . . . ut — 

Graecia Sulpicio sorti data, Gallia Cottae. 



326 

Cicero, de Be Publ, I, 18, 30:— 

Egregie cordatus homo catus Aelius Sextus 

qui egregie cordatus et catus fuit et ab Ennio dictus est non 
quod ea quaerebat quae numquam inveniret, sed quod ea 
respondebat quae eos qui quaesissent et cura et negotio 
solverent. 

Cp. ac., Tusc. Disp., I, 9, 18; de Oral., I, 45, 198; Varro, 
L.L., VII, 46; Pomponius, in Dig., I, 2, 2, 38. 



327-9 

Cicero, de Senect., 1, 1 : — 

O Tite si quid ego adiuvero, curamve levasso 
quae nunc te coquit et versat in pectore fixa, 
ecquid erit praemi ? 

'-* trib. Enn. Ann. X Mr. 
^-* trib. Ann. lib. X Merula 
^-' ego te adiuto Donat. 



" That the author is Ennius we can hardly doubt. P. 
Sulpicius Galba, C. Aurelius Cotta. Cf. Livy, XXXI, 5, 1 ; 
6, 1. There is no real zeugma here. 



ANNALS 

325 

SecoTtd Macedonian War, 200-196 B.C. Consuls of 200 ; 

Isidore : ' Zeugma ' is a period when more than one idea 
is completed by one verb . . . for example "... — 

Greece was given by lot to Sulpicius, Gaul to 
Cotta. 

326 

Sextus Aelius Padus, consul with Flamininus, 198 ; * 
Cicero : — 

A man uncommonly well-witted, shrewd Sextus 
Aelius 

who was a man of more than common wit and shrewd, and 
called such by Ennius not because he used to search for 
things which he could never discover, but because he used to 
give such answers as freed from anxiety and trouble those who 
had asked him questions. 

327-9 

Activities' of T. Quinciius Flamininus in 198. A shepherd 
sent by the Epirote King Charopus to guide the Bonuins, asks : 

Cicero : — 

O Titus, if it is I can help vou in anything and 
lighten you of the worry- which, stubborn in your 
breast, now sears and haunts you, vriW there be any 
reward ? 

* Livy, XXXII, 8 ; Flamininus only was sent to Macedonia. 

• I have given the quotations in the order in which they 
appear in Cicero, in case this should be right. For the 
occasion cf. Livj', XXXII, 11-2. We need not doubt that it 
was from Ennius that Cicero quoted. 

121 



ENNIUS 

330-1 

Cicero, loc. cit. : Licet enim mihi versibus eisdem affari te, 
Attice, quibus affatur Flamininum — 

' Ille vir haud magna cum re sed plenus fidei, 

quamquam certo scio non ut Flamininum — 

' soUicitari te Tite sic noctesque diesque. 

Cp. Donat., ad Ter., Phorm., prol, 34 ' Adiutans ' . . . 
Ennins. 

332 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 9 : ' Axem humero torquet stellis 
ardentibus aptum ' {Aen., IV, 482). Ennius ... in X — 

Hinc nox processit stellis ardentibus apta 

333-5 

Servius (auctus), ad Georg., IV, 188: ' Mussant ' autem 
murmurant . . . — 

Aspectabat virtutem legionis suai 
exspectans si mussaret, ' quae denique pausa 
pugnandi fieret aut duri finis laboris ? ' 

336 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 382, 24 K : Veteres nonnulli ' horita- 
tur ' dixerunt ... — 

. . . horitatur . . . induperator 
quasi specie iterativa. 

333-4 gyai exspectans Bergk legionis suspectans D (I.) 
sive spectans cdd. 

^* mussaret quae D (I.) mussaret dubitaretque cd. 

pausa Bergk fyroh. St. causa D (I.) vrdi, V causam cd. 

*3* finis add. Bergk pausa D (I.) 

'^* horitatur Hug horitur rdd. 



ANNALS 

330-1 

Flamininus sent to Ckaropus to ask if the shepherd were 

Hvxnihy ; the reply : 

Cicero continues : for I may be allowed to address to you, 
Atticus, the same verses as those in which Flamininus is 
addressed bj' — 

' That man not blessed w-ith wealth but full of 
loyalty, 

although I know for certain it is not, like Flamininus — 
' that you are care-worn, Titus, thus day and night. 

332 

The night-march of Flamininus, guided by the shepherd : • 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Atlas on his shoulder turns the 
heaven dotted with blazing stars ' . . . Ennius in the tenth 
book — 

And then the night came on, dotted with blazing 
stars 

333-5 

The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 B.C. ,• ^ anxiety of 
Flamininus : 

Servius (supplemented) : ' Mussant ' also means ' they 
murmur ' . . . — 

He was watching the mettle of his army, waiting 
to see if they would grumble, sapng ' what rest 
will there be at last from our fighting, or end to our 
hard toil ? ' 

336 

Speech of Flamininus before the battle : "^ 

Diomedes says : Some old writers used the form 
' horitatur "... — 

The commander . . . cheers and cheers them on 

' horitatur ' being as it were in iterative form. 

• Livy, XXXII, 11, 9. » St., p. 187. 

' St., p. 187 : Livy. XXXIII, 8. 

123 



ENNIUS 

337-8 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., II, 30, 4 K : Vetustissimi non semper 
earn («c. m) subtrahebant ... — 

Insignita fere turn milia militum octo 
duxit delectos, bellum tolerare potentes. 



339-41 

Festu8, 188, 16 : ' Nictit ' canis in odorandis ferarura 
vestigiis leviter ganniens ... — 

Veluti si quando vinclis venatica velox 
apta solet si forte feras ex nare sagaci 
sensit, voce sua nictit ululatque ibi acute. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 189, 2. 



342 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 373, 5 K : ' Pinsit ' secundum tertium 
ordinem ... — 

pinsunt terrain genibus. 

'8* veluti si cd. (cp. ' Hedyph.' melanurum, p. 408) vinculis 
cd. veluti quando vinclis T sicuti si S (cp. fr. 553) fortasse 
is veluti W venatica velox apta T venatica veneno 
xapta cd. vinclo venatica aeno S solet Fest. dolet 

B feras add. O. Mueller (si forte feras ea) a. s. cani ' 

forte feram si ex S, T 

124 



ANNALS 

337-8 

The battle : special troop of Philip f : 

Priscianus : The oldest writers did not always elide 
m; ... — 

Then he led some eight thousand warriors, wearing 
badges, chosen men, strong to bear war well. 

339-41 

Impatience of Flamininus* army ? : 

Festus : ' Nictit ' is a term used of a dog gently whimpering 
as he scents the tracks of wild animals ... — 

And just " as sometimes a fleet hunting-dog, tied 
up by a chain, is wont to do if by chance her keen- 
scented nostril has caught scent of wild quarr}* — 
she lifts her voice in a whimper and straightway 
loudly gives tongue. 

342 

Fighting on rough ground : 

Diomedes : ' Pinsit,' according to the third conjuga- 
tion . . . — 

They bruise their knees on the ground.* 

■ This is one of several lines where E. apparently allowed 
the first syllable of a hexameter to begin with ^ ^ instead 
of- 

* Cp. cubitis pinsihant humum, p. 376. The expression is 
too strong to be applied to supplication by envoys or the like. 

135 



ENNIUS 

343-4 

Nonius, 370, 19: ' Passum,' exteneum, patens; unde et 
' passus ' dicimus : quod gressibus mutuis pedes patescunt 

Aegro corde f coniis f 

passis late palmis pater 

passis ait palmis patentibus et extensis. 



345 

Donatus, ad Ter., Phorm,, II, 1, 57 : ' Columen vero 
familiae.' Columen culmen an columen columna ? . . . — 

' Regni versatam iam summovere columnam. 



LIBER XI 

346 

Festus, 340, 22 : ' Quippe ' significare ' quidni ' testimonio 
est Ennius lib. XI — 

Quippe Solent reges omnes in rebus secundis 

313-* gic cdd. aegro corde comis passis et alter. Jr. passis 
late p. p. V. alii alia cf. St., p. 188, quae aegro | Corde 
pater passis late palmis <;lacrumatus> coni. aegro c. 

comis . . . passis late palmis ' pater . . . Linds. fortasse 
a. I c. c. p. 1. <; et > p. p. 

^*^ versatam iam summovere S versatum summam 
vero cdd. venere Ilberg prcb. V 

• Doubtful. Cf. St., 188-9, V., 62. 

" Or, joy of Greeks at Philip's defeat ?— V., CXCV. 

126 



ANNALS 

343-4 

Demetrius, younger son of Philip, taken by Some as a hostage ; 
the parting with Philip 1 : 

Nonius : ' Passum,' stretched out, spread open : whence 
we also say ' passus,' step; because the feet spread open, as 
they step apart, each from the other ... — 

Sick at heart and ^nth hands flung wide, the 
father ..." 

By ' passis ' as applied to ' palmis ' he means open wide 
and outstretched. 

345 

Lament of Philip on the exile of Demetrius ? : * 

Donatus, on ' Indeed the " columen " of his household ' in 

Terence : ' Columen ' in the sense of summit or ' columen ' 

in the sense of pillar ? . . . — 

' They have now overturned and moved away the 
pillar of the realm. 



BOOK XI 

From the Peace made ix 196 to the Opening of the 
War with Axtiochus III (192-1); Cato in 
Rome and in Spain 

346 
Greece after Philip's defeat : 

Festos : That ' quippe ' means ' quidni ' Ennius is a 
witness in the eleventh book — 

Surely are all kings wont in times of good 
fortune . . . '^ 

* Possibly a part of Flamininus' speech at the Isthmus, like 
the next fr. 

127 



ENNIUS 

347-8 

Festus, 428, 11:' Sos ' pro eos ... — 

' Contendunt Graecos, Graios memorere solent sos 

<[li)ngua longos pert . . . 

Cp. Fest., 400, 19 . . . t s appellat Enn f . . . t os 
Grai memo f • • • — 

349-50 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 60 : ' Num capti potuere capi? Num 
incensa cremavit | Troia viros ? (Aen., VII, 295) Ennius in 
undecimo cum de Pergamis loqueretur — 

' quae neque Dardaniis campis potuere perire 
nee cum capta capi nee cum combusta crcmari.' 



351 

Festus, 250, 12 : ' Petrarum ' genera sunt duo, quorum 
alterum naturale saxum prominens in mare ... — 

alte delata petrisque ingentibus tecta. 



352 
Nonius, 483, 1 : ' Laete ' nominativo casu ... — 
' et simul erubuit ceu lacte et purpura mixta. 

'*' Graecos Graios V graios grecos Fest., 428 f os 
grai Fe-st., 400 

'** per< temporistractus> Ursinus fortassescribendum 
annos in fin. vers. 

^*' fortasse <Pergama Troiae> quae n. D. 

Non. 483 lib. X Par. 7666 BaTub. Lu. XI rell. essi (et 
si Par.) mulier erubuit ccM. et simul erubuit Gulielmus 

" Or, ' compare the Greeks.' The fragment seems to deal 
with a name given by Ennius to the Romans; cf. St., p. 191. 

128 



ANNALS 
347-S 

Flamininu* procldims ' The Freedom of UdUa ' ; h« pointa 
to the relation of the Romans to the Greeks : 

Feetns : ' Sos ' for ' eos ' . . . — 

' They maintain " that the Greeks — men are wont 
to speak of them as Grai — . . . language through 
long . . . 

349-50 

Brachyllas^ (?) warns the Greeks against the power of Rome : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' ^^^len captured, could they 
be in truth captured? Xo. And did Trov burning bum 
her warriors ? No.' Ennius, when he was speaking about 
Pergama In the elerenth book, wrote — 

' Troy's citadel, which on the plains of Dardanus 
could not perish or be captive when captured of 
when burnt become ashes.' 

351 
a place in Greece : 

Festus : ' Rocke ' ; of these there arc two kinds, of which 
one is natural stone jutting out into the sea , . . — 

a chff deep-falUng, covered by mighty crags. 

352 
Cato ' on the one-time modesty of women : 
Nonius : ' Lactfl ' in the nominative case ... — ■ 

' and she blushed ^ A\-ithal like milk and crhnson 

mingled. 

* A Greek sttongly in farour of Macedonian anpremacy in 
Greece. 

' Opposing in rain, daring his consulship of 195 B.c.# 
the repeal of the Lex Oppia of 21.5. 

' The tense suggests a definite occasion, possibly the 
refusal of the woman to take gifts from Pyrrhtie m 280 B.C. 

129 
VOL. I. K 



ENNIUS 

353 

Nonius, 149, 27 : ' Peniculamentum ' a veteribus pars 
vestis dicitur ... — 

' pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pediclum. 

354-5 

Nonius, 195, 10 : ' Crux ' generis . . . masculini ... — 

' malo cruce * fatur * uti des, 
luppiter ! 

356 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 445, 7 K : ' Sono,' sonas et sonis 

Turn clipei resonunt et ferri stridit acumen ; 

357 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 419, 16 K : A ' strido ' alii ' stridi ' 
protulerunt ... — 

missaque per pectus dum transit striderat hasta. 

358 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 200, 22 K : ' Hispane ' Ennius Anna- 
lium libro * — 

Hispane non Romane memoretis loqui me.' 

Cp. Fest., 400, 22. 

'*' lib. XI (XII Lit. 1) annalis pendent cdd. Annalium 
splendent Mr. pediclum B peditum coni. Linds. ad 
quodque pedule S pedum nunc coni. V pedum cdd, 
peniculamenta u. a. q. pedum dependent Ilberg, Hug 

'** crucei Linds. 

*** fortasse scripsit Charts, annalium libro XI Hispane 
trib. lib. XI Hug, VII Norden 

130 



ANNALS 

353 

l contrasts the luxury of his own day : 
nius : ' Peniculamentum ' ; a term which old writers 
ise for part of a dress. ... — 

skirts hang low down to every little foot." 

354-5 
He curses the ' viodems ' ; 

Nonius : ' Crux ' of the masculine gender . . . - — 
Says he, ' Give them destruction, Jupiter, with 
itter hell ! 

356 
Cato in Spftin, 195 B.C. ; baiile tcith the rebels : 
Priscianus : ' Sono ' goes on both ' sonas ' and ' sonis ' . . . — 
Then the round shields resounded, and the iron 
jpear-points whizzed ; 

357 

Priscianus : From ' strido ' some have conjugated . . . 
stridi.' — 

md the spear, shot into his breast, whizzed as it 
sped through. 

358 
A Spanish chief parleys with a Roman embassy ? : 

Charisius : ' Hispane ' is a form used by Ennius in a book * 
^f the Annals — 

* Report you : it is the Spanish that I speak, and 
not the Roman tongue.' 

" So pediculum; 'to every sole,' if we read pedule. Cf. 
v., 64 and CXCV. 

' Probably the eleventh because : (a) in Fest., 400, 22, a 
mutilated form of this quotation comes just after the quotation 
about Graecos, Graios (p. 128); (b) I suggest that XI stood in 
Charisius' text, was copied into something like "W, and then 
omitted as though it were a dittography of the H in Hispane. 

k2 



ENNIUS 

359 

Paulus, ex F., 383, 16 : ' Rimari ' est valde quaerere ut 
in rim is quoque. 

Fcst., 382, 16 . . . t . . . Eunius lib. X f • • • — 

<(rimantur) utriquc. 

LIBER XII 

360-62 

Cicero, de Off., I, 24, 84 : Quanto Q. Maximus melius 
de quo Q. Ennius — 

Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem. 
Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem ; 
ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret. 

Cp. Macrob., S., VI, 1, 23: 'Unus qui nobis cunctando 
restituit rem (Aen., VI, 846). Ennius in XII : ' Unus ... I 
rem. Serv., ad Aen., VI, 845; Cic, de Sencct., 4, 10; ad ^ 
Alt., II, 19, 2; Senec, de Bene/., IV, 27, 2; Seren. Sammon., I 
de Med., 1092; Sueton., Tib., 21; Liv., XXX, 26, 7; Ov., 
Fast., II, 240-42 : Polyb., Ill, 105, 8; SO., VI, 613 s. 

363-5 

Priscianus, ap. 6.L., II, 152, 17 K : ' Acer ' et ' alacer ' et 
' saluber ' et ' coleber ' ... in utraque . . . terminatione 
communis etiam generis invcniuntur prolata . . . (153, 

UK).. .— 

Omnes mortales \ictores, cordibus imis 
laetantes, vino curatos, somnus repente 
in campo passim mollissimus perculit acris. 
Cp. Prise., ap. G.L., II, 230, 5 K, 

'5* <rimantur> B 

'^^ noenum L non enim cdd. prob. V trib. lib. IX 
Hug VIII Merula 

8®* imis Fruter prob. Havet huius cdd. Par., R., Sang., 
HaU). vivis rell. 153 vivis cdd. 230 

132 



ANNALS 

359 

Unplaced fragment : 

Paulua says : ' Rimari ' means to search thoroughly, as it 
were in the very ' rimae ' crannies. Festus says : . . . 
Knnios in the eleventh book — 

both parties pried." 

BOOK XII 

See under title of Book XI 

360-^2 
.4 reminiscence of Fabius Marimu^ Cunciator .** 
Gcero : How much better was the behaviour of Quintus 
Maximus of whom Ennius says — 

One man by his delays restored the state ; 
Hearsay he would not put before our safety ; 
Hence to this day the warrior's glorj- shines — 
In after time, and all the more for that. 

363-5 
Rejoicing after victory ? : ' 

Priscianus : ' Acer ' and ' alacer ' and ' saluber ' and ' celeber' 
are found inflected in both -er and - is in both genders ... — 

Yes, all those \"ictors, everj- single soul, 
Contented from the bottom of their hearts — 
Sleep on a sudden, over all the plain, 
Most soft thrilled tingling through them, tended well 
By wine. 

" Hopelessly mutilated, but the fr. seems to have con- 
tained rimari in some form or other. Cp. our " peer into every 
hole and corner.' 

' We must keep the fr. in the book to which Macrobiua 
assigns it. Cf. V., Ahh. B. Akad., 1886, 6 fF. and Enn., 
CXC\^-CXCVII; St., pp. 193-4; contrast Skutsch, Pauly, 
8.V. Ennius, 2608. 

' It is not possible to assign the fr. to any occasion; cf. 
St., 194; v.. CXCV-CXCVI. 



ENNIUS 



Gellius, XVII, 21, 43 : Ennium . . . M. Varro . . . 
scripsit, . . . cum septimum et sexagesimum annum haberet, 
duodecimum Annalem scripsisse idque ipsum Ennium in 
eodem libro dicere. 



Note on 

Only two extant fragments are definitely assigned to this 
book, and two others can be with probability added to these. 
The context of all of them must remain uncertain ; but the 
book probably described the war with Antiochus to the 
departure of the two Scipios for Asia in 190. The following 
seems to me to be the most probable arrangement of the 
fragments. Lines 366-8 give us the only tradition which 
represents Hannibal as a would-be peacemaker between 
Rome and Antiochus. We cannot connect it very well with 
Gellius, V, 5, where Hannibal shows a veiled contempt of 
the army which Antiochus had gathered together before the 
battle of Magnesia ; the tale looks like a fiction Now in 1 93 
Hannibal had a chance interview with the Roman commis- 
sioner P. Villius at Ephesus. Nothing vital was discussed, 
but the incident caused Antiochus to cast suspicion on all 



LIBER XIII 

366-8 

Gellius, VI, 2, 3 : ' " Cor " masculino genere, ut multa alia, 
enuntiavit Ennius; nam in XIII Annali " quem cor" dixit.' 
Ascripsit deinde versus Ennii duo. . . . Antiochus est qui hoc 
dixit Asiae rex . . . sed aliud longe Ennius. Nam tres 

Gell., XVII, 21, post vocabula annum haberet *xii Voss. 
{eraso X) XII Pet. XVIII Merula XVII Mr. 

"172 B.C. On this passage of Grellius, cf. V., Abh. B. Ak.. 
1886, 3 ff. 

'' See above. ' Nonius, 195, 20 made the same mistake. 



ANNALS 

Ennius mentions his age : 

Gellius : Marcus Varro has recorded that Ennius, in his 
sixty-seventh year," WTote the twelfth book of the Annals; 
and that Ennius himself mentions this veiy fact in the same 
book. 

Book XIII 

that Hannibal did (Livy, XXXV, 14). In the same year 
Antiochus held a council of war to which Hannibal was not 
invited (Livy, XXXV, 17 ff.). Hence lines 366-8 may well 
belong to a soliloquy of Antiochus, or a speech of his deUv'ered 
at the council. In Livy, XXXV, 19 we have a warlike 
counterblast of Hannibal which he gave when he first dis- 
covered why he was out of favour with the king. It implies 
that the king suspected Hannibal of being at least pacific if 
not pro-Roman. Line 369 seems to belong to a narrative of 
fears felt at Rome and elsewhere in 192 lest Antiochus should 
cross into Europe like another Xerxes (V., CXCV'III). Line 
370 suggests Antiochus in defeat, and since it is attributed 
by Gellius to Book XIII, would allude to the defeat of the 
king at Thermopylae in 191. Line 371 might well refer to 
the seige of Pergamum by Seleucus IV in 190 B.C. 



BOOK XIII 

The War with Antiochus perhaps to the departure 
OF Lucius Scipio and Publius Scipio Africanus 
FOR THE East in 190 b.c. 

366-8 

Antiochus suspects Hannibal (193 B.C.) : * 

Gellius : ' Ennius used " cor," said Caesellius,' as he did 
many other similar nouns, in the masculine gender; for in 
the thirteenth book of Annals he wrote " quern cor." ' He 
then added two lines of Ennius.' . . . Antiochus, King of Asia, 
is the speaker of these words. . . . But what Ennius meant 
was something different by far. For there are three lines, not 

135 



ENNIUS 

versus sunt, non duo, ad banc Ennii sententiam pertiiientes, 
ex quibus tertium versum Caeselbus non respexit — 

* Hannibal audaci dum pectore de me hortatur 
ne bellum faciam, quern credidit esse meuni cor 
suasorem summum et studiosum robore belli. 



Cp. Non., 195, 19. 



369 



Varro, L.L., VII, 21 : ' Quasi Hellespontum et claustra ' 
quod Xerxes quondam eum locum clausit; nam ut Ennius 
ait — 

Isque Hellesponto pontem contendit in alto. 



370 

Gellius, XVIII, 2, 16 : Nemo . . . turn commeminerat 
dictum esse a Q. Ennio id verbum (' verant ') in tertio 
decimo Annalium . . . — 

* satin vates verant aetate in agunda ? 



371 

Servius auctus, ad Georg., I, 18 : ' Favere ' vcteres etiam 
' velle ' dixerunt. Ennius — 

Matronae moeros complent spectare faventes. 

Cp. Serv, auct. ad Georg., IV, 230 .. . Ennius in XIII— 

Gell., VI, 2, 5 : cum pectore VI, 2, 9 dum pectore 

Annibal laudacium pectore Non., 195 

Serv. auct. ad G., IV, 230 : XIII Ursinus XVI cdd. 

136 



ANNALS 

two, which go to complete this sentence of Ennius; of these 
CaeseUius overlooked the third — 

* while Hannibal ^^-ith bold breast exhorts " me 
not to make war — he whom my heart believed to 
be a most mighty counsellor, yea one devoted in 
war's ruggedness. 

369 

Reminiscence (192 B.C.) of Xerxes crossing from Asia to 
Europe (480 B.C.) : » 

Varro : The phrase ' As it were the Hellespont and its 
barriere ' comes from the fact that Xerxes at one time made a 
' barrier ' in that region. For, as Ennius sa^'S — 

and he stretched a bridge over deep Hellespont. 

370 

Aniioehus laments hia defeat at Thermopylae in 191 B.C. 
by Glabrio : 

GeUius : Xo one on that occasion remembered that the 
verb ' verant ' was used by Ennius in the thirteenth book of 
the Annals ... — 

' Do seers, in all their life's course, tell much of 
truth ? 

371 

Siege of Pergamum by Seleucus IV in 190 B.C. ? : ' 

Servius (supplemented) : ' Farere.' The old writers used 
it even in the sense of ' velle.' Ennius — 

The matrons crowded the walls, eager to look on. 

' de me hortatur, tmesis for me dehortatur. The construc- 
tion studiosum robore belli is strange; but it means that 
Antiochus beUeved Hannibal to be a zealous supporter of a 
warlike policy. 

* Ennius seems to make a pun on Hellesponto and pontem : 
' And he pontoons stretched o'er deep Hellespont.' 

' Livy, XXXVII, 20 fin. (spectaverunt enim e moenibus 

. . feminae . . .). 



ENNIUS 

LIBER XIV 

372-3 

Gellius, II, 26, 21 : Fecistique ut intellegerem verba ilia 
ex Annali quarto decimo Ennii amoenissima ... — 

Verrunt extemplo placide mare marmore flavo ; 
caeruleum spumat sale conferta rate pulsum. 

Cp. Priscian., ap. G.L., II, 171, 11 K (caeruleum e. q. s.). 



374 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 51 : ' Labitur uncta vadis abies ' 
{Aen., VIII, 91). Ennius in XIV— 

Labitur uncta carina, volat super impetus undas. 

Cp. Verg., Aen., IV, 398, natat u. c. 



375-6 

Macrobius, 8., VI, 5, 10: ' Despiciens mare velivolum ' 
{Aen., I, 224). . . . Ennius in XIV— 

Quom procul aspiciunt hostes accedere ventis 
navibus velivolis, 

Cp. Serv., ad Aen., I, 224. 



*'^ placidum Parrhasiiis 

Prise, ap. G.L., II, 171, II K : post pulsum vocabula per 
mare trib. Enn. Krehl 



ANNALS 



BOOK XIV 

From the Departure of the Scipios to the settle- 
ment OF Asia after the Battle of Magnesia 

372-3 

Defeat of Pdyxenidas by Aeviilius RegiUus at Jlyonnesus, 
190 B.C. ; departure of the Roman fleet : 

Gellius : You made me understand those very charming 
words from Ennius' fourteenth book of Annals . . . — 

Forthwith they gently swept a sea of yellow 
marble ; green foamed the brine ° beaten by the 
thronging ships. 

374 

The rapid advance : * 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Smooth gUdes the well- 
greased fir-wood through the waters.' Ennius in the four- 
teenth book — 

Smooth glided the well-greased keel and skimmed 
over the waves with a rush. ' " ~^ 

375-6 

They sight the enemy near Myonnesus : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Looking down on the sail- 
fluttering sea.' . . . Ennius in the fourteenth book — 

\Mien they saw far off the enemy coming towards 
them vdxh. the breeze in sail-fluttering ships, 

" sale is nominative. Caeruleum might be taken with mare 
— ' swept the sea grey.' But cp. Priscianus' quotation, 
which gives the second line only. Flatus is yellowish-green, 
caeruleus bluish or greyish green. 

* v., CCXVIII. Possiblv the fr. refers to the swift ships 
of the Rhodians— St., p. 196. Cp. fr. 442, p. 164. 



ENNIUS 

377 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., II, 473, 22 K : Haec . . . ipsa et 
secundum tertiam vetustissimi protulisse iriveniuntur coniuga- 
tionem ... — 

Litora lata sonunt 

378-9 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 501, 10 K: ' Orior ' et ' morior ' 
tam secundum tertiam quam secundum quartam coniuga- 
tionem declinaverunt auctores . . . — 

' Nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese 
nobis ostendat, si vivimus sive morimur.' 

380 

Macrobius, S., VI, 4, 6 : ' Tum ferreus hastis | horret ager ' 
{Am., XI, 601). 'Horret' mire se habet, sed et Enniua in 
quarto decimo — 

Horrescit telis exercitus asper utrimque. 

. . . sed et ante omnes Homerus (//., XIII, 3.39) : (<f>pi^ev 

Cp. Verg., Ae7i., VII, 526, XII, 663. 

381-2 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 518, 13 K : Vetustissimi tamen tam 
producebant quam corripiebant supradicti verbi, id est 
tutudi, paenultimam . . . — 

Infit, ' O cives, quae me fortuna fero sic 
contudit indignum bello, confecit acerbo, 

'*^ fero sic cdd. ferox sic Colonna ferocis V 

ferocem D (I.) 

**^ indignum Maehly indigno cdd. indigne et bello 

Colonna (fortasse bello et confecit) 

" Or the fr. may describe' the shores echoing to the noise 
of battle. 

140 



ANNALS 

377 

The Scipios cross the Hellespont, 190 B.C. ; " 

Priscianus : These same verbs are found, in the oldest 
writers, inflected according to the third conjugation also ... — • 

The broad beaches sound 

378-9 
Speech before the battle of Magnesia, 190 B.C. .• 

Priscianus : ' Orior ' and ' morior ' are found to have been 
inflected by authors according to both the third and the 
fourth conjugation. ... — 

' Now is the day when glorj- passing great 
Shows itself to ds, whether we Uve or die.' 

380 
Beginning of the battle : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Then the battle-field, all iron, 
bristles with lances.' ' Bristles ' is strange here. But Ennius 
too in the fourteenth book has — 

On both sides the host bristles rough "with 
javelins.* 

. . . But again earlier than all writers Homer said : ' The 
battle, man-destroying, bristled with long spears.' 

- 381-2 

Antiochus in his defeat : 

Priscianus : Still, the oldest writers pronounced both long 
and short the penultimate syllable of the above-mentioned 

word (that is ' tutudi ') . . . — 

He began to speak — ' O my countrymen, fortune 
who has thus bruised me — and I deserved it not — 
and has destroyed me in fierce, in bitter war, 

* Near this fragment Ennius probably mentioned rumpiae 
(long lances) which were carried by the Thracians in the 
Roman array; for Gellius (X, 25, 4) notes this word from 
Ennius' XlV'th book. 

141 



ENNIUS 

383 
Festus, 236, 5 : ' Ob ' . . . pro ' ad ' . . . — 
Omnes occisi, obcensique in nocte serena. 

LIBER XV 

384 
Nonius, 114, 5 : ' Falae ' turres sunt ligneae ... — 
Malos diffindunt, fiunt tabulata falaeque 

385-6 
Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 280, 7 K : Ennius in XV Annali- 

Occumbunt multi letum ferroque lapique 
aut intra muros aut extra praecipe casu. 

Cp. Prise, ap. G.L., II, 250, 9 K. 



387 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 259, 5 K : ' Arcus ' . . . invenitur 
. . . apud veteres etiam f eminini generis ... — 

Arcus subspiciunt mortalibus quae perhibentur . . . 

'8* diffindunt Merula defindunt odd. defigunt coni. 
V 

^*' subspiciunt V ubi aspiciunt cdd. aspicitur Col- 
onna arquum ubi adspiciunt Merula fortasse arcus 

quom aspiciunt perhibetur Halb. perhibentur relL 

142 



ANNALS 

383 

Burning of the dead after the battle : 

Festus : ' Ob ' instead of ' ad ' . . . — 

All butchered, and burnt in the clear calm night. 

BOOK XV 

I'liE Aetoliav War, 189 b.c, and the Achievement 

OF M. FULVIUS NOBILIOR, WHOM EnNIUS CELE- 
BRATED ELSEWHERE IN A SEPARATE WORK (pP. 

358 fF.). The original conclusion of the Annals 

384 

The siege of Awbracia by Fulvius Nobilior, 189 B.C. : 

Nonius : ' Falae ' are wooden towers ... — 

They cleft the comer-beams ; floors and siege- 
towers were built 

385-6 
Priscianus : Ennios in the fifteenth book of the Annals — 

Many were laid low by death with sword and stone 
in headlong fall within or without the walls. 

387 

Priscianus : ' Arcus ' ... is found even in the feminine 
gender in old writers ... — 

They look up at the bows (.'), which are said by 
mortals ..." 

" Or ' The}- look up at what men call " The Arches " ' 

143 



ENNITJS 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 30 : Sunt alii loci plurimorum versuum 
quos Maro in opus suum cum paucorum immutatione verborum 
a veteribus transtulit . . . de Pandaro et Bitia aperientibus 
portas locus {Aen., IX, 672 if.) acceptus est ex libro quiuto 
decimo Ennii qui induxit Histros duos in obsidione crupisse 
porta ot stragem de obsidente hoste fecisse. 

Cf. Virg., Aen., IX, 672-687 ; //., XII, 127 ff. 



388-9 

Cicero, de Senect., 5, 14 : Sua enim vitia inaipientes et 
suam culpam in senectutem conferunt, quod non facicbat is 
cuius modo mentionem feci Ennius — 

Sicut fortis equus spatio qui saepe supremo 
vicit Olympia, nunc senio confectus quiescit, 

Equi fortis et victoris senectuti comparat suam. 

Cp. 'oAu/aTTia viKdv (Thuc., I, 126; al.). 



Note on 

That Ennius described the Istrian War is certain, provided 
that the episode about Aelius (see p. 154) is rightly inter- 
preted. But Ennius must also have sketched the somewhat 
scattered events between 188 and 178, such as the march of 
Manlius through Thrace, the wars in Spain and Liguria, the 

"«-• trib. lib. X V St. XII V X VIII Manila. 



" Doubtless the Romans besieging Ambracia — V., CXCIX. 
The original of Ennius' and Virgil's passages is II., XII, 
127 ff. 

144 



ANNALS 



A sortie 



Macrobius : There are other passages (in Virgil), consisting 
of several lines, which Maro, with the alteration of a few words, 
transferred from the old poets to his own work. . . . The 
passage about Pandams and Bitias opening the gates is taken 
from the fifteenth book of Ennius, who introduced the tale 
of how two Histrians during a siege burst out of the gate 
and caused a slaughter among the besieging enemy." 

388-9 

Ennius' original ending to his Annals ; his old age ." 

Cicero : For it is their own blemishes and their own sins 
that fools lay to the charge of old age, a thing which he, of 
whom I made mention just now, was not wont to do, 
Ennius — * 

Just as a valiant steed, who has often won victories 
at the Olympic games in the last lap, now at length, 
worn out by old age, takes rest, 

He is comparing his old age to that of a valiant and 
victorious horse. 



Book XVI 

affairs of Italy, the trial of the Scipios, the deaths of Scipio 
Africanus and of Hanniljal, and the censorship of Cato. 
Nearly all the extant fragments seem to belong either to the 
Prologue of the book or to the Istrian War. 

Cp. St., pp. 199 ff.; Livy, XLI; Valmaggi, pp. 112 flf. 



' envoi. St., p. 198, is probably right in taking this 
fr. as part of Ennius' original scheme, which ended with 
this book (see p. 147). But if Book XV'III was finished when 
Ennius died, it should be put there. Yet cf. V., Abh. B. Akad., 
1886, 9. 

145 

VOL. I. L 



ENNIUS 

LIBER XVI 

390 

Festus, 340, 21 : ' Quippe ' significare quidni testimoiiio est 
Ennius ... lib. XVI— 

Quippe vetusta virum non est satis bella moveri ? 

391 
Nonius, 219, 14: ' Pigrct ' . . . — 

post aetata pigret subferre laborem. 

392 
Gellius, IX, 14, 5 : • Dies ' pro ' diei '— 

postremo longinque dies quod fregerit aetas . . . 

Plinius, VII, 101 : Q. Ennius T. Aelium Teucrum fratrcm- 
que cius praecipue miratus propter eos sextum decimum 
adiccit Annalem. 

393-4 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 17 : ' Summa nituntur opum vi ' 
(Aen., XII, 652). Ennius ... in XVI— 

Reges per regnum statuasque sepulchraque quae- 

runt ; 
aedificant nomen, summa nituntur opum vi. 

^'1 post <exaeta> cowt. V subferre aW. scribendi 

ferre B 

^'^ quod fregerit Valmaggi quod fecerit vel confecerit 

odd. 

Plin., VII, 101 : Aelium Bergk Caecilium Plin. 

" Pliny has Caecilius, and this may be right. But the man 
referred to seems to be the brother of the gallant tribune of 
fr. 409-16; see note on p. 154. 

146 



, ANNALS 

BOOK XVI 

From 188 b.c. to the end of the Istrian War 

390 
Prologue ; past work ; growing age : 

Festus : That ' quippe ' means ' quidui ' Ennius is a 
witness ... in the sixteenth book — 

Surely it is enough that the old-time wars of 
warriors were undertaken I 

391 
Nonius : ' Pigret ' . . . — 
I am loth to take up the task late in ageing life. 

392 
Gellius : ' Dies ' instead of ' diei ' . . . — 
Lastly, that which the long age of my days has 
crushed. . . . 

But the heroism of two brothers re-inspires him : 

Pliny : Qnintus Ennius had a particular admiration for 
Titus Aelius " Teucrus and his brother, and on their account 
added to his Annals the sixteenth book. 

393-4 

A general remark * on this period of Roman History ? : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' They strain with all their 
might and main ' : Ennius ... in the sixteenth book — 

Kings throughout their kingship are in quest of 
statues and sepulchres ; they build up a name and 
strain with all their might and main. 

* Possibly a part of the prologue ; whatever kings may do, 
my fame shall rest on my poetry — St., p. 200. 

147 
l2 



ENNIUS 

395 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 152, 17 K: 'Acer' . . . (133, 
9K) . . .— 

Aestatem autumnus sequitur, post acer hiems it. 

Cp. Serv., ad Aen., VI, 685 ; explanat. in Donat., ap. G.L., 
IV, 491, 26 K. 

Cicero, de Prov. Consul., 9, 20 : An vero M. ille Lepidus, 
qui bis consul et pontifex maximus fuit, non solum memoriae 
testimonio sed etiam Annalium litteris et sumrai poetae voce 
laudatus est quod cum M. Fulvio collega, quo die censor est 
factus, homine inimicissimo, in campo statim rediit in gratiam ? 



396 
Festus, 386, 4 : ' Regimen ' pro regimento ... — 
('/tf'fo*') Primus senex bradys in regimen belloque peritus 

397 

Festus, 490, 29 : ' Spicit ' quoque sine praepositione dixe- 
runt antiqui . . . ' spexit.' Ennius lib. XVI — 

Quos ubi rex Epulo spexit de cautibus celsis, 

Cp. Varro, L.L., VI, 82. 



^"' it Car. Sang. Mon. sit rdl. fit Fabricius coll. 

Serv., ad Am., VI, 685 

*** bradys Mr. bradyn cd. 

**' Epulo Bergk / / / / duIo Fest. epulo Varro (Apulo 
Flor., /, 26: Aepulo Liv., XLI, 11, 1; at cf. Verg., Aen., 
XIII, 459 Epulo) populos olim V cautibus olim V 

cotibus Bergk nunc prob. V montibus Laetus 

contibus cd. 

148 



ANNALS 

395 
The turning years : 
Priscianos : ' Acer.' ... — 

Autumn follows on summer; after it comes keen 
winter. 

Censorship oj Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Marais Fulvius 
Nobilior, 179 B.C. : 

Cicero : But is it not true that our famous Marcus Lepidus, 
who was twice consul and also pontifex maximus, is praised, 
not only by the record of tradition but also in the written 
evidence of Annals and by the greatest of our poets," because 
with his colleague Marcus Fulvius, a great enemy of his, on 
the day when he was made censor, he at once made a recon- 
ciliation in the Campus ? 

396 
An ageing Roman ? * 

Festus : ' Regimen ' for ' regimentum ' . . . — 
First the aged man, tardy in his ruling, skilled in 

war 

397 
The Istrian War, 178-7 B.C. ' 

King Epulo sees the Romans move on Lake Timavus : 
Festus : ' Spicit ' is likewise used by archaic writers without 

a preposition prefixed. . . . Ennius in the sixteenth book 

has ' spexit ' — 

WTien King Epulo ^ spied them from the top of 
high crags, 

" There can be no doubt that Ennius is meant, and that the 
attribution to this book is right. Cf. Livy, XL, 45, 6 ff. 

* This may be a case of an appeal to the example of Fabiua 
Cunctator (cf. St., 205-6, especially on bradys). 

' Valmaggi, pp. 114-15; Havet, in Bibl. de Vecole des 
hautes ft., fasc. XXXV, 32 ff. Vahlen is doubtful— J6A. B. 
Ak., 1886, 28 ff. 

^ Bergk., 0pp., I, 252 ff. 

149 



ENNIUS 

398 
Festus, 220, 25 : ' Obstipum,' obliquum ... — 
montibus obstipis obstantibus unde oritur nox. 



399 

Priscianus, ap. G.L. II, 278, 12 K : ' Frux ' airo tov 
<j>pvy(x) ... — 

* Si luci si nox si mox si iam data sit frux. 



400 
Festus, 344, 32: <Quando . . .> — 
' Nox quando mediis signis praecincta volabit, 

401-2 

Macrobius, 8., VI, 4, 19 : ... ' Nee lucidus aethra J siderea 
polus ' {Aen., Ill, 585). Ennius prior dixerat in XVI — 

interea fax 
occidit oceanumque rubra tractim obruit aethra. 

403-4 

Servius (auctus) ad Qexyrg., IV, 230 : ' Ore fave,' cum religione 
ac silentio accede; in XVI Ennius — 

Hie insidiantes vigilant, partim requiescunt 
contecti gladiis, sub seutis ore faventes. 

Cp. Serv. (auct.) ad Georg., I, 18. 

^"^ fortasse <lunae> interea 

*"* contecti Merula protecti Colonna tecti cum B 

requiescunt tecti gladiis aid. 



ANNALS 

398 

The Istrians from behind a hill keep watch over the Roman 
camp by the Lacus Timavus, 178 B.C. ; " 

Festus : ' Obstipum,' slanting ... — 

Slanting mountains standing in the way, whence 
rises up the night. 

399 

The Istrians are well prepared : 

Priscianus : ' Frux ' . . . derived from <f>puyiii . . . 

' If by dayhght, if at night, if soon, if narv we be 
given success. 

400 

TJie Istrian plan of attack on the Romans : 

Festus : ' Quando ' . . . — 

' When night shall fly gix't up by constellations in 
her midst, 

401-2 
Dawn comes : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Nor was there a clear and star- 
lit heaven.' Ennius had said before in his sixteenth book — 

Meanwhile the torch * dies out and pink trailing 
dawnlight covers the Ocean. 

403-4 

The Romans on the uxttch : 

Servius (supplemented), reading ' ore fave ' in Virgil : 
' Come close with the silence of worship ' : in the sixteenth 
book Ennius — 

Here in ambush they keep watch, while some of 
them take rest, guarded by their swords, keeping 
a shut mouth under their shields. 

" Livy XLI, 11. * Perhaps the light of the moon. 



ENNIUS 

405 
Festus, 171, fin. : ' Navus,' celer ac strenuua ... — 
' Navorum imperium servare est induperantum. 

406 

Festus, 476, 28 : Idem (se. Ennius) cum ait -sapsam pro 
ipsa nee alia, ponit in lib. XVI — 

' quo res sapsa loco sese ostentatque iubetque, 

Cp. Paul., 477, 6. 

407 
Festus, 492, 5 : ' Speres ' antiqui phiraliter dicebant ... — 
* Spero, si speres quiequam prodesse potis sunt, 

408 
Festus, 284, 30 : ' Prodit ' . . . perdit . . . — 
Non in sperando cupide rem prodere summam 
Cp. Paul, ex F., 285, 14. 

409-16 

Macrobius, S., VI, 3, 1 : Sunt quaedam apud Vergilium 
quae ab Homero creditur transtulisse ; sed ea docebo a nostris 
auctoribua sumpta, qui priores haec ab Homero in carmina sua 
transtulerant . . . Homerus de Aiacis forti pugna ait (//., 
XVI, 102)— 



Macrob., VI, 3, 3 Ennius in XVI Bergk XVIII 

Ritter XII Par. in quinto decimo vulgo j/rob. V XII 

Merula C. Aelii Merula eelij Par. celii rell. 

152 



ANNALS 

405 

The tributie Adiug reminds the consul (A. Manlius Vulso) 
of his duty : " 

Festus : ' Navus ' swift and strenuous ... — 

* It is the part of commanders who are men of 
deeds, to keep discipline. 

406 
Aeliiis says he vnU stand his ground : 

Festus: The same {i.e. Ennius), when he says ' sapsa ' 
instead of ' ipsa nee alia,' writes in the sixteenth book — 

' in the place where my very duty displays itself 
and commands me. 

407 
The hopes of Aelius : 

Festus : The archaic writers used a plural ' speres ' . . . — 
' I hope — if hopes can help at all, 

408 
Posnibly from, the consuVs reply to Aelius : 
Festus : ' Prodit,' . . . ruins ... — 

* Not to ruin the State by hoping eagerly 

409-16 

Aelius stands fast against violent attacks : 

Macrobius : Virgil has certain passages which he is believed 
to have transferred from Homer ; but I shall show that they 
are passages which were taken from authors of ours who, earlier 
than Virgil, had transferred these passages from Homer to 
their own poetic works. . . . Homer on a fierce fight fought 
by Ajax has — 

" On this and the next two frs., of. Livy, XLI, 2, and notes 
on pp. 154—5. 

153 



ENNIUS 

A'a? 8' ovKfr' ffiifive- ^Lalero yap PeXeeaaiV' 
8diJ.va ^iv Zrjvos re voos koI Tpaies ayavol 
PdXXovTes' Seivvv Se nepl KpOTa^oiai (ftaeivfj ^ 
TfqX-q^ ^aAXofievr] Kavaxijv e;^e' ^dXXeTO 8' ai'ei 
#ca7r (f>dXap' evTToirjd'- 6 8' dpiorepov cofiov (KUfivev 
efineSov aiev €^u>v oaKos aloXov, ouS' ibvvavro 
a^cfi' avTw neXeixiiai epeiSovrej peXeeaoiv 
aiel 8' dpyaXew e^er' dai-iari kolS 8e' ol iSpws 
iravTodev eV fxeXecov peev daneTOS, ovBe vrj eix^v 
ajXTTvevaai, TravTr) be kukov KaKU> iar-qpiKTo. 

Hunc locum Ennius in XVI ad pugnam C. Aelii tribuni his 
versibus transfert — 

Undique conveniunt velut imber tela tribuno : 
configunt parmam, tinnit hastilibus umbo 
aerato sonitu galeae, sed nee pote quisquam 
undique nitendo corpus discerpere ferro ; 
semper abundantes hastas frangitque quatitque ; 
totum sudor habet corpus multumque laborat, 
nee respirandi fit copia; praepete ferro 1415 

Hlstri tela manu iacientes sollicitabant. 

Hinc Vergilius eundera locum de incluso Turno gratia 
elegantiore composuit (Aen., IX, 803-811) — 

Ergo nee clipeo iuvenis subsistere tantum 
nee dextra valet, obiectis sic undique telis 
obruitur, strepit adsiduo cava tempora circum 
tinnitu galea et saxis solida aera fatiscunt 

Macrob. VI, 3, 3 : vide p. I52,fi7i. 

*'^ fortasse et galea aerato sonitu excidisse versumconi. V 

" Bergk's attribution of this fr. to Book XVI must be 
accepted. In the tradition the name of the brave tribune 
was confused with that of another in the same legion. Pliny 
has T. Caecilius Teucrus, which Bergk corrected to T. Aelius 
Teucrus; Macrobius has Caelius (or C. Aelius); Livy (XLI, 
2,9) has M. Licinius Strabo; but in XLI, 1, 7, and'4, 3 he 
mentions two brothers, both tribunes — T. and C. Aelius who 
correspond with T. Caecilius Teucrus and his brother in Pliny. 
Steuart .suggests some falsification by the annalist C. Licinius 

154 



ANNATE 

But Aias could no longer stand his ground ; for distressed 
was he by spears. Yea, the will of Zeus overmastered him, 
the Trojans too who pelted him ; dread was the rattle which his 
shining helmet thus pelted kept around his brows, for pelted 
was it again and again over its fair-wrought cheek-pieces. 
Wearj- was he too in his shoulder — the left where he firm and 
constant held his motley shield, nor could they by lunging 
all around him with their javelins so dash him off. And ever 
was he gripped in cruel gasping, while sweat unquenched 
poured down off his limbs from every point, nor coiild he in 
any wise draw breath; but on all sides heaped was hurt 
on hurt. 

This passage Ennius " in the sixteenth book transferred 
to the fight of the tribune C. Aelius, in the following lines — 

From all sides the javelins like a rain-storm 
showered in upon the tribune, and pierced his 
buckler ; then jangled the embossment under spears, 
the helmets too with brassy clang ; but not one of 
them, though strain they did from every side, could 
rend apart his body with the iron. Every time he 
shakes and breaks the waves of lances ; sweat covers 
all his body ; he is hard distressed ; to breathe he 
has not a chance. The iron came flving as the 
Histrians cast the spears from their hands to harass 
him. 

By the use of this as an example * Virgil, on the subject of 
Turnus hemmed in, has rendered the same passage with a 
more elegant grace — 

Thus neither by the strength of his shield nor of his right 
hand can the young warrior withstand an onset so great, so 
overwhelmed is he by javelins cast at him from all sides : 
again and again his helmet jingles and jangles round the hollows 
of his temples, the firm plates of brass gave way under the 

Macer. For another view cf. Vahlen, Abh. B. Akad., 1886, 
18 ff. Cf. also Havet in Bibl. de Fecole des hauies it., XXXV^ 
35 ff. 

* It looks, however, as though Virgil took his idea directly 
from Homer. 

155 



ENNIUS 

discussaeque iubae capiti nee sufficit umbo 
ictibus; ingerainant hastis et Troes et ipse 
f ulmineus Mnestheus ; turn toto corpora sudor 
liquitur et piceum, nee respirare potestas, 
Huinen agit, fessos quatit aeger anhelitus artus. 



417 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 24: ' Corruit in vulnus; sonitum 
super arma dedere ' (Aen,, X, 488). Ennius in XVI — 

concidit et sonitum simul insuper arma dederunt. 

Horn., //., IV, 504 SovTrrjoev Be neaaiv, dpd^-qae 8e rev^e' en' 
OUT a* 

418 

Diomedes, ap. O.L. I, 382, 21 K : ' Hortatur ' . . . ' hori- 
tnr ' dixerunt ... — 

pi'andere iubet horiturque. 

419-20 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., XI, 19: Alii 'vellere' movere 
accipiunt. Ennius — 

Rex deinde citatus 
convellit sese. 

421 

Varro, L.L., VII, 103 : Multa ab animalium voeibus tralata 
in homines . . . Ennii . . . ab haedo — 

Clamor ad caelum volvendus per aethera vagit. 
*^^ clamos L 
" Cf. Livy, XLI, 2, 12. " Livy, XLI, 4, 7. 



ANNALS 

stones, and his horse-hair crest was struck from his head; 
the embossment could not bear the blows; the Trojans, 
yea and Mnestheus too like a thunder-bolt, redoubled the 
thrusts of their spears. Then over all his body sweat trickled 
and flowed in a dark stream; no power had he to draw his 
breath; a sick sore gasping shook his wearied limbs. 

417 
The death, of Aeltus 1 : 

Macrobius : ' He fell forward upon the wound ; his weapons 
dinned over him.' Eimius in the sixteenth book — 

He tumbled and >Wthal his armour dim[ied over him. 

418 

The Istrians prevailed ; they feast " in the Roman camp at 
the order of the king : 

Diomedcs : ' Horitur ' was used for ' hortatur ' . . . — 
He orders and encourages them to break their 
fast. 

419-20 

The Romans recover their camp ; King Epulo, half-drunk, 
escapes : 

Servius (supplemented) : Others take ' vellere ' to mean 
* to move.' Ennius — 

Then the king, full roused, pulled himself up.* 

421 

The siege of Xesactum ' by C. Claudius Pulchcr, 177 B.C. ? : 

Varro : There are many sounds which though belonging 
to animals have been used figuratively of men . . .Ennius. . . 
transferred from the goat — 

The clamour rolling skyward bleated through the 
air. 

' Or the slaughter of the Istrians by the Romans ; cf. Livy, 
XLI, 11, 3. The attribution to this book is suggested by the 
next fragment. 

157 



ENNIUS 

422 
Festus, 570, 8 : ' Vagorem ' pro vagitu ... — 
qui clamos oppugnantes vagore volauti 

423 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 518, 13 K (p. 140) : Ennius . . in 
XVI— 

Ingenio forti dextruni latus pertudit hasta. 

424 

Macrobius, 6'., VI, 1, 50 : ' Turn gelidus toto manabat 
corpore sudor' (Aen., Ill, 175). Ennius in XVI — 

Tunc tiinido manat ex omni corpore sudor. 

425-6 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 53 : ' Apiccm tamen incita summum 
hasta tulit {Aen., XII, 492). Ennius in XVI— 

tamen induvolans secum abstulit hasta 
insigne. 

LIBER XVII 

427 

Festus, 510, 28 : ' Spccus ' feminino genere . . . Ennius — 

Turn cava sub nionte late specus intus patebat. 

Cp. Non., 223, 1 ; Priscian., ap. G.L. II, 260, 2 K (Ennius in 
XVII Annalium); Serv., ad Aen., VII, 568. 

*-' dextrum Merula dextra Prise. 

*-' turn cava Prise. concava Non. turn causa Fest. 
cum coni. V monte Prise, Fest. montis Non. mon- 
tcm Colonna montei 0. Mueller mentis latere Fruter. 

" So I conclude from fr. 429. The book would include, 
e.g., Lex Claudia ejecting socii (177 B.C.); subjugation of 
the Sardinians by Tib. Gracchus (177); embassies between 
Greece and Rome, especiallv in 173; trouble between Massi- 



ANNALS 
422 

Festus : ' V'agor ' instead of ' vagitus ' . . . — 
this clamour . . . the besiegers . . . with Avinged 
bleating 

423 

From, scenes of battle : 

Priscianus on ' tutudi ' : . . . E. in the sixteenth book — 

The lance of sturdy mettle punched through his 
right side. 

424 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Then a cold sweat came flow ing 
down all my body.' Ennius in the sixteenth book — 

Tlien SAveat flowed from all his fear-filled body. 

425-6 
Macrobius, quoting Virgil : " Still the darting lance took 
away the helmet top.' Ennius in the sixteenth book — 

Still the lance flying at him carried away with it 
the badge. 

BOOK XVII 

Probably from the end of the Istrian War to the 
Defeat of P. Licixius Crassus at Callinicus," 

171 B.C., DURING THE ThIRD MACEDONIAN WaR 

427 
Perseus of Macedon fortifies the passes of Tempf, 171 B.C. ? * 
Festus : ' Specus ' in the feminine gender . . . Ennius — 
Then a hollow cavern opened widely inwards 
under the mountain. 

nissa and Carthage; Perseus and his rupture with Rome, 
172 B.C. The extant fre., all of doubtful context, seem to 
refer to the year 171. 

* At any rate the fr. describes a piece of Greek scenery. 
Prisciau quotes the fr. from Book XVII. 

159 



ENNIUS 

428 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 198, 6 K : Genetivum etiam in as 
(199, 4 K) . . .— 

. . . dux ipse vias 

429 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 22 : ' Quadrupedante putrem sonitu 
quatit ungula campum ' {Aen., VllI, 596). Ennius ... in 
XVII— 

It eques et plausu cava concutit ungula terrain. 



430-32 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 28 : ' Diversi magno ceu quondam 
turbine venti confligunt zephyrusque notusque ot laetus Eois | 
eurus equis (Aen., II, 416). Ennius in XVII — 

Concurrunt veluti venti quom spiritus Austri 
imbricitor Aquiloque suo cum flamine contra 
indu mari magno fluctus extollere certant. 

Homer, 11, IX, 4 : 

toy 8' di^efioi bvo ttovtov opivsTOv IxOvoevra 
BopeTjs Kal Z€(f>vpog, tu) tc &p\,kt}6iv drjTov 
iXdovr' i^anivtjs' dfivBis Se re KSfia KeXaivov 
Kop6v€Tai, 



433 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 21 : 'Tollitur in caelum clamor, cunc- 
tique Latini ' (Aen., XI, 745). Ennius in XVII — 

Tollitur in caelum clamor exortus utrimque. 

*^ utrimque Merula utrisque Macrdb. 
i6o 



ANNALS 

428 
Perseua loatcha Crasaua from, Mount Oata f : 
Priscianus : Genitive even in -as . . . — 
himself the leader of the way 

429 

Defeat ' of P. Licinius Craasua in a cavalry-battle at CaUinicua, 
171 B.C. : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' The four-footed beat of the 
hoof shakes the crumbling plain.' Ennius ... in the 
seventeenth book — 

The horsemen charged, and the beating of their 
hollow hoofs shook the ground. 

430-32 
The cUuh : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' As from time to time with a 
great whirlwind gales set against each other meet in conflict — 
the west wind and the south, and the east happy in his horses 
of the dawn. ' Ennius in the seventeenth book — 

They rushed together as when the breath of the 
showery Wind of the South and the Wind of the 
North •with his counterblast strive to upheave 
billows on the mighty main. 

Homer : As when two winds, the Northern and the Western, 
stir up the fishy sea; they come on a sudden, blowing from 
Thrace, and forthwith the black billow rises to a head, 

433 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : * Uproars to heaven a shout and 
the Latins, one and all,' . . . Ennius in the seventeenth 
book — 

Uproars to heaven the shout that rose from either 
side. 

* Or possibly the charge of the Thracians under Cotys at 
Lariasa earUer in the year — St., p. 206. 

i6x 

VOL. I. M 



ENNIUS 

434-5 

Servius (auctus), ad Georg., IV, 188 : ' Mussant ' hie ' mur- 
murant ' ; quae vox ponitui* et in tacendi significatione . . . 

' Noenu decet mussare bonos qui facta labore 
nixi militiae peperere. 
Cp. Serv. ad Aen., XII. 657; Paulus, ex F., 127, 7. 

436-8 
Nonius, 134, 19 : ' Longiscere,' longum fiefi vel frangi ... — 
neque corpora firma 
longiscunt quicquam. 

idem — 
quom soles eadem facient longiscere longe. 



LIBER XVIII 

439 

Nonius, 63, 4 : Est autem gruma mensura quaedam qua 
fixa viae ad lineam deriguntur . . . Ennius lib. XVIII gruma 
derigere dixit — - 

degrumare forum 

*^* noenu decet V non decet hie Merula non decet 

Paul. non possunt Serv. auct. bonos Paul. boni 

Serv. auct. facta D (I.) factam Serv. auct. 

"' nixi mUitiae D (I.) enixi militiam Serv. auct. 

*** soles V sol aestate diem B 'prob. St. soles terras 
Hug cum soles tandem olim V cum sola est eadem 

cdd. facient cdd. faciens Bergk 

*'* degrumare forum V degrumari ferrum cdd. for- 

tasse degrumare forum ferro 

" ' mumbling ' or ' grumbling ' without distinct words — 
cf. 68, 122, 253, 378. 

162 



ANNALS 

434-5 
Slackness of discipline in the Boman army ? : 
Servios (supplemented) : ' Mussant ' here means ' mur- 

morant ' ; it is a term which is also used with a sense of not 

speaking • . . . — 

No, it is not meet that good warriors should 
mumble ; warriors who, straining in the toil of 
battle-fields, have given birth to deeds. 

436-8 

Unplaced fragments : 

Nonios : ' Longiscere,' to become long, or to be broken ... — 
nor do their firm bodies languish ** at all. 

The same ' poet — 
when the sunny days shall make them lengthen 
long. 

BOOK XVIII 
Further Events of the year 171 ? ** 

439 

Making a camp : 

Nonius : The ' gruma ' is a certain measnring-instrument ; 
by means of this, when it is fixed in position, roads are built 
in a truly straight line. . . . Ennius in the eighteenth book, 
for ' to mark out with the measuring rod,' uses the phrase — 

to level off the meeting-place ^ 

* ' Nor do even firm bodies last at all ( ? ).' If Nonius is 
right, the meaning may be ' stretch ' (so as to grow weaker 
by the strain) ; see also next not«. 

*■ Probably in the same book ; if this and the last fr. come 
from the same context, then corpora in the last may refer to the 
trunk, stem, or sap of plants; cf. line 240. 

■* In all probability this book was unfinished at the time 
when Ennius died in 169 B.C. 

' forum, ' parade-ground.' But we ought perhaps to read 
degrumari ferro. 

163 

k2 



ENNIUS 

440 

Grellius, XIII, 21, 14 : Contra vero idem Ennius in Annali 
XVIII— 

aere fulva 

dixit, non fulvo, non ob id solum quod Homerus ijepa ^adetav 
{II., XX. 446, XXI, 6) dicit, sed quod hie sonus opinor voca- 
bilior est visus et amoenior. 

Cp. Gell., II, 26, 11. 



Ex LiBRO VIII AUT IX? 

The six following fragments, to judge from the probable 
parallelisms in Virgil, come from a description of a sham naval 
fight or of a fleet in training; the racing ships are compared 
with racing chariots and horses. Cf. V., 87-8 ; H. A. Koch, 
Exercit. Crit., 11; Norden, 165-7. The scene may be the 
sham display by Scipio at New Cartihage in 210 B.C. (Livy, 

441 

Festus 550, 22 : ' Termonem ' Ennius Graeca consuetudine 
dixit . . . — 

hortatore bono prius quam lam finibus termo 

Cp. Paul., 551, 2. 

Vergilius, Aen., V, 129-130, 139-141. 

442 

Isidorus, Orig., XIX, 1, 22 : ' Celoces ' quas Graeci KeXijras 
vocant, id est veloces biremes vel triremes agiles et ad minister- 
ium classis aptae. Ennius — 

Labitur uncta carina per aequora cana celocis. 

Vergilius, Aen., V, 142-3. 

**^ quam vel quam iam cdd. qui iam ed, pr. quam 

qui V 

164 



ANNALS 
440 

the indecisiix battle at Phalanna ? : 

Grellius : But on the other hand Ennius again in the ei^t- 
eenth book of Annals writes — 

a tawny mist 

' fulva ' not ' fulvo,' not only because Homer says -qepa 
PaOeiav but, I think, because he beUeved the former sound 
o to be more musical and pleasant. 

From Book VIII or IX ? 

XXVI, 51; Polyb., X, 20, 1, 6); or at SjTacuse in 204 B.C. 
(Livy, XXIX, 22); or possibly the frs. describe the training 
of Scipio's fleet in 205 (Livy,' XXVIII, 45-6); or even the 
activities of the Spartan Xabis at Gj-theion in 192 B.C. (Livy, 
XXXV, 25 ff.). 

441 

Festus : ' Termo ' is, as used by Ennius, a Graecism <" . . . — 
... a good prompter before the boundary-post 
at the limits is reached. . . . 
tVirgil describes a boat-race round a post set up by Aeneas.] 

442 

Isidorus : ' Celoces ' are what the Greeks call KeXrjreg, that is, 
swift biremes or tri hemes fitted for the sersice of a fleet. 
Ennius has — 

The cutter 
Smooth o'er the white o' the waves on a keel 

very greasy she glided.* 
[Virgil goes on to describe the racing ships.] 

" In fact, however, the form is old Latin. Festus is think- 
ing of the Greek repfiCDv; but -o in Latin does not represent 
-CUV in Greek. 

* Cp. Bk. XTV, fr. 374. Ennius' rhythm is intentional. 

165 



ENNIUS 

443-4 

Schol. Bern., in Georg., I, 512 (Ut cum carceribus sese 
effudere quadrigae) ' Carceribus,' ianuis. Ennius ait — 

quom a carcere fusi 
currus cum sonitu magno permittere certant, 

445 

Charisius ap. G.L., 1, 272, 22 K : Quemadmodum in navi 
auriga dici potest, ita et in curru gubernator, ut — 

quomque gubernator magna contorsit equos vi, 

Cp. Diomed., ap. G.L., VI, 457, 29 K : Quintil., VIII, 6, 9; 
Mar. Plot. Sac, ap. G.L., VI, 466, 29 K. 

Vergilius, Aen., V, 144-147 ; Horn., Od., XIII, 81 ff. 

446 

Festus, 394, 32 : ' Restat ' pro distat ait. . . . Ennium 
ponere cum is dicat — 

Impetus haud longe mediis regionibus restat. 

Cp. Paul., 395, 7. 

Vergilius, ^ew., V, 218 : illam fert impetus ipse volant em. 

447 

Festus, 550, 22 : ' Termonem ' Ennius Graeca consuetudine 
dixit. ... — ' 

Ingenti vadit cursu qua redditus tv-i'mo est. 

Cp. Paul., 551, 2. 

Vergilius, Aen., V, 241-243 (manu magna ex altera E. loco, 
Jr. 541). 



**' a cd. (cp. Varr., Menipp., 488 a carcere) e Hagen 
*** cumque Charts., Diomed. atque Mar. Plot. 
Enn. Gesner prob. V 



trih. 
Gesner prob. V 

i66 



ANNALS 

443-4 

A scholiast, on Virgil's ' even as when teams of four pour 
out from the barriers ' : ' Barriers,' doors. Ennius says — 

When pouring from the barriers the chariots \\-ith 
a mighty clatter strive to move headlong," 

445 

Charisius : As in the case of a ship we can speak of a driver, 
so in the same way we can speak of a steersman in the case 
of a chariot, for example — * 

and when the steersman has turned his horses with a 
mighty pull, 

[Virgil likewise compares the racing ships to racing chariots, 
and imitates Homer.] 

446 

Festus : ' Restat.' Ennius is stated to use this word for 
' distat ' " when he says — 

Its rush not far off keeps steady in the course. 

Virgil has : her own speed bears her flying on. 

447 
Festus : ' Termo ' is, as used by EnniiLs, a Graecism * . . . — 
with giant speed it overruns the place where the 
boundarj'-post is set. 

" Nonius (162, 1) explains the word as mittere, incUare, vel 
'pmeci'pitare ; the reflexive is not included in the fr. 

* Attribution to Ennius is doubtful but probable. Auriga, 
gubernator — Cp. ' man at the wheel.' 

' But I take ' restat ' as meaning ' remains firm.' Or it 
might mean ' comes to a standstill ' (of a ship which as it were 
' breaks down ' in the race). If, however, restat really means 
distat here, Ennius describes a ship or ships not far behind other 
ships. 

^ See n. on fr. 441. 

167 



ENNIUS 

Ex Aliis Annalium Incertis Libris 

448 

Cicero, de Nat. Dear., II, 2, 4 : Ilium vero et lovem {invocant) 
et dominatorem rerum et omnia natu regentem et, ut . . . 
Ennius — • 

patrem divumque hominumque 

Cp. Cic, id., 25, 64. 

II., V, 425, 1 al. : TraTtjp dv8pwv re dfu>v re. 



449 

Varro, L.L., V, 65 : Ennius . . . eundem (sc. lovem) appel- 
lans dicit — 

divumque hominumque pater rex 

Cp. Enn., Ann., 207-8. 



450-51 

Vergilius, Aen., I, 254-6 : 

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum 
vultu, quo caelum tempestatesque serenat, 
oscula libavit natae. 

Servius, ad 254 : ' Subridens.' Laetum ostendit lovem et 
talem qualis esse solet cum facit serenum : . . . Servius 
auctua ad loc. Ennius — 

luppiter hie risit, tempestatesque serenae 
riserunt omnes risu lovis omnipotentis. 

Homerus, II., V, 426 : u>s <f>a.TO, fielbrjoev he TTarrjp dv8pa>v re 
6twv TC. 

i68 



ANNALS 

Other Fragments of the Annals not assigned 
TO ANY Book 

(A) The gods: 

448 

Cicero : Yes, men call upon him not only aa Jupit-er but 
also as lord of the xmiverse, and ruler of all things by his nod, 
and, as Ennius says — 

father of gods and men 

449 
Varro : Ennius . . . calling upon the same god, says — 
father and monarch of gods and men 

450-51 
Virgil says : 

The begetter of gods and men, with a gentle smile for her in 
his look, with which he calms the sky and the weather, gently 
kissed his daughter. 

Servins, on ' subridens ' : ' With a gentle smile.' He 
represents Jupiter as happy and such as he is wont to be when 
he brings calm weather. . . . An augmenter of Servius adds: 
Ennius has — 

Here Jupiter smiled, and with ° the almighty's smile 
Smiled clear and calm all weathers. 

Homer says : So spake and smiled the father of men and 
gods. 

" Here Ennius expands Homer. 

169 



ENNIUS 

452-3 

Serviua (auctus) ad Aen., I, 31 : ' Arcebat,' prohibebat. 
Significat autem et continet. Ennius — • 

qui fulmine claro 
omnia per sonitus arcet, 

Cp. Prob. (ad Verg. Ed., VI, 31) : Plane trinam esse mundi 
originem et Lucretius confitetur dicens. . . . ' Omnia per 
sonitus arcet, terram mare caelum.' 

Cp. Lucret., VI, 400. 

454 

Cicero, de Div., II, 39, 82 : Ad nostri augurii consuetudinem 
dixit Ennius — 

Turn tonuit laevum bene tempestate serena. 

Cp. Varr., ap. Non., 408, 3 ; Vergil., Aen., IX, 627 de parte 
Serena | intonuit laevum ; II, 693. 

455 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 334, 19 K: ' Celerissimus ' pro 
' celerrimus.' ... E. in Annalibus — 

Exin per terras postquam celerissimus rumor 

456. . . 

Serv., ad Aen., XII, 709 : ' Inter se coisse viros et cernere 
ferro ' ; vera et antiqua est haec lectio. Nam E. secutus est 

Olli cernebant magnis de rebus agentes. 

Cp. Lucret., V, 393 : Magnis inter se de rebus cernere 
certant. 

**3 omnia personitans arcet terram mare caelum Bemays 
coU. Prob. ad Ed., VI, 31 

170 



ANNALS 



452-3 



Servius (supplemented) : ' Arcebat,' kept off. It means 
also ' contains.' Ennius — 

■who ^N-ith bright thunderbolt 
Encloses all things in a burst of sound," 



454 

Cicero : It was with reference to our system of augury 
that Ennius wrote — 

Then on the left, in weather clear and calm. 
He thundered a good omen. 

(B) Affairs of State. 

455 

Priscianus : ' Celerissimus ' for ' celerrimus.' . . . Ennius in 
the Annals — 

* And then after most swiftest rumour had spread 
through the lands, 

456 

Servius, on Virgil's ' making decision with the sword ' : 
This reading is old and the true one. For he followed 
Ennius ... — 

Busied ^\•ith great affairs they were making a 
decision. 

" Probus quotes a whole line Omnia p.s.a. terrain mare 
caelum and gives the author as Lucretius, though our extant 
MSS. do not contain the line. Cf. Lachmann, on Lucret., 
IV, 126; Munro, Lucret., Vol. I, 163-4. 

171 



ENNIUS 

457 

Servius, ad Georg., II, 424 : . • . ' cum ' abundat. . . . 
Ennius — 

EfFudit voces proprio cum pectore sancto ; 

id est proprio pectore, nam ' cum ' vacat. 

458-9 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 201, 15 K : 'In mundo ' pro ' palam ' 
et ' in expedite ' ac ' cito.' . . . Ennius — 

' tibi vita 
seu mors in mundo est ' 

460 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., I, 69 : ' Incute vim ventis.' 
. . . Ennius — 

dictis Romanis incutit iram 

461 

Cicero, ad Alt., VI, 2, 8 : Ain tandem, Attice, laudator 
integritatis et elegantiae nostrae — 

Ausus es hoc ex ore tuo . . . ? 

inquit Ennius, ut equites Scaptio ad pecuniam cogendam 
darem, me rogare 1 

462 

Varro, L.L., VII, 12 : ' Tueri ' duo significat, unum ab 
aspectu . . . unde est Ennii ... — 

* Quis pater aut cognatus volet vos contra tueri ? 

*®2 vos lun. nos Varro 

» A mistake of Servius. In Virgil's passage cum is tem- 
poral. 

172 



ANNALS 

457 

Servius, on ' cum Tomere ' in Virgil : ' Cum ' is redun- 
dant "... Ennius — 

From his own hallowed heart he poured forth 
speech ; 
that is, ' praprio 'peciore^ for ' cum ' has no force here. 

458-9 

Charisius : ' In mundo ' for ' palam ' and ' in expedito ' 
and ' cito ' . . . Ennius — 

' Whether it is life or death is now in readiness for 
you ' 

460 

Servius (supplemented), on ' Strike strength into the 
winds ' in Vii^ : . . . Ennius — * 

By his words he struck -wTath into the Romans 

461 

Cicero : You don't say so, Atticua ! You, who iH>ai3ed 

the nice honour of my conduct — 

' Durst you thus out of your own mouth . . . 

(says Ennius), ask me to give Scaptius some cavalry to collect 
bis debts with ? 

462 

Varro : ' Tueri ' has two meanings, one derived from the 
idea of looking at, whence comes Ennius* use of it . . . — 

' WTiat man, father or kinsman, will wish to look 
you all in the face ? ^ 

* Vahlen suggests relating this fr. to fr. 510. He compares 
Virg., Atn., X, 367-8, and Homer, //., XI, 291. 

' This and the next fr. seem to belong to the same context 
(V, 83-4). They may be words of Scipio to those who opposed 
his African schemes. That 462 is a hexameter need not be 
doubted, since Ennius certainly shortened the second syllable 
of * contra ' (cf. pp. 436-7). 

173 



ENNIUS 

463 
Nonius, 230, 10 : ' Vultus ' . . . neutro. . . . Ennius — 
' Aversabuntui* semper vos vostraque vulta 

464-6 

Varro, L.L., VII, 103 : Multa ab animalium vocibus tralata 
in homines . . . perspicua ut Ennii — 

animus quom peetore latrat 

. . . minus aperta ut. . . . Enii a vitulo . . . eiusdem a 
bove — 

clamore bovantes 
eiusdem a leone — 

pausam fecere fremendi. 

Cp. Paul., ex Fest., 87, 9 : ' latrare ' Ennius pro poscere 
posuit. Homer., Od., XX, 13 : KpaBi-q Be oi evBov vXaKTei, 11., 
II, 142 : Ovfiov €vi arridfaaiv upivev. et al. ; Verg., Aen., V, 
363 : animusque in peetore. 



467 

Augustinus, De Civ. Dei, II, 21 : Sicut etiam ipse Tuilius non 
Scipionis nee cuiusquam alterius sed suo sermone loquens in 
principio quinti libri [de Re Publica) commemorate prius 
Ennii poetae versu quo dixerat — 

Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque. 

««3 aversabuntur Quich. avorsabuntur S advers- 

ab<antur cdd. 

*•* animus cum Varro animusque in S coll. Od., XX, 1 



" But adversabantur may be right, ' were set against me.' 
174 



ANNALS 

463 
Nonius : ' Vultus ' ... in the neuter. . . . Ennius — 
* You and your faces mil be ever turned away " 

464-6 

Varro : Many animal sounds have been used figuratively 
of human beings; ... of quite clear cases there is, for 
example, Ennius' — 

when his heart in his breast barks his wants * 

. . . and of less obvious cases there is for example . . . 

. . . Ennius' usage drawn from the calf ... and the same 
poet's usage drawn from the cow — 

clamorously mooing 

and also his usage drawn from the lion — 

they put a stop to their roaring. 



467 

Augustine : Just as Tully himself declared, speaking not in 
Scipio's nor anyone else's words but in his own person at the 
beginning of his fifth book {sc. On the Republic), having first 
quoted the line of Ennius where that poet had written — 

On manners and on men of olden time 
Stands firm the Roman State. 

* Paulus says : Ennius used lalrare in the sense of foscere. 
These frs. should possibly be attributed to the Satires. In 
fr. 464 we should perhaps write cum (preposition), as Varro 
does, instead of quom which is the spelling used by Ennius 
for temporal cum. 

175 



ENNIUS 

468-9 

Varro, R.R., III, 1, 2 : In hoc nunc denique est ut dici 
possit, non cum Ennius scripsit — - 

Septingenti sunt paulo plus aut minus anni 
augusto augurio postquam incluta condita Roma est 
Cp. Suet., August., 7. 

470 

Nonius, 197, 2 : ' Caelum ' . . . masculino. . . . Ennius — ■ 

Fortes Romani sunt tamquam caelus profundus 

Cp. Charis., ap. G.L., I, 72, 16 K; Vergil., Aen., I, 58: 
caelum que profundum. 

471-2 

Porphyrio, ad Hor., S., I, 2, 37 : ' Audire est operae pretium 
procedere recte | qui moechis non vultis ut omni parte laborent.' 
Urbane abutitur Ennianis versibus — 

' Audire est operae pretium procedere recte 
qui rem Romanam Latiumque augescere vultis.' 
Cp. Acr., ad loc. ; Varr., ap. Non., 478, 16. 

473 

Servius, ad Aen., XI, 27 : — 

quem non virtutis egentem, 
Ennii versus est. 

474 

Ekkehart, ad Oros., Ill, 9, 5 (Anno autem post hunc — 
8C. A.U.C. CCCC F7X—subsequenti) : Ennius— 

quom nihil horridius unquam lex uUa iuberet. 

*'•* sunt swppl. Merula tamquam B quamquam Non. 

" It is unknown what caused Ennius to date the foundation 
of Rome in the ninth century. This fr. may be a rough-and- 
ready remark from a speech (cf. St., pp. 222-23; V., CLIV fiF.) 

176 



ANNALS 

468-9 

Varro : With r^ard to this matter, only now could it be 
said, and not when Ennius wrote, that — 

Seven hundred years it is," a little more or less, 
since renowned Rome was founded by august augury 

470 
Xonius : ' Caelum ' ... in the masculine. . . . Ennius — 
Brave are the Romans as the sky 's profound 

471-2 

Porphyrio, on Horace's words : ' It's worth your while, 
all you who wish no successftd path for adulterers, to hear 
how they are burdened on all sides ' : He wittily perverts 
lines of Ennius — 

' To hear is worth your while, all you who ^\•ish the 
Roman State to tread a successful path and Latium 
to increase.' 

473 

Servius, on Virgil's — 

whom, lacking not of valour, 
says : This is a line of Ennius. 

474 

Over a passage of Orosius, in a codfx SangaUensis, mention- 
ing the punishment of Minucia a vestal virgin in 343 B.C., 

Ekkehart wrote : Ennius — 

since nothing more horrible could any law ever 
demand. 

The most attractive theory is that of Soltan (Philol., X.F., 
XXV, 317 CF.), who, calculating that Ennius dated the founda- 
tion of Rome c. 1100, suggests that these words are spoken 
by Camillus on the occasion of the invasion of the Gauls 
(390 or 387 B.C.). In Livy, V, 54 Camillus speaks of the 
365th year of Rome's existence — this, of course, follows the 
system by which 753 was the date of Rome's foundation. 

177 
VOL. I. N 



ENNIUS 

475 

Nonius, 64, 29 : ' Propages ' est series et adfixio continuo 
•vel longe ducta. . . . Ennius — 

nobis unde forent fructus vitaeque propagmen. 

Cp. Non., 221, 12. 

476 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 470, 21 K : Propria necatus ferro, 
nectus vero alia vi peremptus dicitur. Ennius — 

Hos pestis necuit, pars occidit ilia duellis. 

477 

Cassiodorius, ap. G.L., VII, 207, IK:' Cum ' praepositio 
per c scribenda est, ' quum ' adverbium temporis, quod sig- 
nificat ' quando,' per q scribendum est discretionis causa, 
ut apud Ennium — 

Cum legionibus quom proficiscitur induperator, 

478 

Nonius, 214, 7 : ' Metus ' . . . feminino. . . . Ennius — 

Nee metus ulla tenet ; freti virtute quiescunt. 

Cp. Test., 402, 15 (. . . Ennius . . . 'nulla metus'); 
11., XI, 9 : ■^voper] niavvoi. 

479 

Festus, 510, 17 : ' Sultis ' si vultis significat. . . . Ennius — 

' Pandite sultis genas et corde relinquite somnum.' 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 66, 37 (15) : genas Ennius palpebras 
putat cum dicit. ... 

«" trib.lib.IVY 

*'* nee Mercier ni cdd. freti Mercier rite cdd. 
(tennet riae Lu.) virtutem, rite V 

178 



ANNALS 

475 

Nonius : ' Propages ' is a connected series drawn out 
without a break, or at great length. . . . Ennius — 

\S'henee there might be crops and prolonging of 
life for us, 

476 

Priscianus : ' Xecatus ' is the proper term to use of a man 
killed by the sword, but ' nectus ' of a man killed by some 
other violence. Ennius — 

Some a plague did kill ; others of them fell in wars. 

(C) War. 

477 

Cassiodorius : ' Cum ' as a preposition must be written 
with a c ; ' quum ' as an adverb of time meaning ' quando,' 
with a q for the sake of distinction, for example in Ermius — * 

\Mien the commander sets forth ^^^th hi*; ho^ts, 



478 

Nonius : ' Metus ' ... in the feminine. . . . Ennius — 

Nor any fear holds them ; trusting in their valiance, 
they rest. 

479 
Festus : ' Sultis ' means ' si vultns ' ; . . . Ennius — 

• Open your eyelids,* will you all, and leave behind 
the sleep in your hearts.' 

• He describes probably the voiorum nuncupalio on the 
Capitol. 

• Paulus says that Ennius uses genae in the sense of eyelids. 

179 
n2 



ENNIUS 

480 

' Lactantius ' ad Stat., Theb., VI, 27 : ' et cornu fugiebat 
somnus inani ' ... sic a pictoribus simulatur, ut liquidum 
somnum ex cornu super dormientes videatur efifundere. Sic 
Ennius — 

Quom sese exsiccat somno Romana iuventus. 

481-2 

Nonius, 134, 29 : ' Latrocinari,' militare mercede. . . . 
Ennius — - 

. . . fortunasque suas coepere latrones 
inter se memorai'e. 

483 
Nonius, 223, 33 : ' Sagum "... Masculini. Ennius — 
tergus igitur sagus pinguis opertat 

484 
Festus, 400, 29 : Enniua . . . — 
. . . surum unum unus ferre, tamen defendere 
posset. . . . 

Suri autem sunt fustes, et viroKopLOTiKais surculi. 
Cp. Test., 424, 7, Paul., ex F., 425, 1. 

485 

Vergilius, Aen., XI, 307 : Nee victi possunt absistere ferro. 
Servius auctus : Ennius — 

Qui vicit non est victor nisi victus fatetur ' 

Varro et eeteri invictos dicunt Troianos quia per insidias 
oppressi sunt ; illos enim vinci adiirmant qui se dedunt 
hostibus. 



**^ suas Mereier quas cdd. 

*** surum unum unus V alii alia unu usuru surus 

Fest., 400 * * * urus surum * * Fest., 424 unus surus 

surum ferret Paul. 

l8o 



ANNALS 

480 
' Lactantius,' on ' And sleep fled away, his horn empty ' 
in Statins : Sleep is represented by painters so as to appear 
to pour out over slumberers liquid sleep from a horn. So 
Ennius has — 

\Mien the young warriors of Rome dry themselves 
from sleep. 

481-2 

Nonius : ' Latrocinari ' to serve as a soldier for pay. . . . 
Ennius — 

and the hired warriors began to talk among them- 
selves of their fortunes 

483 
Nonius : ' Sagum ' . . . Masculine form. Ennius — 
Therefore a thick cloak covers his back 

484 

Festus : Ennius ... — 

. . . Still could one bring one stake, still could he 
defend ..." 
' suri ' are stakes ; the diminutive is ' surculi.' 

485 
Virgil : Not when conquered can they have done with the 
sword. An augmenter of Servius adds : Ennius — * 

* He who has conquered is not conqueror 
Unless the conquered one confesses it ' 

Varro and the rest speak of the Trojans as ' unconquered ' 
because they were overthrown by trickery; they affirm that 
only those who surrender themselves are conquered. 

" This fr. is almost hopeless, but it seems to refer to stakes 
of which each legionary carried one for the fortification of the 
camp, v., 95. 

* If the augmenter, in ' Varro and the rest,' includes 
Ennius, then the context is probably the same as the frs. 
about Troy not being really captured — see pp. 128-9. 

l8i 



ENNIUS 

486 
Festus, 434, 30 : ' Superescit ' significat supererit. Ennius — 
' Dum quidem unus homo Romanus toga superescit, 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 435, 8. 

487 
Varro, L.L., VII, 46 : Apud Ennium — 
lam cata signa fere sonitum dare voce parabant, 
' cata ' acuta j hoc enim verbo dicunt Sabini. 

488 

Paulus, ex F., 83, 16 (26) : ' Lituus ' appellatus quod litis 
sit testis. . . . Ennius — 

Inde loci lituus sonitus effudit acutos 



489 

Donatus, ad Ter., Phorm. Ill, 1, 1 : . . . ' cum istoc animo. 
. . . Ennius — 

Optima cum pulchris animis Romana iuventus 



490 

Paulus, ex F., 37, 24(16) : ' Cracentes,' graciles. Ennius — 
Succincti gladiis media regione cracentes. 



I 



*'* fortasse super escit 

**' fere Laetus fera 0. Mr. ferae fer§ ( Varro) 

l82 



4 

1 



ANNALS 

486 
Festus : ' Superescit ' means ' supererit.' Ennius — 

' Yes, so long as one gowned man of Rome is left 
alive, 

487 
Varxo : In a passage of Ennias — 

Just then the shrill watchwords were making ready 
to give sound in a call, 

' cata ' means sharp ; for this is the word used by the Sabines 

for ' acuta.' 

488 

Paulus : ' Litnus ' is so called on the ground that it is a 
witness of ' lis ' " (strife) . . . Ennius — 

Thereupon the war-horn poured forth sharp sounds 



489 

Donatus, on ' With such faint spirit as that ' in Terence : 
Ennius — 

The best youth of Rome with fine spirit 



490 
Paulas : ' Cracentes,' ' slender. Ennius — 
Sword-girt and slender round the waist. 



" In fact lUuus originally meant crooked and was perhaps 
an Etruscan word. 

* This word occurs here only; crac- is obviously kindred 
with graC: 

183 



ENNIUS 

491 

Servius, ad Aen., IX, 675: 'Armati ferro'; aut bene 
instructi armis aut, ut Asper dicit, ferrea corda habentes, 
id est dura et cruenta cogitantes, ut Ennium sit secutus qui 
ait — 

succinct! corda machaeris. 

492 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., V, 37 : ' in iaculis.' In hastia 
Ennius — 

levesque sequuntur in hastis. 

493 

Paulus, ex F., 500, 18 (20) : ' Siciles,' hastarum spicula 
lata. Ennius — 

Incedit veles vulgo sicilibus latis. 

494 

Nonius, 555, 14 : ' Falarica,' telum maximum. . . . 
Ennius — 

. . . quae valide veniunt ; falarica missa 

Cp. Virgil., Aen., IX, 702 : contorta falarica venit. 

495 

Schol. Bern., ad Luc, Phars., I, 6 : Infestisque obvia 
signis 1 signa, pares aquilas et pila minantia pUis ' ; Ennii 
versus — 

Pila retunduntur venientibus obvia pilis 

"1 trib. lib. XV Y. 

*** q. V. V. <velut alta> f. m. coni. V q. valido venit 

contorta falarica missu mg. lunian. (vibrata coni. olim V) 
quae valide venit falarica missa coni. Linds. 

184 



ANNALS 

491 

Servius, on ' Armed in iron ' in Virgil : Either ' well 
equipped with arms ' or, according to the statement of Asper, 
' having hearts of iron,' that is, ' thinking hard and bloody 
thoughts ' ; this makes him follow Ennius, who says — 

girt round their hearts with broadswords. 



492 

Servius (supplemented), on ' In the midst of spears ' in 
Virgil : Ennius has ' in the midst of lances ' — 

and the light-armed followed in the midst of lances. 

493 

Paulus : ' Siciles,' broad points of lances. Ennius — 

The skirmishers, holding broad cutting-spears, 
advanced in a body. 

494 

Nonius : ' Falarica,' a very large javelin. . . . Ennius — 
. . . which come sturdily ; the fire-spear was hurled " 

495 

A Scholiast on Lucan's ' How standards faced enemy 
standards, eagles were matched one with another, and spears 
threatened spears ' : A line of Ennius — 

Blunted back were spears that clashed against 
oncoming spears 

" The quotation is defective. Vahlen thinks Ennius 
compares fulmina with missiles (V., in SUz.-Ber. B. Akad., 
1896, 727); the comparison, however, might well be of 
missiles mth^ fulmina. 



ENNIUS 

496 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., XII, 294 : ' teloque orantem 
multa trabali (. . . ferit)'; Ennius — 

teloque trabali 



497 

Paulus, ex F., 353, 1 : ' Runa ' genus teli significat. 
Eniiius — 

runata recedit 

id est proeliata. Cp. Feat., 362, 1. 



498 

Festus, 490, 15 : ' Spira ' dicitur . . . basis columnae. 
. . . Ennius quidem hominum multitudinem ita appellat 
cum dicit — 

spiras legionibus nexit. 

Cp. Paul,, ex F., 491, 1. 



499-500 

' Lactantius,' ad Stat., Theb., XI, 56 (. . . iam gelida ora 
tacent; carmen tuba sola peregit) : Ennius — 

Quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit 
et pereunte viro raucus sonus acre cucurrit. 

Cp. SU. Ital., IV, 169 ff. 



" But it probably means simply ' armed with the runa,' 
just as pilatus, as used by Virgil and Martial, means ' armed 
with the pihim.' The subject would be turba or the like. 

l86 



ANNALS 

496 

Servixis (supplemented) on ' and with a spear stout as a 
beam he smot« him praying many a prayer ' in Virgil : 
Ennius — 

and ^\^th a spear stout as a beam 



497 
Paulus : ' Runa ' means a kind of spear. Ennius — 
armed with spear, gave way 
' runata,' that is, ' having given battle.' " 



498 

Festus : ' Spira ' is a term applied to the base of a pillar. 
. . . But Ennius gives the name to a multitude * of men when 
he says — 

coils wove he with his hosts. 



499-500 

' Lactantius,' on Statins . . . ' then his chill mouth fell 
silent ; the trumpet finished alone its tune ' : Ennius — <= 

And when his head was falhng, the trumpet 
finished alone its tune ; and even as the warrior did 
perish, a hoarse blare sped from the brass. 

* This suggests not spira (a twisted rope or the like) but a 
transliteration of oTreipa (which Polybius uses for manipulus). 

' There is another imitation of Ennius' passage in Statins 
(IV, 169 ff.) where he is narrating the battle at the Ticinus. 
But Ennius' own context is not known. 

i87 



ENNIUS 

501-2 

Servius, ad Aen., X, 396 (395-6) : Te decisa suum, Laride, 
dextera quaerit, | semianimesque micant digiti ferrumque 
retractant.' Ennii est, ut — 

Oscitat in campis caput a cervice revulsum 

semianimesque micant oculi lucemque requirunt. 

Cp. Sil. Ital., VI, 10; Vergil., Aen., IV, 691. 



503 

Porphyrio, ad Hor., C, I, 9, 1 : Vides ut alta stet nive candi- 
dum (Soracte). . . . ' Stet ' autem ' plenum sit ' significat, ut 
Ennius — 

stant pulvere campi 

et Vergilius {Aen., XII, 408) : lam pulvere caelum \ stare 
vides. 

504-5 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., I, 81 (82 cavum converea cuspide 
montem | impulit in latus) : . . . Ennius — 

' nam me gravis impetus Orci 
percutit in latus. 



506 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 240, 6 K : . . . Ennius quoque in 
Annalium libro — 

Euax ! Aquast aspersa Latinis. 

*"* pertudit coni. V coll. Jr. 423 

euax r 

*'• liber aquas istas pensa lituus exc. Caiich. annalium 
libro aquast aspersa latinis Charis. 



ANNALS 

501-2 

Servins, on Virgil's ' Yon, Larides, yonr severed right hand 
seeks — ^you — its master; and your fingers half alive lie 
twitching, and clench at the sword ' : The idea is Ennius', 
thus — 

On the plains gaped his head torn out from the 
neck, and his eyes half alive lay twitching, and were 
fain to see the light. 

503 

Porphyrio, on Horace's ' Do you see how Soracte stands 
white in deep snow ...?'...:' Stet ' means ' is laden,' 
as Eiuiius has it — 

The plains stand thick with dust 

and Virgil : ' And now you see the sky stand thick with dust.' 



504-5 

Servios (supplemented), on Virgil's ' With intumed apear 
he struck into the hollow mountain's side ' : Ennius — 

' for a heavy onset of Death strikes into my side. 



506 
Charisius : . . . Ennius also in a book of the AnnaU — 
Bravo ! The Latins were refreshed." 

" The text is doubtful ; dqvast, three syllables. Aspergere 
aquam means to revive. 

189 



ENNIUS 

507-8 

aucior, Bell. Hisp., XXXI, 6 : Ita cum clamor esset 
intermixtus gemitu gladiorumque crepitus auribus oblatus, 
imperitorum^ mentes timore praepediebat. Ut ait Ennius — 

. . . (hicy pede pes premitur, armisque teruntur 
arma <(viro vir). 

Cp. Fur. Bibac, ap. Macrob., S., VI, 3 : ' pressatur pede 
pes, mucro mucrone, viro vir.' Vergil., Aen., X, 361 : Haeret 
pede pes densusque viro vir. Homer., 11., XIII, 130 s. 
(cp. XVI, 214 ff.) : (ppd^avres 86pv Soupi, aaKOs aaKe'C TrpoOeXvfivo). 
'Aanls dp' dairi8' epeihe, Kopvs KOpvv, dvepa S' avrjp- 

509 

auctor, Bell. Hisp., XXIII, 2 : Hie dum in opere nostri 
distenti essent, complures ex superiore loco adversariorum 
decucurrerunt nee detinentibus nostris multis telis iniectis 
complures vulneribus affecere ; ut ait Ennius — 

Hie turn nostri eessere parumper. 

510 

Servius (auctus), ad Aen., IX, 327 : ' Temere ' . . . 
significat et subito. Ennius — 

* quo tam temere itis ? 

511 

Varro, L.L., VII, 100 : Apud Ennium— 
Decretum est stare <(et fossari) corpora telis. 
Hoc verbum Ennii dictum a fodiendo, a quo fossa. 

607-8 i^Q p p g g ^ ^Y jji(, p p p j^(j armis arma teruntur 
B pes premitur pede et armis arma teruntur V (seclud. hie) 
<viro vir> sitppl. Norden hie, ut ait Ennius, pes pede 

premitur armis tenmtur arma aiict. Bell. Hisp. 
^"^ hie tum ut ait Ennius Auct. h. t. seclvd. V 
*^* et fossari suppl. Bergk decretum est fossari Colonna 
decretum fossari O. Mr. 

190 



ANNALS 

507-« 

The author of The Spanish War : Thus since shouts were 
mingled with groans, and a clattering of swords struck upon 
the ear, the din confused the minds of the raw levies. As 
Ennius says — 

Hereupon foot pressed foot and weapons weapons 
rubbed, and warrior warrior thronged.^ 



509 

The same author : At this point, while our men were busied 
at the work, a number of our adversaries ran down from 
a higher level and by casting many spears wounded a number 
of our men who were unable to hold them back. As Ennius 



Here now our men gave way a little while.* 

510 

Servius (supplemented) on Virgil : ' Temere ' . . . also 
means ' suddenly.' Ennius — 

' WTiither go you aU so rashly ? 

511 
Varro : In a passage of Ennius — 

Order was given to stand and delve into then- 
bodies with spears. 

This word ' fossari ' in Ennius is derived from ' fodio,' 
whence comes the word ' fossa.' 

" Restorations of Ennius' words are all doubtful. That 
they include viro vir is likelj-, if we judge from other imitations 
(quoted opposite) of the Homeric originaL V., 105; Norden, 
159. 

* Cp. Livy, XXVI, 44, Bomani parumper ctssere. 

191 



ENNIUS 

512 

Isidorus, Orig., X, 270 : ' Taeterrimus ' pro fero nimium 
. . . Ennius — 

taetros elephantos 

Cp. Placid., ap. C.O.L., V, 157, 21 : excerpt, ex cod. Cassin., 
ap. C.GJL., 581, 14 (. . . tetros elephantos f ad inguinem t)- 

513 

Servius, ad Aen., IV, 404 : — 

It nigrum campis agmen 

Hemistichium Ennii de elephantis dictum, quo ante Accius 
est usus de Indis. 

514-15 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., II, 518, 13 K: 'Tutudi' . . . Ennius 
in Annalibus — 

viresque valentes 
contudit crudelis hiems 

Hie produxit paenultimam. 

516 

Nonius, 211, 10 : ' Lapides ' et feminino genere dici possunt 
ut apud Ennium — 

Tanto sublatae sunt agmine tunc lapides, 

ad Homeri similitudinem qui genere feminino lapides posuit. 

II., XII, 287 : <t)s Tuiv d.fjul)OT€pu)ae Xi8oi iTonwvTO dafieiai, 
Cp. Od., XIX, 494. 

'^* tetros (tetrosque dett.) elefantos (elephantes dett.) cdd. 
Isid. Placid. elephantos ad inguinem exc. cd. Cassin, 

elephantos anguimanus coni. V (Sitzungs.-Ber. B. Akad., 
1896, 725 ff. cdl. Lucret. V, 1302 : inde boves lucas turrito 
corpore, taetras | anguimanus) 

*i* augmine Wakefield lapides <vi> coni. V 

<;his> coni. Mr. tanto sunt sublatae a. t. 1. (pentam.) 

coni. St. foriasse t. s. s. j a. t. 1. 

192 



ANNALS 

512 
Isidorus : * Taeterrimus ' for very savage. . . . Ennias — 

foul elephants <* 

513 
Servius, on — 

goes a black column upon the plains 

in Virgil * : a half-line of Ennius used of elephants. Acciua 
used it earlier («c. than Virgil) of Indians. 

514-15 
Priscianus : ' Tutudi ' . . . Ennius ... in the Annals — 
and their sturdy strength cruel winter crushed 
Here he has scanned the penultimate long. 

516 

Nonius : ' Lapides.' This term can be used even in the 
feminine gender ; for example, Ennius — 

With so great a column were stones then upraised, 

This is after the manner of Homer, who used his word for 
' stones ' in the feminine gender. 



" Vahlen's attractive conjecture anguimanus for ad inguinem 
in the Exc. ex cod. Cass, is apparently not right — cf. Goetz, in 
C.G.L., VII, 330. This and the next fr. obviously come from 
some narrative about Pyrrhus or the Second Punic War, or 
warfare in Greece or Asia. 

* Who used the phrase in describing ants. 

193 



ENNIUS 

517-21 i 

Macrobius, 8., VI, 3, 7 : Homerica descriptio est equi 
fugientis in haec verba {II., VI, 506 fiF.) 

oiS S' ore Ti? araros imros o-Kocmjaas cm <f>dTVT] 
Seofiov anoppT^^as Oelrj nebCoio Kpoaivaiv, 
eliodios Xoveadai eiippelos TTOTap.olo, 
KvBiocov vi/iov 8e Kapr) e)(€i, dfi(f>l Se ;^arTai 
to/Ltoiy atCTaovraf d S' dyAcur](l)t 7TeTTOi6u>s, 
pifjuf>a e yovva (f>€pei /iera r* ■^^ea /cat vofiov 'vttmv, 

Ennius hinc traxit — 

Et turn sicut equus qui de praesepibus fartus 
vincla suis magnis animis abrupit et inde 
fert sese campi per caerula laetaque prata 
.celso pectore ; saepe iubam quassat simul altam ; 
spiritus ex anima calida spumas agit albas, 

Vergilius ' qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia vinclis ' et 
cetera. , 

[Vergilius, Aen., XI, 492 ff. 
Qualis ubi abruptis fugit praesepia vinclis 
tandem liber equus, campoque potitur aperto : 
aut ille in pastus armentaque tendit equarum 
aut assuetus aquae perfundi flumine noto 
emicat arrectisque fremit cervicibus alte 
luxurians; luduntque iubae per coDa per armos.] 



522 
Charisius, ap. 6.L., I, 83, 22 K : Quod Ennius ait- 
It equitatus uti celerissimus, 
barbarismus est. 



"2 sic Havet, Bev. de Phil, XIV, 27 equitatus iit 
c. B equitum celerissimus ed. princ. equitatus [ ut 
celerissimus V fortasse recte Ennius ait equitatus ut 

S3 

celcffimus Charts. 
194 



ANNALS 

517-21 

Macrobius : There is in Homer a description of a horse in 
flight, in these words : 

Even as when a stalled horse full fed at the manger breaks 
his tether and gallops clattering over the plain, being wont 
to bathe himself in a fair-flowing river, glorying therein, 
high holds he his head, and round his shoulders floats his 

me; and he trusting in his glory — swiftly do his limbs 
bring him to the haunts and pastures of mares, 

From this Ennius derived the following — 

And then j^^st as a horse which, full fattened from 
the stalls, bursts his tether in his high fettle, and 
away with breast upUfted bears himself over the rich 
grey-green meadows of the plain ; and withal again 
and again tosses his mane on high ; and his breath 
born of his hot temper flings out white froth, 

and Virgil : ' As when, tether burst, has fled his stalls,' and 
the rest. 

[Virgil (speaking of Tumus) has : 

As when, tether burst, has fled his stalls a horse, free at 
last and possessed of the open plain ; maybe he makes for 
the pastures and herds of mares, or, accustomed to bathe 
in the water of a river known to him, flashes forth and neighs 
and lifting high his neck goes glorying; and his mane playa 
over hia neck and shoulders.] 



. 522 

Charisius : When Ennios says ' celerissimus ' — 

goes like the most swiftest cavalry, 

it is a barbarism. 

195 
o2 



ENNIUS 

523 

Servius, ad Aen., IX, 37 (38 : Hostis adest. Eia ! ingenti 
clamore per omnes ] condunt se Teucri portas) : ' Hostis 
adest ' ; hie distinguendum, ut heia militum sit properantium 
clamor. Et est Ennianum qui ait — 

Heia machaeras ! 

Ergo heia ingenti clamore dicentes ad portas ruebant. 
Alii ' hostis adest, heia ' legunt. 

524 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 482, 34 H : ' Detondeo ' . . . 
detotondi. Ennius in Annalibus — 

deque totondit agros laetos atque oppida cepit. 

525 

Servius, ad Jew., X, 6 : ' Quianam.' Cur. Quare. Ennianua 
sermo est. Servius auctus : — 

' Quianam legiones caedimus ferro ? 

526-8 

Gellius, XVI, 10, 1 : Legebatur in consessu forte complurium 
Ennii liber ex Annalibus. In eo libro versus hi fuerunt — 

Proletarius publicitus scutisque feroque 
ornatur ferro, muros urbemque forumque 
excubiis curant. 

Cp. Non., 155, 21. 



*** deque totondit Merula detondit Bamb. ra. 2 

detotondit cdd. 

*" trib. lib. II Merula 
«"-8 trib. lib. VI V 

196 



•^ ANNALS 

523 

Servias, on ' The enemy is here, Hi ! With a great clamour 
the Teucri betook themselves through all the gates,' in Virgil : 
' The enemy is here.' At this point we must punctuate so 
as to make ' hi ! ' a clamour of hastening soldiers. The idea 
belongs to Ennius, who says — 

Hi, your swords I 

Thus Virgil means : — shouting ' hi ' with a great clamour 
they rushed at the gates. Others read ' the enemy is here, 
hi!' 

524 

Priscianus : ' Detondeo ' . . . ' detotondi.' Ennius in the 
Annals — 

Bare also stripped he the joyful fields, and he took 
the cities. 

525 

Servius, on ' quianam ' in Virgil : ' Quianam,' ' why ? ' 
for what reason?' The expression is Ennian. An aug- 
menter of Servius adds — 

' For why do we <• cut down the hosts with the 
sword J 

526-8 

GeUius : At a sitting where a good many were present, it 
happened that a book chosen from Ennius' Annals was being 
read. In that book occurred these lines — 

The lowest breeders '' at the country's cost were 
armed \Wth shield and savage steel ; it was they 
with sentries guarded the city and its walls and 
mart. 

" Perhaps mutinous soldiery (at the beginning of the Second 
Macedonian war?) (St., 220). Others (Mr., Valmaggi, V., 
after Merula) beUeve the fr. to have come from the story of 
the Horatii and the Curiatii. 

* prohtarii were the lowest class who served the state merely 
by breeding children (proles). 

197 



ENNIUS 

529 

Gellius, X, 29, 2 : ' Atque ' particiila ... si gemina fiat 
auget incenditque rem de qua agitur, ut animadvertimus 
in Q. Ennii Annalibus, nisi memoria in hoc versu labor — 

atque atque accedit muros Romana iuventus. 

Cp. Non., 530, 3. Cp. 11, XXII, 221 : ■npoirpoKvXi.vhoiicvos. 
Od., XVII, 525 : irpo-npo ApoU. Rh., Ill, 453. 



530 

Paulus, ex Test., 559, 7 : ' Trifax ' telum longitudinis 
trium cubitorum quod catapulta mittitur. Ennius — 

aut permarceret paries percussa trifaci 



531 

Festus, 140, 21 : ' Metonymia ' est tropos, cum . . 
significatur ... a superiore re inferior, ut Ennius — 

Cum magno strepitu Volcanum ventus vegebat. 



532 

Schol. Bembin., in Ter., Heaut., II, 3, 16 : ' Interea loci.' 
Loci parhelcon . . . Ennius — 

Flamma loci postquam concussa est turbine saevo, 

*'" permarceret permaceret ML Par. permaneret 
T perluceret 0. Mr. permaceat olim V percussu ' 
O. Mr. percussa cdd. 

"* rogi Umpfenbach concursat t. Umpf. conclusa 
Faern concussa e B concussa preturbine c^. 

concussa praeorbine Victorin. 

198 



ANNALS 

529 

Gelliua : The panicle ' atque ' . . ., should it be doubled, 
increases and intensifies the action with which it is connected, 
as we notice in the Annals of Quintus Ennius (unless, in giving 
this line, my memory is at fault) — 

and then and then approached the walls young 
warriors of Rome. 

530 

Paulus : ' Trifax,' a javelin three ells in length ; it is shot 
from a catapult. Ennius — 

or the party-wall pelted by long spears might crumble 
away " 

531 

Festus : ' Metonymia ' (change of names) is a trope which 
comes about when ... a lesser thing is given its meaning 
from a greater one ; for example, Ennius has — 

With a great crackle the breeze blew big the 
Fire-God's blaze. 



532 

A schoUast, on ' interea loci ' in Terence : ' loci ' is re- 
dundant; . . . Ennius — 

The flame there,^ when it had been tossed about 
in a fierce whirl, 

" Permarceret seems to be right — cp. luxuriae rictu Martis 
marcent moenia — Petron., Cena, 55 ; V., 97 ; St., p. 209. 

* The force of loci here is not clear. At any rate it does 
not go with 'postquam. Probably the scholiast is wrong and 
loci may mean simply ' of the place.' 

199 



ENNIUS 

533 

Isidorus, Orig., XIX, 2, 4 : ' Agea ' viae sunt, loca in 
navi per qua ad remiges hortator accedit; de qua Ennius — 

Multa foro ponit et agea longa repletur. 

534-5 

Servius (auctus) ad Georg., I, 12 : Cui prima frementem | 
fudit equum (. . . tellus).' Nonnulli veto . . . ' cui prima 
frementem | fudit aquam ' legunt, quod veteres murmura 
aquae fremitum dicebant. Ennius ... — 

ratibusque fremebat 
imber Neptuni. 

Cp. Serv. auct., ad Aen.. XI, 299. 

536 

Servius ad Aen., VI, 705 (Lethaeumque domos placidas 
qui praenatat amnem) : ' Praenatat,' praeterfluit. . . . 
Ennium igitur secutus est qui ait — 

fluctusque natantes 

537 

Servius (auctus), ad Aen., IX, 327 : ' Temere ' significat 
sine causa. Ennius — 

* Haud temere est quod tu tristi cum corde gubemas. 

Cp. Aen., VI, 185 tristi cum corde volutat. 

538 

Isidorus, Orig., XIX, 2, 12 : ' Clavus ' est quo regitur 
gubernaculum ; de quo Ennius — 

• dum clavum rectum teneam navemque gubernem. 

Cp. QuintU., II, 17, 24. 

*'' ponit Colonna ponet et cdd. pier. ponit et Caesenas 
agoeae longa replentur Valmaggi agiavia longa repletur 

Isid. et longa repletur agea coni. olim V 

200 



ANNALS 

(D) Naval affairs. 

533 

Isidorus : ' Agea ' means the footways, the spaces in a ship 
along which the boatswain approaches the rowers; on this 
Ennius has — 

Many wares he put in the gang^vay ; and the long 
passage was filled full." 

534-5 

Servios (supplemented), on ' At whose bidding the Earth 
first gave birth to the neighing horse ' in Virgil : . . . But 
some read ' cui prima frementem | fudit aquam,' because old 
writers used the term ' fremitus ' for the murmuring of 
water. Ennius . . . — 

and Neptune's water roared with ships. 

536 

Serrius, on ' and the river of Lethe which floats in front of 
the peaceful dwellings ' in Virgil : ' Praenatat,' flows by. 
Thus it was Ennius whom he followed, who says — 

and floating billows 

537 

Servius (supplemented) : ' Temere ' means without cause. 
Ennius — * 

' No chance is it that you steer sad at heart. 

538 

Isidorus : ' Clavus ' is that by which a rudder is guided ; 
on this Ennius has — 

* SO long as I hold tiller straight and steer the ship. 

" Uncertain (St., pp. 216-17). Whatever the correct form 
of ' agea ' may be, we can begin a new line with longa ; or 
supply ibi after agea ; or read (as Vahlen once suggested) 
loTiga r.a. Or possibly we can scan agea because of the liquid 
consonant which follows. 

" Xorden, 164. 

20I 



ENNIUS 
539 

Isidorus, Orig., XIX, 2, 14 : ' Tonsilla ' uncinus ferreus 
vel ligneus ad quern in litore defixum funes navium illigantur, 
de quo Ennius — 

Tonsillas apiunt configunt litus aduncas. 

540 

Servius, ad Aen., VI, 545 : ' Explebo numerum ' , . . 
' explebo ' est ' minuam.' Nam ait Ennius — 

navibus explebant sese terrasque replebant. 

541 

Schol. Veron., ad Aen., V, 241 (Et pater ipse manu magna 
Portunus euntem | impulit) : Ennius — 

atque manu magna Romanes inpulit amnis. 

Homer., II., XV, 694r-5 : t6v 8e Zevs (Laev oniade \ x«'P' 
fJuaXa fieydXr]. 

542 

GeUius, VII, 6, 2 : Cur autem non Q. quoque Ennium 
reprehendit (lulius Hyginus) qui in Annalibus non pennas 
Daedali sed longe diversius — 

Brundisium pulchro praecinctum praepete portu 

Cp. Gell., IX, 4, 1. 

543 

Porphyrio, ad Hor., S., 1, 10, 30 : ' Canusini more (bilinguis). 
Bilinguis dicitur quoniam utraque lingua usi sunt. . . . 
Ideo ergo et Ennius et Lucilius — 

Bruttace bilingui 
dixerunt. Cp. Paul., ex F. 25, 21. 

*^* tonsillas apiunt vd sim. cdd. t. rapiunt edd. fortasse 

aduncas | t. a. c. 1. 

*" trib. lib. IX Hug 

^*^ Braundisium (vel Brundisium) quid pulcro cdd. inquit 
p. coni. olim V portus Vat., at. portust olim V 



ANNALS 

539 

Isidoms : ' Tonsilla,' an iron or wooden hook to which, 
when it is fixed on the shore, ships' hawsers are tiedj on this 
Ennius has — 

They transpierced the beach and tied up the hooked* 
mooring-s takes . 

540 

Servius : ' Explebo numerum.' . . . ' Explebo ' means I 
will diminish,* for Ennius says — 

They unfilled themselves from the ships and filled 
up the land. 

541 

A Scholiast, on Virgil's ' And father Portunus himself with 
mighty hand drove him on his way ' : Ennius — 

and with mighty hand the river drove the Romans 
on. 

542 

GeUius : Furthermore, why does he (Julius Hyginus) not 
call to task Quintus Ennius also, who in the Annals uses 
' praepes ' not of the wings of Daedalus, but of something 
quite diflFerent — 

Brundisium belted by a beautiful fair haven " 

543 

Porphyrio, on ' speaking two tongues like a man of 
Canusium ' in Horace : ' Bilinguis ' is the term used because 
the Canusians used both languages (Greek and Latin). . . . 
On that account therefore both Ennius and Lucilius write — 

a Bruttian speaking two languages 

" aduncas is certainly right, though it is awkwardly placed. 
By apiunt is meant they tie the cables to the stakes. 

* Servius blunders ; Virgil means ' I will complete the 
number.' 

"^ praepes, often used of a favourable bird-omen, here seems 
to be simply ' good, useful.' 

203 



ENNIUS 

544 

Festus, 400, 29 : ... Ennius iocatus videtur . . . et 
alibi — 

Inde Parum< ul>ulabant. 



545 

Consentius, ap. G.L., V, 400, 4 K : Poetae faciunt meta- 
plasmos cum ipsi iam scripturam relinquunt corruptam. . . . 
Ennius — 

huic statuam statui maionim obatus Athenis ; 

. . . per metaplasmum dempsit litteram r. 



546 

Cicero, Tv^c. Disp., I, 20, 45 : Etenim si nunc aliquid 
adsequi se putant, qui ostium Ponti viderunt et eas angustias 
per quas penetravit ea quae est nominata Argo. . . . (Enn. 
Med., 257-8) aut ii qui Oceani freta ilia viderunt — 

Europam Libyamque rapax ubi dividit unda. 

quod tandem spectaculum fore putamus cum totam terram 
contueri licebit ? 

Cp. Cic, de Nat. Dear., Ill, 10, 24. 



*** <circum quam caemla salsa ul> suppl. Ilberg 
<cui caerula vi valida assultabant 0. Mr. 
et 

*** m. o. A. M (et alt. m. superscript.) maiorum abitratu 
( = arbitratu) Buttmann maiorem horto ( = hortor) auream 
ahenis L magis mansuram auguro ahenis Ilberg obatus 
(fortasse maiorem obatus) W 

204 



ANNALS 



544 



Festus: . . . Ennioa seems to have jested . . . and else- 
where — " 

Thence . . . Paros , . . were wailing. 



545 

Consentias : Poets make metaplasms when they of set 
purpose leave a wrong spelling uncorrected. . . . Ennius — * 

To him of my forefathers did I raise in my bereave- 
ment a statue at Athens; 

. . . by a metaplasm he has taken away (from orhatus?) the 
letter r. 

546 

Cicero: For if now men who have seen the gate of the 
Black Sea and the narrows through which passed the ship 
which was called Argo . . . (Ennius, Medea) ... or those 
who saw the familiar straits of the Ocean — 

where the greedy wave parts Europe and Libya," 

think they have achieved something, whatever kind of 
spectacle think we it will be when we shaU be allowed to gaze 
on the whole earth ? 



* Probably in a book later than the ninth. That Paros 
island is meant is shown by the continuation of the mutilated 
notice in Festus. 

* If the readings are tmcertain, the suggested changes are 
more so. If obatus is orbatus, it may go with maiorum, but 
there is no example of the use of orbo with the genitive instead 
of the ablative. 

* Almost certainly from Ennius. If so, it may belong to 
Scipio or to AnnaU, Book IX (Y., CXCCI); the reference is 
clearly to the Straits of Gibraltar. 

205 



ENNIUS 

547-8 

Vergilius, Georg., II, 42-44 — 

Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto, 
non mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum, 
ferrea vox. 

Schol. Bern, ad 43 : ' Non mihi ' et reliqua. Homericus 
senaus ; sic nam et Ennius — 

Non si, lingua loqui saperet quibus, ora decern sint, 
innumerum, ferro cor sit pectusque revinctum, 

II, II, 487-9 : 

TrXrjdvv 8' ovK av eyco iivdriaofiai ou8' ovoimtjvco, 
ov8' ei fioi Se'/ca fiev yXuyaaax SeKa be orofiaT' elev 

(fxjjvfj 8' dpprjKTOS, XttAKCOV 8€' [lOl TjTOp CVfl'lJ, 

Cp. Host., ap. Macrob., S., VI, 3, 6; Ov., Met., VIII, 533; 
Fast., II, 119; Trist., I, 5, 53; Sil., IV, 525 ff.; VergU., 
Aen., VI, 625, al. 

549 

Augustin., Ep., 231, 3 : Ego autem quod ait Ennius — 
Omnes mortales sese laudarier optant 
partim puto approbandum partim cavendum. 

Cp. Augustin., de Trin., XIII, 3, 6. 

550 

Servius, ad Aen., XII, 499 (Saevam nullo discrimine caedem I 
suscitat irarumque omnes effundit habenas). ' Irarum habenas ' 
. . . hie moderate locutus est, nam Ennius ait — 

irarum efFunde quadrigas. 

a i 
**' Non si Mommsen monstra si sibi B mons cd. 

quibus {i.e. qb) V (Herm., XV, 265) at cd. 

^** innumerum V in metrum cd. pectus Momm. 

pecus cd. 

2o6 



ANNALS 

(E) Miscellaneous. 

547-8 

Virgil says : 

Not all of it do I ask to embrace in my verses ; not if I were 
to have a hundred tongues and a hundred mouths and a voice 
of iron. 

A scholiast on this passage : ' not if I ' and the rest ; the 
idea is taken from Homer. And thus also writes Ennius — 

Not if I were to have ten mouths with which my 
tongue could have skill to speak words without 
number," and my heart and breast were fast bound in 
iron, 

Homer has : 

The common sort I could not number or name ; no, not even 
if I were to have ten tongues and ten mouths and a voice 
that none might break, and a heart of bronze within me, 

549 

Augustine : But for my part I think that the remark of 
Ennius — 

All mortal men long to be themselves acclaimed 

should be partly approved of and partly avoided. 



550 

Servius, on Virgil's ' He wakened cruel slaughter that 
spared none, and let loose all the reins of wrath ' ; " The reins 
of wrath ' . . . here he used a moderate expression, for Eimius 
says — 

Let chariots of wrathfulness loose like a flood. 

" Innumerum, used ' £idverbially ' like multum, is probably 
right. But it is just possible that in metrum is a gloss which 
has ousted in numeria or even tn numa^m. 

207 



ENNIUS 

551 

' Macrobius,' ap. G.L., V, 651, 35 K : ' Eructo ' ... est 
a verbo erugit. Enniua — 

Contempsit fontes quibus exerugit aquae vis. 
Cp. op. cit., 626, 21. 

552 
Servius, ad Aeti., IX, 163 — 

vertunt crateras ahenos ; 
potantes exhauriunt; et est hemistichium Ennianum. 

553 

Gellius, III, 14, 4 : Varro . . . disserit ac dividit subti- 
lissime, quid dimidium dimidiato intersit, et Q. Ennium 
scienter hoc in Annalibus dixisse ait — 

Sicuti si quis ferat vas vini dimidiatum, 

Pars quae deest ei vaso non ' dimidiata ' dicenda est sed 
'dimidia.' 

554 

Festus, 574, 1 : (de veneno) » * * cuius color inficiendo 
mutatur, ut Ennius cum ait— 

. . . quom illud ' quo iam semel est imbuta veneno ' . . . 

655 

Festus, 426, 33 : ' Solum,' terram. Ennius ... — 
sed sola terrarum postquam permensa parumper, 
Cp. Varr., L.L., V, 22. 

"^ trib. lib. XIII V fortasse scribend. a verbo erugo. 
Erugit Ennius 

'** sicuti veil. . sicut edd. 

*** cur aut cumque coni. V cupa illud 0. Mr. 

imbutu ' olim V 

2o8 



I 



ANNALS 

551 

Macrobius : ' Eructo ' ... is derived from a verb ' erogo.* 
Ennius — 

He scorned the springs whence spirts out a rush of 
water." 

552 

Servius, on a passage in Virgil : — 

They tilted up the brazen bowls ; 
' they drained at a draught ' ; it is also a half-line of Ennius. 

553 
Gellius : Varro . . . discusses and distinguishes most 
acutely the difference between ' a half ' and ' halved ' ; and 
he says that Quintus Ennius in the Annals was wise when he 
wrote — 

Just as if a man were to bring a halved beaker of 
wine, 

The missing part of that beaker should be spoken of as 
' half,' not ' halved.' 

554 

Festus {on poison) : . . . whose colour is changed by 
adulteration, for example Ennius when he says — 

When that proverb ' by the poison ^^ith which it 
is imbued "... 

555 
Festus : ' Solum,' earth. Ennius ... — 

But when she had passed swiftly over the fields of 
Earth,* 

" Possibly from a speech of Hannibal to Antiochos (Justin, 
XXXI, 5, 7. 

* Unless we take permensa in a passive sense (neuter plural), 
we are tempted to make this fr. precede (directly, if we read 
postqiutm est) lines 1'2-A in Book I — Indotudur tbi lupus femina 
conspicit om.nis. But sola terrarum suggests that Ennius means 
' the world.' 

209 



ENNIUS 

556 
Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 141, 24 K : ' Partum ' . . . Ennius — 



iamque fere quattuor partum 



557 

Isidorus, de Nat. Rer., XII, 3 : Partes autem eiua {sc. caeli) 
haec sunt : cohus axis cardines convexa poll hemisphaeria. 
' Cohus ' quod caelum continet. Unde Ennius — 

vix solum complere cohum terroribus caeli. 

558 

Isidorus, Orig., XVIII, 36, 3 : Ideo rotis quadrigas currere 
dicunt sive quia mundus iste circuli sui celeritate transcurrit 
sive propter solem quia volubUi ambitu rotat, sicut ait Ennius — 

Inde patefecit radiis rota Candida caelum. 

Serv., ad^ew., VI, 748(mille) rotam volvereperannos . , . 
est autem sermo Ennii. 

559 

Priscianus, ap. O.L., II, 170, 6K: 'lubar' quoque tam 
masculinum quam neutrum proferebant. Ennius in 
Annalibus — 

Interea fugit albus iubar Hyperionis cursum. 

***« quattor Ritschl 

**' solidum Ilberg, fortasse recte [vel soldum) pilam vix | 
sol mediam complere S fortasse vis soldum 



" Possibly describing the vigiliae, the four night-watches. 
* Reading and meaning uncertain. I take cohus or chous 
to be, like caelum, akin to the Sanskrit gva, be hollow. 

2IO 



ANNALS 

556 
Charisias says : ' Partum ' . . . Enniiis — ■ 
and by then almost of four parts . . . 

557 

Isidoros : And the parts of the sky are the hollow, the axis, 
the hinges, the vaults, the poles, and the hemispheres; 
' hollow ' is so called because it ' holds ' the sky. Whence 
Ennius — 

hardly to fill with terrors the hollow alone of the sky.* 

558 

Isidorus : They say that teams of four * run ' on ' wheels ' 
because this our universe ' runs ' out its course through the 
swiftness of its orbit, or because of the sun, since it ' wheels ' 
in a circular revolution ; thus Ennius says — 

Then the white wheel laid open the sky with its 

rays."^ 

Servius, on Virgil's ' when they have rolled the wheel 
through a thousand years ' : . . . and further this expression 
is Ennian. 

559 

Priscianus : ' lubar ' also they used to inflect both as a 
masculine and as a neuter noun. Ennius in the Annals — 

Meanwhile the white brilliance of Hyperion sped 
away on its course.*^ 

' 'The line describes the return of spring' (St., p. 214). 
Surely it describes sunrise. ' Candida ' : bringing fair 
weather ' (St.). Surely it means ' bright white.' 

"* Possibly albus iubar is the moon ; it flees before the sun's 
brightness. - 



p2 



ENNIUS 

560 

Servius, ad Aen., XII, 115 : (116 lucemque elatis naribus 
efflant) . . . Ennianus versus est ordine commutato. Ille 
enim ait — 

funduntque elatis naribus lucem. 

Cp. Mar. Victorin., ap. G.L., VI, 28, 7 K (efflantque), Sil., 
V, 56. 

561 

Servius, ad Aen., I, 51 (Loca feta furentibus austris) : 
' Austris.' Figura est celebrata apud Vergilium et est species 
pro genere. Legerat apud Ennium — 

furentibus ventis 

562 
Osbem, ap. Mai, Class Auct., VIII, 332 : ' Hoc momen, 
-nis ' pro momento. Unde Ennius — ■ 

vestro sine momine, venti. 
Cp. Vergil., Aen., I, 133 : meo sine numine, venti. 

563 

Servius, ad Georg., Ill, 76 (Pecus generosi puUus in arvis | 
altius ingreditur et mollia crura reponit). ' Altius ingredi- 
tur,' cum exultatione quadam incedit. ' Mollia crura re- 
ponit ' : Ennius de gruibus — 

perque fabam repunt et mollia crura reponunt. 

564 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 18, 17 K : ' Aulai medio ' Vergilius 
{Aen., Ill, 354) ;— 

terrai frugiferai 
Ennius in Annalibus. 

Cp. Martial., XI, 90, 5; Mar. Plot. Sac, ap. G.L., VI, 449, 
2 K ; etc. 



"" addend, fortasse <solis equi> 
212 



ANNALS 

560 

Servius on Virgil's : ' And from uplifted nostrils they send 
out breaths of light ' : This is a line of Ennius with a change 
in the order of words. For that poet says — 

And they pour out a flood of light from nostrils 
uplifted. 

561 

Servius, on Virgil's ' a place teeming with furious Souther- 
lies ' : ' Southerlies.' This is a figure of speech, namely, the 
particular for the general, which is frequent in Virgil. He had 
read in Ennius — 

with raging winds 

562 

Osbem : ' Hoc momen,' gen. ' mominis,' for ' momcntom.' 
Whence Ennius — 

\\-ithout impulse of yours, o you winds. 

563 

Servius, on Virgil's ' A foal of high-bred stud lifts a high 
pace in the fields and places a pliant leg ' : ' lifts a high pace,' 
advances with a kind of prancing. ' Places a pliant 1^ ' : 
Ennius on cranes — 

and they creep through the beanfield, placing a 
pliant leg. 

564 

Charisius : Virgil has ' aulai medio,' " and Ennios in the 
Annals has — 

of the fruite-bearing earthe 

" Virgil, Aen., Ill, 354. Priscianus says both genitive and 
dative singular could have this ending. 



ENNIUS 



565 



Gellius, XIII, 21, 13 : Ennius autem ' rectos cupressos ' 
dixit contra receptum vocabuli genus hoc versu — 

Capitibus nutantes pinos rectosque cupressos 

Cp. Non., 195, 23. 

**5 capitibus Gell., Non., prdb. V captibus Schneider 
prob. Valmaggi cautibus Stowasser capite {vers. Sotad.) 
Mr. vertice Onions comptibus Damste nutantis Gdl. 
(nutantibus Voss. min, 1) nutantibus Non. capitibus 
nutantibus ] ibi p. r. c. olim V 



214 



ANNALS 
565 

Gellias : Ennius too wrote ' rectos cupressos ' against the 
accepted gender of the word, in this line — 

pines with nodding heads," and straight cypresses 

* Whether aipitibus can be right is doubtful. Cf. St., p. 
210, and the critical note given here on the Latin text. Did 
Greliius write vertice which was ousted by a gloss capitibus 
before Nonius copied Gellius ? For other examples of hexa- 
meters beginning with ^ ^, see Annals, 339, and Hedypha- 
getica, 3 and 9. 



215 



PLAYS : 
TRAGEDIES 



FABULAE : 
TRAGOEDIAE 

ACHILLES 

SIVE 

ACHILLES ARISTARCHI 

There seems to be no need to believe, as some do (R. 118), 
that Ennius wrote two plays in which Achilles played the 
leading part. It is more probable that our authorities cite 
two different titles of the same play (V. CCI), as they do also 
in, e.g., the case of Andromache (see pp. 244 ff.). As in The 
Bansom of Hector (pp. 272 ff.), the material for Achilles was 

1-3 

Horn.,/?., IX, 10—11 : (^oiVa KrjpvKeaai Xiyv<f)06yyoiai KeXevaw \ 
kAtjStjv els dyoprjv kikXtjok^iv dvSpa eKaarov. 

Plautus, Poen., prol. 1-2, 11, 3-4: 

1. Achillem Aristarchi mihi commentari lubet; 

2. inde mi principium capiam ex ea tragoedia — 

Agamemno 
11. Exsurge, praeco; fac populo audientiam. 

" We must change the order of the dialogue as used by 
Plautus. Jahn, H., Ill, 191, arguing that the play included 

2l8 



PLAYS : 
TRAGEDIES 

ACHILLES 

OR 

ACHILLES AFTER ARISTARCHUS 

drawn from Homer, bat here Ennius' model was Aristarchus 
of Tcgea, who wrote tragedies at Athens in the time of 
Euripides (Suidas, s.v. 'ApCarapxc^, Euseb., Chron.). The 
play deals chiefly if not wholly with the rrpea^fia irpos 'A^iAAeo. 
{Iliad, IX.) At the head of the text of each Latin item I have 
put the probable Homeric source of the fragment. 

A. Place of assembly in the Greek camp. 

1-3 

Agamemnon caUs a meeting of the army : 

Plautus : I want to imitate Achilles after Aristarchus; so I 
will take my beginning from that tragedy " — 

Agamemnon 
Up, herald ; get you a hearing for the troops. 

Thersites' death, gives the words silete e. q. s. to Achilles 
calming the excited soldiery; the passage of Plautus rules 
this theory out. 

219 



ENNIUS 

Praeco 

3. Sileteque et tacete atque animum adveitite; 

4. Audire iubet vos imperator 

histricus. 

4-5 
II., IX, 31 5.? 

Nonius, 147, 18 : ' Obvarare,' pervertere, depravare, dictum 
a varis. Ennius Achille — 

nam consiliis obvarant quibus 
iam concedit hie ordo. 

6 

//., IX, 250—1 : dAAa ttoAu irpiv \ <f)pat,cv ottcos Aavaolaiv 
dXe^rjaeis kokov ■^fiap. 

Cp. Aesch., Myrmid., 132 N (60 Smyth). 

Nonius, 277, 24: 'Defendere' . . . depellere ... — 

Serva cives, defende hostes, cum potes defendere. 

7-9 

II., IX, 313 ; OS X ^'T^pov fikv KevOrj evl <f>peai.v, dXXo Be e'Trrj. 

Gellius, XIX, 8, 6 : ' Inimicitiam ' autem Q. Ennius in 
illo memoratissimo libro ... — 

Achilles 

eo ego ingenio natus sum ; 
amicitiam atque inimicitiam in frontem gero 
promptam. 

^ iam Ribb. tam cdd. 

'-» senar. constit. W peviametr. troch. Y, 120, 139-40 
promptam gero Gell. 



TRAGEDIES 

Herald 

Oyez ! Be still, and turn your minds to me. 
Silence ! This is the order of your general 

of stage-players. 

4-5 

Agamemnon advised a retreat from Troy ; then Diomedes • 
sharply rebuked him : 

Nonius : ' Obvarare,' to turn crooked, to make corrupt, a 
term derived from ' varus ' (awr\'). Ennius in Achilles — 

For such men cross us by advice to which 
This gathering of rank already yields. 

B. Achilles' tent. 

6 

On Nestor's advice. Phoenix, Ajax, Ulysses and Eurybates go 
to appeal to Achilles. From Ulysses' speech to him 7 : 

Nonius : ' Defendere ' ... to push back ... — 
Save you your men and drive you back the foe, 
While drive them back you can. 

7-9 
From Achilles' answer : * 

Gellius : Furthermore, Quintus Ennius, in that most famous 
book of his, used the term ' inimicitia ' . . . — 

Achilles 

Here is the nature which is mine from birth — 
Friendliness and unfriendliness alike 
Do I bear plain to see upon my brow.*^ 

« So I take the passage; of. Iliad, IX, 29 ff. R., 116 
suggests that the speaker is Helenus, or some deity who 
disapproves of resistance on the Trojans' part to Patroclus' 
deeds. Hie ordo, Le. hie conventus principum (V., 118). 

" II., IX, 307 fF. 

' v., 120 takes promptam with frontem. 

221 



ENNIUS 
10-12 

II., IX, 604—5 : et. 8e k' arep Sci>pu)v noXefiov <f)9ia-qvopa Sfijs | 
ovKed' 6p,<x)S TifiTJis eaeai, TroXefiov nep aXaXKCov, 

Isidorus, de Diff. Verb., 218, p. 29 A : ' Gloria ' . . . 
virtutum est, fama vero vitiorum ... — 

Phoenix 

Summam tu tibi pro mala 
Vita famam extolles et pro bona paratam gloriam. 
Male volentes famam tollunt, bene volentes gloriam. 



13 

Nonius, 472, 26 : ' Proeliant ' . . % — 

. . . ita moi'tales inter sese pugnant proeliant. 

Aesch. Myrmid., 131 (59 Smyth) ? : raSe /xev Xevaaeis, <f>aihip.^ 
*k\iXX€v I hopiXvixavTovs Aavacov pLO^fiovs \ ovs rtpoTmrajKiis etao) 
KXiaias (ddaaeis). 

U-15 

II., IX, 624 s. sitaserat Aias hoc modo : Bioyeves AaepridSr) 
TToXvp.-qxo-*'^ 'OSvaaev, | 'o[i€V ov yap /lot 8oKeei p,v6oio reXevr'q | 
Tjjhe y' 68a> Kpaveeadai. 

Nonius, 166, 20 : ' Regredere,' revocare. ... — 

Ulixes 

Quo nunc incerta re atque inorata gradum 
regredere conare ? 

*^ male volentes enim Isid. 

1* ita Harl. Par. 7667 Escor. inta rell. interea 
Klussmann cum L prob. V 



TRAGEDIES 
10-12 

Achilles was not persuaded ; then Phoenix tries his powers. 
The following comes perhaps from his speech : 

Isidore : ' Gloria ' is iised of virtues, but ' fama ' is used of 
vices ... — • 

Phoenix 

For a coward's life you will raise up unto yourself 
the direst bad name, for a brave life, a ready store of 
glory ; when men are evil wishers, they do raise up a 
bad name ; but men who are well-wishers, they 
raise up glory. 

13 

Perhaps th^ following are also words of Phoenix : 
Nonius : ' Proeliant ' . . . — 

In such wise are mortal men justling and tussling 
one with another. 

14-15 

Achilles would not be moved ; Ajax advised Ulysses that they 
should give up and go ; " the following words are probably spoken 
by Ulysses in reply to Ajax : 

Nonius : ' Regredere,' to retrace. ... — 



Ulysses 

WTierefore now try you to restep your steps, 
Our cause yet undecided and unpleaded ? 

" 11, IX, 622 flF. R. 113 (he suggests Ulysses op Phoenix. 
But Ajax's advice was addressed to Ulysses). 

223 



ENNIUS 

16-17 

Gellius, IV, 17, 13 : Ennius in tragoedia quae Achilles 
inscribitur ' subices ' pro aere alto ponit qui caelo subiectus 
est ... — 

per ego deum sublimas subices umidas, 
unde oritur imber sonitu saevo et spiiitu, 

Cp. Fest., 436, 23 ; Non., 169, 2. 

18 

II., IX, 6—7 : afivSis Se re Kvfxa KeXaivov \ Kopdverai. 

Cicero, in Verr., Act. II, Lib. I, 18, 46 : Turn subito 
tempestates coortae sunt maximae, iudices, ut non modo 
profieisci cum cuperet DoUabella non posset, sed vix in 
oppido consisteret — 

ita magni fluctus eiciebantur. 

Schol. Gronov., p. 403, 7, Or., ad loc. : Enniano hemistichio 
usus est ex ea tragoedia quae Achilles inscribitur. 

19 
11, VII, 224. 
Festus, 314, 22:— 

prolato acre astitit 

Ennius in Achille Aristarchi cum ait significat clipeo ante 
Be protento. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 315, 11 (4). 



i«-i' sublimas subiices | u. L 
1' spiritu Fest. strepitu Gell. 



224 



TRAGEDIES 

16-17 

Possibly words of Achilles in final " refusal : 

Gellius : Ennius, in the tragedy which is entitled Achilles, 

f)ut8 ' subices ' {' underlayers ') for the upper air which ' under- 
iea ' the sky — 

By heaven's god-haunted underlayers * on high, 
Whence springs the storm with savage shriek and 
swirl, 

18 
from a simile ? : 

Cicero : Then suddenly, gentlemen of the jury, great storms 
gathered, so that Dolabella was not only unable to set out 
when he wished, but could hardly stay in the town — 

Such mighty billows were tossed and tossed 
again. 

A scholiast on this passage : He made use of a half-line of 
Ennius, taken from the tragedy which is entitled Achilles. 



19 

from a battle-scene : 

Festus : WTien Ennius, in Achilles after Aristarchus, says — 
Stood by with bronze held forward 
he means ' with hia shield spread in front of himself.' 



" II., IX, 652 ff., where, however, there is nothing at all 
like Ennius' words. 

" Festus, 436, 23 says Ennius means clouds. 

225 



ENNIUS 



MAX 

The four extant lines from Ennius' Ajax do not allow us to 
say with certainty whether his model was Sophocles' Alas or 
not. It is probable that the action covered the events from 

20 

Nonius, 393, 7 : ' Statim ' producta prima syllaba a stando 
perseveranter et aequaliter significat. . . . Ennius Aiace — 

. . . qui rem cum Achivis gesserunt statim. 

21 

Varro, L.L., VII, 76 : 

Aiax 

Aliquod lumen — iubame ? — ^in caelo cemo 

' lubar ' dicitur stella Lucifer . . . Huius ortus significat 
circiter esse extremam noctem. 

Cp. Varro, L.L., VI, 6. . . . Ennianus Aiax ' lumen e. q. s. ; 
ib., VI, 81. 

22 

Festus, 484, 10 : Salmacis nomine nympha Caeli et Terrae 
filia fertur causa fontis Halicarnasi aquae appellandae fuisse 
Salmacidis, quam qui bibisset vitio inpudicitiae mollesceret. 
. . . Ennius — 

Salmacida spolia sine sudore et sanguine 

Cp. Cic, de Off., I, 18, 61. 

Soph., Ai., 1411-1413 : en yap dep^al \ avpiyyes dvco <f>vaa)ai 
fxeXav I fiivos. vel oratio Tecmessae 918-19 : <f>vaa>vT' avoi irpos 
plvas €K re (f>oi,vlas \ TrXrjyrjs [leXavdev aifx' an' oiVeiaj o(f>aYfjs. 
Cp. 898. 



v., CCI; R., 132. 

* Nonius is wrong here. 



226 



TRAGEDIES 



AJAX 



the rivalry of Ajax and Ulyssea over the arms of Achilles to 
the death of Ajax by his own hand." 



20 

from the 'prologue ? : 

Nonius : ' Statim,' when the first sj liable is pronounced 
long,* as derived from ' stare ' means perseveringly and uni- 
formly. . . . Ennius in Ajax — 

who warred -with the Achaeans steadfastly. 

21 
Vano ' :— 

Ajax 

Some glow — the star-light ? — in the heavens I see 

By ' iubar ' is meant the star ( Venvs) which is called 
' Light -bringer.' Its rise indicates that the end of the night 
is near. 

22 

Outburst of Ajax in which he gneers at the spoils won by 
Ulysses f .'* 

Festus : A nymph named Salmacis, a daughter of Sky and 
Earth, is said to be the origin of the name ' Salmacis ' given to 
the water of a spring at HaUcamassus ; he who had drunk this 
water became unmatmed in the vice of lewdness. Ennius — 

Spoils of Salmacis, gained without sweat and spilt 
blood. 

' In L.L., VT, 6, Varro shows that the words are spoken by 
Ajax in Ennius' plav of that name. Cf. V., 121-2; id., 
Enn., prooem., 1880, p. 14; R., 132, n.; 144. The light seen 
by Ajax may have been Athena, who came to show him to 
Liysses (Soph., Aj., 73 flF.). 

'' R., 132. His attribution is not certain. 

227 

q2 



ENNIUS 

23 

Festus, 530 fin. : ' Tullios ' alii dixenint esse silanos, alii 
rivos, alii vehementes proiectiones sanguinis arcuatim fluentis, 
quales sunt Tiburi in Aniene ... — 

Teucer? 
. . . misso sanguine tepido tuUii efflantes volant. 
Cp. Paulus, ex F., 533. 

ALCMEO 

All the fragments of this play are words from the latter 
part of it spoken by Alcmaeon; they, together with Cic, 
Ac, Pr., II, 28, 29, ' cum virginis fidem implorat ' (see p. 223), 
make it fairly certain that the action corresponded with the 
plot given by Hyginus, 73, which we can expand a little from 
Apollodorus' ' Library.* Passages from both sources are 

Hyginus, Fab., 73 : Amphiaraus Oeelei et Hypermnestrae 
Thestii fihae filius augur qui sciret si ad Thebas oppugnatum 
isset se inde non rediturum, itaque celavit se conscia Eriphyle 
coniuge sua Talai filia. Adrastus autem ut eum investigaret 
monile aureum ex gemmis fecit et muneri dedit sorori suae 
Eriphyiae, quae doni cupida coniugem prodidit. Amphiaraus 
Alcmeoni fiHo suo praecepit ut post suam mortem poenas a 
matre exsequeretur. Qui postquam apud Thebas terra est 
devoratus, Alcmeon memor patris praecepti Eriphylen matrem 
suam interfecit; quem postea furiae exagitarunt. 

Apollodorus, Bibl., Ill, 7, 5 : xprjoavros 'ATrdAAojvo? ourw tt}v 
firjTepa aTreKreivev . . . 'AXKiiaicuva Se fi€TrjXdiv ipivvs tov (jlti- 
rposfv j>6vov KoX (lefirjvajs Trparrov fiev els 'ApKaSlav rrpos 'Ot/cAea 
■napaynverai, exeWev Be els '"Fto^rSa npos ^rjyea. 

2^ Ennius in Aiace Aiax misso Fest. Jortasse recte 

" So in Soph., Aj., 1411-13. But the words may be from 
the speech of a messenger describing Ajax lying in his blood 
(R., 131); or the model may be Tecmessa's words in Soph., 
Aj., 918-19. 

228 



I 



TRAGEDIES 

23 

Teucer <• is about to carry away self-slain Ajax : 

Festus : Some have said that ' tullii ' are jets, others that 
they are streams, others that they are strong spurts of blood 
gushing in an arc, like the spurts in the waters of the Anio 
at Tibur ... — 

Teucer ? 

with gush of warm blood fly the spouting jets. 

ALCMAEON 

included here. In at least one other case {Alexander, see 
pp. 234 ff.) Hyginus can be shown to have gone to Ennius for his 
plot.* The original may have been Theodectes' 'AXxfialcov, 
but more probably it was Euripides' 'AXK/xaicov Std Vci)(f>iSos 
(not his *A. 8ia Kopivdov).' 



Hyginus : Amphiaraus the seer, son of Oecleus and Hvperm- 
nestra, a daughter of Thestius, because he knew that if he 
joined in the attack on Thebes he was destined not to return 
thence, went accordingly into hiding, his accomplice being his 
wife, Eriphyle, a daughter of Talaus. But Adrastus, that he 
might track him down, offered a golden necklace set with 
gems as a present to Eriphyle, who was his sister; and she, 
eager for the gift, betrayed her husband. Amphiaraus bade 
his son Alcmaeon exact retribution from his mother after his 
father's death. After the latter was engulfed by the earth ■* 
at Thebes, Alcmaeon, mindful of his father's bidding, slew 
Eriphyle his mother. Afterwards the Furies harassed him. 

Apollodorus : ApoUo spoke an oracle to him, and he slew 
his mother. . . . And Alcmaeon was pursued by the Fury of 
his mother's murder, and seized with madness he came first 
to Oecleus in Arcadia, and thence to Phegeus in Psophis. 

' It must be noted, however, that in Hyginus the title 
of this plot is Amphiaraus Eriphyle el Alcmeon. 
" v., CCI-CCH; R., 197ff. 
'' Zeus opened a chasm to save him from death in battle. 

229 



ENNIUS 

24 

Nonius, 127, 13 : ' lam diu ' pro olim. . . . Ennius 
Alcmeone — 

Alcmeo 
Factum est iam diu. 

25-9 

Cicero, de Oral., Ill, 58, 218 : Aliud vocis genus iracundia 
sibi sumat . . . aliud metus, demissum et haeeitans et 
abiectum — 

Multis sum modis circumventus, morbo exilio atque 

inopia ; 
tum pavor sapientiam omnem mi exanimato 

expectorat ; 
mater terribilem minatur vitae cruciatum et necem, 
quae nemo est tam firmo ingenio et tsinta confidentia 
quin refugiat timido sanguen atque exalbescat metu. 

Cp. id., de Fill., IV, 23, 62 (. . . ut enim Alcmeo . . .); 
V, 11, 31; etal. 

30-36 

Cicero, Ac. Pr., II, 28, 89 : Quid ipse Alcmeo tuus, qui 
negat ' cor sibi cum oculis consentire ' (fr. 37) nonne ibidem 
incitato furore — 

^' mater Ribb. ultor ami. V alter cdd. 



° I take quae an ' accusative in apposition.' Cic, de Fin., 
IV, 23, 62 shows that the fragment comes from Ennius' 
Alcmaeon. If mater is the right reading in line 27, then I 
take it that what is meant is ipivvs firjTptyov <f>6vov as 
Apollodorus has it (see above). 

230 



TRAGEDIES 

24 

Scene: Paaj^is in Arcadia where Phegetu^was king. Alcmaeon 
looks back on his deed : 

Nonius : ' lam diu ' for once upon a time. . . . Ennius 
in Alcmaeon — 

Alanaeon 

. . . 'Tis long since it was done. 

25-9 

He is haunted by the horrors of his deed and fate : 

Cicero : Let wrath claim one kind of voice . . . fear claim 
another, — lowered, broken, and downcast — 

Beset am I in sundry ways — by sickness, banish- 
ment and want ; yes, and dread disheartens me wholly 
out of my wits, even to death ; mother threatens my 
life with butchery and torture terrible, horrors at 
which " there is none so steadfast in spirit, none 
endowed with such firm trust that his blood would not 
flee him in his fright and turn white with fear. 



30-36 

Madness corner upon him : ^ 

Cicero : Once more, your Alcmaeon himself, who denies 
that his mind sees alike with his eyes — (fr. 37) does he not 
shout at the very moment when his raving is quickened — 



* From Cic, Ac, Pr., II, 27, 88 we can be sure that Cicero 
quotes from Ennius' Alcmeieon. 

231 



ENNIUS 

Alcmeo 
Unde haec flamma oritur ? 
et ilia deinceps — 

Incede, incede, adsunt, me expetunt. 
Quid cum virginis fidem implorat — 

Fer mi auxilium, pestem abige a me, flammiferam 

hanc vim quae me excrueiat. 
Caerulea incinctae angui incedunt, circumstant cum 

ardentibus taedis. 

Num dubitas quin sibi haec videre videatur? itemque 
cetera — 

Intendit crinitus Apollo 
arcum auratum laeva innixus ; 
Diana facem iacit a luna. 

37 

Cicero, Ac. Pr., II, 17, 52 : Quod idem contigit insanis 
ut . . . cum relaxentur sentiant atque ilia dicant Alcmeonis — 

sed mihi ne utiquam cor consentit cum oculorum 
aspectu. 

Apollodor., Bibl., Ill, 7, 5 : KaOapOels 8e in' avrov (<l>7;ye'ws) 
'Apaivdrpi yafiel rijv rovrov dvyaTepa. 



3*~* laeva . . . luna, Anon, ap. Reid, Acad. Cic, p. 285 
luna . . . laeva Cic. 



" He sees first one, then several fiery Furies. Cf. V., 
prooem., 1887-8, p. 7. 

* Sc. Arsinoe's. She is also called Alphesiboea. 

232 



TRAGEDIES 

Alcmaeon 

\Mience rises this flame ? 

and then comes the famous outcrj' — 

Come on, come on I Ah! They're here. 'Tis I 
they seek ! " 

And again, when he implores a maiden's * protection — 

Help me ! Thrust away this plague from me, this 
flaming blast which racks me to death ! They come 
on, girdled with snakes of colour blue, they stand 
around me with blazing brands. 

Surely you do not doubt that he thinks he sees all this? 
Now for the rest — 

Apollo never-shorn straining with his left hand 
bends his gilded bow ; Diana shoots her brand from 
the moon.*^ 

37 

His madness begins to abate : 

Cicero : The same thing happens to people who are mad, 
80 that . . . when the madness in them slackens, they feel 
and say, in the famous words of Alcmaeon — 

but in no wise sees my mind alike with the sight 
of my eyes. 

His marriage with Arsinoe ? : 

Apollodorus : Purified by him (Phegeus) he married that 
same king's daughter. "* 

' I assume that in the Latin laeva and luna have changed 
places. Of course such a transposition might be intentional, 
to express the madness of Alcmaeon. 

* That this marriage was included in Ennius' play is 
probable (R. 199). 

. 233 



ENNIUS 



ALEXANDER 



We can be certain that the ' fabula ' with the title ' Alexander 
Paris ' in Hyginus is an outline made directly from Ennius' 
play (see notes on lines 39, 52), which, as Varro, L.L., VII, 82 



Hyginus, Fah., 91 : Priamus Laomedontis filius, cum com- 
plures liberos ex concubitu Hecubae, Cissei sive Dymantis 
fihae, uxor eius praegnans in quiete vidit se facem ardentem 
parere ex qua serpentes plurimos exisse. Id visum omnibus 
coniectoribus cum narratum esset, imperant quidquid pareret 
necaret ne id patriae exitio foret. 



38-49 

Cicero, de Div., I, 21, 42 : Haec etiam si ficta sunt a poeta 
non absunt tamen a consuetudine somniorum. Sit sane 
etiam illud commenticium quo Priamus est conturbatus, 
quia — 

Cassaiidra 

Mater gravida parere se ardentem facem 
visa est in somnis Hecuba, quo facto pater 
rex ipse Priamus somnio mentis metu 40 

perculsus, curls sumptus suspirantibus 
exsacrificabat hostiis balantibus. 
Tum coniecturam postulat pacem petens 
ut se edoceret obsecrans Apollinem 
quo sese vertant tantae sortes somnium. 45 

Ibi ex oraclo voce divina edidit 
Apollo puerum primus Priamo qui foret 
postilla natus temperaret tollere ; 
eum esse exitium Troiae, pestem Pergamo. 

'* quia mater Cic. fortasse add. mea Irib. Enn. Alex. 

Hartung 

234 



TRAGEDIES 



ALEXANDER 

shows, was based on Euripides' 'AAe'^avSpos. Thus we can 
give not only fragments, but also the plot of Ennius' 
tragedy. 

Prologue sjpoken by Cassandra : 

Hyginus : Priam, son of Laomedon, had several children 
in wedlock with Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus or Dymas; 
she, his queen, being with child, saw herself in sleep giving 
birth to a burning firebrand, out of which came many snakes. 
When this vision was told to all the interpreters, they enjoined 
that, whatever she gave birth to, she should slaughter it, 
so that it should not mean mischief to the country. 

38-49 

Cicero : Even if all this is fiction on the pofet's part, still 
it is not different from the usual manner of (L-eams. I grant 
you by all means that the following also was some make- 
believe, by which Priamus was harassed, because 

Cassandra 

My mother Hecuba, heavy with child, in a dream 
thought she gave birth to a burning brand " ; on this 
my father king Priam himself, daunted with fear of 
mind at the dream, gripped by sighing cares, made 
atoning sacrifice with bleating victims. Then in 
search of peace he begged from Apollo an interpre- 
tation, beseeching him to teach him truly whither 
dreams of such mighty omen would turn. Then from 
his oracle Apollo with foretelling voice gave forth 
that Priam should forbear to take up the first boy 
who should be born to him after that ; that the boy 
would be a ruin to Troy, a plague to Pergamum. 

" The correspondence of Hyginus' words (quoted above) is 
close, so that the attribution of this fr. to Ennius' Alexander 
need not be doubted. V., 125; R. 82-3 (he suggests Venus 
as the speaker). 



ENNIUS 

Hyginus, Fab., 91 : Postquam Hecuba peperit Alexandrum 
datur interficiendus, quem satellites misericordia exposuerunt. 
Eum pastores pro suo filio repertum expositum educanint 
eumque Parim nominaverunt. Is cum ad puberem aetatem 
pervenisset, habuit taurum in deliciis. 

50-51 

Varro, L.L., 6, 83 : ' Aures ' ab ' aveo ' quod his avemua 
discere semper, quod Ennius videtur ervfiov ostendere velle 
in Alexandre ... — 

Priamus 

lamdudum ab ludis animus atque aures avent 
avide exspectantes nuntium. 

52 

Hyginus, Fab., 91 : Quo cum satellites missi a Priamo 
ut taurum aliquis adduceret venissent qui in athlo funebri 
quod ei fiebat poneretur, coeperunt Paridis taurum abducere. 
Qui persecutus est eos et inquisivit quo eum ducerent : ilU 
indicant se eum ad Priamum adducere qui vicisset ludis 
funebribus Alexandri. 

Festus, 460, 12 : ' Stolidus,' stultus . , . — 

Nuntius 

Hominem appellat : ' Quid lascivis, stolide ? ' Non 
intellegit. 

** intellegit cdd. intellegis V 



« R., 84. 

* The nature of the next fragment of Ennius (line 52) 
seems to me to suggest that Hyginus used a long speech of a 

236 



TRAGEDIES 

Hyginus : After Hecuba had given birth to Alexander, he 
was given up to be killed; but the servants in pity exposed 
him. Some shepherds found him exposed and brought him up 
as a son of their own, and named him Paris. When he reached 
the years of manhood, he had a bull as a pet. 

50-51 

Meanwhile Priam had established yearly games in honour of 
Alexander, whom he thought to be dead. He awaits news of the 
games ? : " 

Varro : ' Aures ' is a term derived from ' aveo,' for with 
these we are on all occasions ' avid ' to learn. Ennius, it 
seems, wishes to show in this a true root of speech in Alexander 

Priamus 

For long now my mind and my ears have been 
waiting eager with eagerness to hear the messenger 
from the games. 

52 

The messenger tells his strange story : * 

Hyginus : When servants, sent by Priam in order that one 
of them might bring along a bull to be put up as a prize in the 
graveside sports which were held according to custom in 
his honour, came to his haunts, they began to lead away 
Paris' buU. He followed them up, and inquired whither they 
were leading it. They made known to him that they were 
leading it to Priam for the man who might be the winner at 
the graveside sports in honour of Alexander. 

Paris protests against the seizure of his bull : 

Festos : ' Stolidus ' silly ... — 

Messenger 

He calls to the fellow, ' What's this frolic, 
blockhead ? ' 

He understands not. 

messenger in Ennius' play for that part of his fabula which 
I give here and below. 

237 



ENNIUS 

53 

Macrobius, S., VI, 1, 61 : ' Multi praeterea quos fama 
obscura recondit ' {Aen., V, 302). Ennius in Alexandro — 

Nuniius 

Multi alii adventant, paupertas quorum obscurat 
nomina. 

Hyginus, Fab., 91 : lUe amore incensus tauri sui descendit 
in certamen, et omnia vicit, fratres quoque suos superavit. 
Indignans Deiphobus gladium ad eum strinxit; at ille in 
aram lovis Hercei insiluit. 



Cp. Hygin., Fab., 273. 



54 



Festus, 548, 19 : ' Taenias ' Graecam vocem sic inter- 
pretatur Verrius ut dicat omamentum esse laneum capitis 
honorati ... — 

Nuniius ? 
volans de caelo cum corona et taeniis 

55 

Paulas, 561, 21 (12): ' Vitulans,' laetans gaudio, ut 
pastu vitulus. Ennius — 

Nuntius ? 
' is habet coronam vitulans victoria.' 

64-7 s ^yj5 Enn. Alex. Colonna 
^^ irib. Alex. Hartung 

» of Zeus epKelos, the most sacred spot in a house. 

* R., 86 suggests Eros coming near the end of the play to 
settle all disagreements; V., 126 saj'S either Victoria or Venus 
is meant (Varro, L.L., V., 62). But the next fragment (if 
it is rightly placed) suggests that here also it is Victoria who 
appears. I 

238 



I 



TRAGEDIES 

53 

TJie messenger tells Priam about the spectators at the games : 

Macrobius, on ' Many besides whose obscure fame hides 
away ' in Virgil : Ennius in Alexander — 

Messenger 

And many others came, whose poverty 
Rendered their names unknoAvn. 

Hyginus : He (Paris) inflamed with fondness for his boll, 
went down into the lists and won all the bquts ; among those 
whom he worsted were his brothers. Deiphobus in high 
dudgeon unsheathed his sword against him; but he leapt 
to the altar of Jupiter " of the Courtyard. 

54 

The messenger tells of Paris' victories : 

Festns : Verrius interprets the Greek word ' taenia ' by 
saying that it is a woollen ornament for the bead of a person 
of rank ... — 

Messenger ? 

With garlands and ^vith ribbons wTeathed, from 

heaven 
As she * flew do>vn, 

55 

he reports comments of the losers, possibly of Deiphobus," 
a brother of Paris : 

Paulus : ' Vitulans,' '' rejoicing in gladness, like a ' vitulns,' 
(calf) at pasture. Ennius — 

Messenger ? 
' He has the garland, trippling there in trimnph.' 

« Or of Hector— Serv., ad Aen., V, 370. 
'' ' vitulans,' as a pun on vltulus, would be a very suitable 
term to apply to the strange cowman (cp. lascivis in line 52). 

239 



ENNIUS 

56 
Varro, L.L., VII, 82 : Apud Ennium . , . — 

Nuniius 

quapropter Parim pastores nunc Alexandrura vocant. 

Imitari dum voluit Euripidem et ponere irvfiov est lapsus, 
nam Euripides quod Graeca posuit Iru/xa sunt aperta. . . . 

Hyginus, Fab.,, 91 : Quod cum Cassandra vaticinaretur 
eum fratrem esse Priamus eum agnovit regiaque recepit. 

57-72 

Cicero, de Div., I, 31, 66 : Inest igitur in amimis praesagitio 
extrinsecus iniecta atque inclusa divinitus. Ea si exarsit 
acrius, furor appellatur, cum a corpore animus abstractus 
divino instinctu concitatur — 

Hecuba 

Sed quid oculis rapere visa est derepente ardentibus ; 
aut ubi ilia paullo ante sapiens virginali modestia ? 

Cassandra 

Mater optumarum multo mulier melior mulierum, ' 
missa sum superstitiosis hariolationibus, 60 

neque me Apollo fatis fandis dementem invitam ciet. 
Virgines vereor aequalis, patris mei meum factum 
pudet 

*' rabere . . . es Muret fortasse recte {non prob. V) 
" <aut> L 

** optumarum Porson optuma tu V optuma turn 
vel sim aid. 

240 



I 



TRAGEDIES 

56 
He teUs how the strange victor is called Alexander : 
Varro : In a passage Ennius we have ... — 

Messenger 
Wherefore the shepherds now call this Paris 
' Alexander.' " 

While wishing to copy Euripides and gi%-e an example of true 
roots of speech, Ennius made a sHp, for, because Euripides 
wrot« Greek true roots of speech, his are obvious. 

Hyginus : But when Cassandra prophesied that he was 
her brother, Priam recognised him and gave him a place in 
his palace. 

57-72 

Cassandra, filled with prophetic frenzy, foresees the evil that 
Alexander will bring upon Troy : 

Cicero : There is therefore in souls a power of boding put 
in from outside and shut in by divine communication. If 
it bums up very strongly, it is called raving, when the mind 
withdrawn from the body is stirred up by divine inspiration — 

Hecuba 

But what did she seem on a sudden to catch sight 
of with burning eyes ? Yes, and where is she who 
not long back was in her right mind, she of maidenly 
modesty ? 

Cassandra 

Mother, woman wiser far than the best of women, 
driven was I by superstitious soothsayings, and 
Apollo by foretellings told stirs me to madness — not 
against my wish. Yet I shrink from maidens of my 
own age, and my father, best of men, is ashamed of 

" This was because he had kept off robbers from the cattle 
and had been an averter (aXf^rjaas Apollod.) for the herds and 
BO came to be called ' Alexander ' or ' Averter of men.' — 
ApoUod., Bibl, III, 130 (12, 5, 5). 

241 

VOL. I. R 



ENNIUS 

optumi \ari. Mea mater, tui me miseret, mei piget. 
Optumam progeniem Priamo peperisti extra me ; hoe 

dolet. 
Med obesse,illos prodesse,me obstare,illos obsequi ! 
Hecuba hoc dolet pudet piget ! 66 

O poema tenerum et moratum atque molle. Sed hoc 
minus ad rem ... — 

Adest adest fax obvoluta sanguine atque incendio ; 
multos annos latuit. Gives, ferte opem et restinguite ! 

Deus inclusus corpore humano, lam non Cassandra lo- 
quitur. — 

lamque marl magno classis cita 

texitur, exitium examen rapit ; 70 

adveniet fera velivolantibus 

navibus complebit manus litora. 

Tragoedias loqui videor et fabulas. 

Cp. Cic, de Oral., 46, 155; de Div., II, 115, 112; ad Alt., 
VIII, 11, 3; Non., 112, 22; 328, 28. 

73-5 

Cicero, de Div., I, 50, 114: Furibunda mens videt ante 
multo quae sint f utura ; quo de genere iUa sunt — 

Cassandra 
Eheu videte ; 

iudicavit inclitum indicium inter deas tres allquis, 
quo iudicio Lacedaemonia mulier furiarura una 
adveniet. 

«6 Hecuba h. d. p. p. add. ex Quintil., IX, 3, 77, trib. Enn. 
Alex. R 

«^ involuta A'cm., 112, 328 

242 



TRAGEDIES 

what I do. Mother mine, I pity you, I grieve for 
me ; to Priam you have born blessed bairns — apart 
from me. That 's painful. Ah ! That I should be 
a hindrance, those brothers a help I That I should 
stand against you, they stand with you! . . . 
Hecuba," That 's painful, pitiful, sorrowful I 

What gentle soft poetry, fitting the characters ! yet this is 
but little to the point ... — 

'Tis here, the brand wreathed in blood and fire. 
Many a year hath it lain hidden. Citizens ! Bring ye 
help and quench it I 

By now not Cassandra, but a god, shut up in a human 
body, is speaking. — 

And now upon the mighty main a fast fleet is 
built ; it carries a crowd of deaths ; a wild horde will 
come and cover the shores \nth sail-fluttering ships. 

It seems my talk is all tragedies and tales. 

73-5 

Cicero : The raving mind sees long beforehand things that 
are to come; to this kind belongs the famous passage — 

Cassandra 

Ha ! See ye ! Someone hath judged a judg- 
ment widely known between three goddesses ; and 
out of this judgment \vi\\ come to us a woman of 
Lacedaemon, one of the Furies. 

" Added from QuintiUan, IX, 3, 77 : ' o/iotoreAcwrov, when 
two or more sentences have the same ending ... it comes 
about even with single words — Hecuba . . .' (V., 128; 
R., 90-91 ; Incert. Fab., X). The attribution is conjectural 
but probable. 

243 



ENNIUS 

76-9 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 18 : '0 lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima 
Teucrum,' et reliqua. (^en., H, 281). Ennius in Alexandro — 

O lux Troiae, germane Hector, 
quid ita cum tuo lacerato corpore 
miser es aut qui te sic respectantibus 
tractavere nobis ? 

80-81 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 25 : ' Cum fatQis equus c. q. s. (Aen. 
VI, 515).' Ennius in Alexandro — 

Nam maximo saltu superavit gravidus armatis equus 
qui suo partu ardua perdat Pergama. 

Cp. id., S., Ill, 13, 13. 

82 

Festus, 270, 16: <'Putum . . . pro puro dixisso 
antiques <. . . Ennius> — in Alexandro ... — 

a medio purus putus 

Cp. Gell., VII, 5, 10 (' purum putum.' . . . Ennii tragoedia 
quae inscribitur Alexander). 



ANDROMACHA sive ANDROMACHA 
AECHMALOTIS 

One thing certain about the plot * of this play is, that 
although its origin was Euripides (Varro, L.L., VII, 82), 
it was not taken from that poet's 'AvSpofidx-q, since the action 
falls sooner after the capture of Troy. Some of the material 
is to be found in his 'EKd^-q and in his TpwdSes- The model 

"-8 cum . . . es v., Rh. Mus., XIV, 567; H., XII, 400, 
XV, 262 s. miser aut Macrob. 

*•• superavit cdd. superabit Voss prdb. V 
*- a medio W * * amidio cd. 

244 



TRAGEDIES 



76-9 



Macrobius, on ' light of Dardania, O surest hope of the 
Trojans ' in Virgil : And so on. Ennius in Alexander— 

O my own brother, Hector, you light of Troy, how 
is it you are thus made pitiful vsith your torn body ? 
And who are they who have thus dragged you before 
our verj^ eyes ? 

80-81 

Macrobius, on ' when the fatal horse ' elc. ... in Virgil : 
Ennios in Alexander — 

For with mighty leap the horse heavy with armed 
men has passed over, that he may by his brood bring 
bane to high-builded Pergama. 



82 
Unplaced fragment : 

Festns says : ' Putus ' for ' porus ' : . . . Ennios " in 
Alexander — 

pure and clean from the middle 



ANDROMACHE or ANDROMACHE 
CAPTR-E 

may have been a play unknown to us (V., CXiJIII title : — 'AvSp. 
(ujf/iaAorros or ai;^/xaAajTiV) ; or Ennius may have ' contamin- 
ated ' several plays. Quotations are given under two titles, 
but come from the same play. 



Ennius as in Alexander, as GelL, VII, 10 shows, 
v., (XU-CCni; R., 135 flF. 

243 



ENNIUS 
83-4 

Eur., Troad., 19 s., /xeVoucri Se | Trpvuv-qdev ovpov, <hs Se/ca- 
arropoi xpovio \ aXoxovs re Kal reKv^ elaiScoaiv . . . Cp. 1263- 
1264. 

Nonius, 401, 37 : ' Summum,' gloriosum, laudabile. . • . 
Ennius Andromache Aechmaloto — 

Neptunus ? 

annos raultos longinque ab domo 
bellum gerentes summum summa industria. 

85 

Eur., Troad., 7.5 s.; Iphig. Taur., 1379, 1394? 

Macrobius, <S., VI, 6, 10 : ' despiciens mare velivolum ' 
(Aen., I, 224) ; Ennius ... in Andromache — 

Chorus ? 
Rapit ex alto naves velivolas 

86-7 
NoniuB, 615, 24 : ' Rarenter ' . . . — 

Nuntius ? 

sed quasi aut ferrum aut lapis 
durat, rarenter gemitum conatu trahens, 

'• aut f. a. [ai. al., i. a. G. 

*' conatu trahens Lips, Fruter conatur trabem cdd. 

pentametrum trochaicum constit. V 

246 



TRAGEDIES 

83-4 
The Greeks prepare to return from Troy : 

Nonius : ' Summmn,' glorious, praiseworthy. . . . Ennius 
in Andromache Captive — 

Neptune ? « 

Fighting for many a year and far from home 
With glorious labour in a gloi-ious war. 

85 
A storm keeps them back : 

Macrobius, on ' looking down on the sail-fluttering sea ' 
in Virgil : Ennius ... in Andromache — 

Chorus ? » 
From the high sea it sweeps sail-fluttering ships 

86-7 

Grief of Hecuba (?) • when baby Astyanax is washed for 
burial : 

Xonius : ' Rarenter ' . . . — 

Messenger ? 

But like unto stiff strength of iron or stone 
She strained to draw sobs fitfully, 

• Cf. Eur., Tr., 19 (Poseidon speaks). Contrast R., 139. 

'> Perhaps of sailors or warriors ? Or the speaker may be 
Cassandra. R., 140. 

<= v., 134 and CCIII thinks the fr. describes Andromache; 
but she was not present. 

247 



ENNIUS 

88-9 
Eur., Troad., 1133 s., 1156 s., 1193, 1220-1223, 1228 s. 
Nonius, 504, 18 : ' Lavere ' etiam inde manavit ... — 

Nuntius ? 

nam ubi introducta est puerumque ut laverent 

locant 
in clipeo, 

90 
Nonius, 292, 7 : ' Exanclare ' etiam significat perpeti ... — 

Andromacha 
Quantis cum aerumnis ilium exanclavi diem ! 

91-2 

Eur., Androm., 399—400 : ijtis a^ayas fxev 'EKTopos TpoxrjXd- 
Tovs I xareiSov. Cp. 107-108, 8-9. 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., 1, 44, 105 : Hie ulciscitur, ut quidem 
sibi videtur ; at ilia sicut acerbissimam rem maeret — 

Vidi videre quod me passa aegerrume 
Hectorem curru quadriiugo raptarier. 

Quem Hectorem, aut quam diu ille erit Hector ? Melius 
Accius. . . . 

93 

Eur., Androm., 9—10 : iaeiBov, TraiSa 0' Svtiktw Troaei | 
pi<f>devTa TTVpyoiv . . . 

Varro, L. L., V., 70 : Dicebant ut quaestorem praetorem sic 
Hectorem Nestorem. Ennius ait — 

Hectoris natum de moero iactarier 

** de moero iactarier S e L de Troiano muro iactari 
cdd. 

' Hector's shield. V., 131 rightly I think takes the fr. 
as referring to Hecuba; but cf. R., 138. 

248 



TRAGEDIES 

88-9 

Nonius : ' Lavere ' is another form derived from this 
verb ... — 

Messenger ? 

for when she was led in, and they put the boy into 
the shield " that they might wash him, 

90 

Andromache begins to tell of her grief and loneliness : 
Nonius : ' Exanclare ' means also to bear to the end ... — 

Andromache 

In what dread hardships did I on that day 
Sene a full term ! 

91-2 

Cicero : Achilles avenges himself, or so he thinks at least. 
But she grieves as it were over a most bitter woe — 

I saw what I could hardly bear to see — 
Hector by four-horsed chariot dragged along. 

Hector Indeed ! Or how long will he be Hector ? Accixis is 
better. . . . 

93 

Varro : People used to pronounce ' Hectorem ' and 
' Nestorem ' like ' quaestorem ' and ' praetorem.' Thus 
Ennius writes — 

. . . Hector's child hurled from the wall * 

» I foUow Scaliger; V. (130-1 and CCIU, n.) thinks some- 
one describes the intention of the Achaeans to hurl Astyanax 
down ; he cites Eur., Tr., 725, pujtcu Se TTvpywv 8eiv a<f>€ TpojtKciv 
aiTo (told by Talthybius), and compares Serv. auct., in Aen.. 
Ill, 489. 

^249 



ENNIUS 

94-100 

Eur., Tr., 587, 590 (cp. Androm., 523-5) : fioXois t5 noais fiot 
. . . ads Sd/jLapTOS dA/cap. 

Cicero, Tiisc. Disp., Ill, 19, 44 : Quaerendum igitur quern 
ad modum aegritudine privemus eum qui ita dicat (ThijesL, 
363-5). . . . Ecce tibi ex altera parte ab eodem poeta — 

ex opibus summis opis egens Hector tuae 

Huic subvenire debemus; quaerit enim auxilium — 

Quid petam praesidi aut exequar, quove nunc 
auxilio exili aut fuga freta sim .'' 

arce et urbe orba sum. Quo accidam, quo applicem, 
cui nee arae patriae domi stant, fractae et disiectae 

iacent, 
fana flamma deflagrata, tosti alti stant parietes 
deformati atque abiete crispa. . . . 

101-8 

Eur., Androm., 394 : tS raAaiv' ifirj iraTpis - ■ • 400 . . . 
KarelSov, oiKTpws t' 'lAiov TTvpovfievov. 

Cicero, I.e. : Scitis quae sequantur, et ilia in primis — 

O pater o patria o Priami domus ! 

saeptum altisono cardine templum ; 

vidi ego te, adstante ope barbarica, J, 

tectis caelatis laqueatis jj 

auro ebore instructam regifice. 105 

O poetam egregium, quamquam ab his cantoribus Euphor- I 
ionis contemnitur. Sentit omnia repentina et necopinata ] 
esse graviora. Exaggeratis igitur regiis opibue quae vide- j 
bantur sempitemae fore, quid adiungit ? — 

i"^ adstante Cic, Tusc. Disp., I., 35, 85 adstantem 
Tusc. Disp., Ill, 19, 44, prob. V 

250 



I 



TRAGEDIES 

94-100 

Cicero : We must inquire therefore in what manner we are 
to free from his distress him who thus speaks (see Thyest., 
363-5). . . . Here you have something on the other side from 
the same poet — 

Once mighty in resources, now resource 

Needing from you, my Hector 

Her we ought to go and help, for she seeks our aid — 

\Miat succour should I seek and follow? \Vhat 
help in retreat or what escape could I rely on now? 
Bereft am I of citadel and city ; where can I kneel, 
where can I appeal — I for whom at home no 
country's altars stand — they Ue broken, torn apart; 
the holy places are burnt down by fire, the high 
walls stand scorched and misshapen, and with fir- 
wood crinkled up . . . 

101-8 

Cicero continues : You all know what follows, and especially 
these famous lines — 

O father, O fatherland, O house of Priam, you 
temple close-fixed by high-creaking hinge, I have 
seen you, vith barbaric throng " at hand, furnished 
in kingly fashion ^^■ith gold and ivorj-, with ceilings 
chiselled and fretted. 

Truly an excellent poet, in spite of the fact that he is 
despised by your warblers of Euphorion's * melodies. He 
feels that all that is sudden and imlooked for comes the 
heavier. Well then, following on that heightened account of 
royal riches which seemed to be everlasting, what does he 
say? — 

' Cp. Virgil, Aen., \TH, 685 : ope harharica in this sense. 
* A grammarian and poet of Chalcis in Euboea, bom about 
275 B.C. 



ENNIUS 

Haec omnia vidi inflammari, 
Priamo vi vitam evitari, 
lovis aram sanguine turpari. 

Praeclarum carmen; est enim et rebua et verbis et modis 
lugubre. 

Cp. Cic, de Oral., Ill, 26, 102; 47, 183; Rufin., ap. G.L., 
VI, 569, 13 K; Cic, de Oral., 27, 93 (. . . dixit Ennius ' arce 
e. q. 8.'); Ill, 58, 217; 26, 102; pro Ses., 57, 121; Serv., ad 
Aen., II, 241 (101 versus Ennianus) al. 

109 

Eur., Tr., 658 s. ? (663, 667-8); cp. 38. 
Varro, L.L., VII, 82 : Apud Ennium — 

Andromachae nomen qui indidit recte ei indidit. . . . 

. . . Ille ait ideo nomen additum Andromachae quod 
dvSpi fidxeTat. Hoc Euni quis potest intell^ere versum 
significare . . . ? 

110 

Eur., Hec., 116 if. : TroXXrjs 8' epiSoj avvenatae kXvScjv . . . 

Nonius, 76, 1 : ' Augificat,' auget ... — 

Quid fit.'' Seditio tabetne an numeros augificat 
suos ? 

Ill 

Festus, 424, 27 : ' Summussi ' dicebantur <mur- 
muratore3> ... — 

di<^cere summussi . . . .) 



« This is Vahlen's interpretation ; cf . V., CCIII, 134. Ennius 
followed Euripides, but there is no extant parallel in Greek. 

252 



TRAGEDIES 

All this I saw with flame devoured, Priam's liWng 
force by force unhfed, Jupiter's altar with blood 
befouled. 

A glorious monody indeed; mournful it is in subject, words, 
and rhythms. 

109 

Someone refers to Andromache's refusal to think of marrying 
again after the death of Hector : " 

Varro : ■ In a passage of Ennius we have — 

He who * Man-fighter ' named her, named her well. 

. . . Euripides says that Andromache was given this name 
because avSpl /taj^erat (she fights against man). Who can 
be aware that this is what is meant by Ennius' line. . . ? 



110 

Discord caused by the demand made by the shade of Achillea 
for Polyxend'a blood ? : 

Nonius : ' Augificat,' increases ... — 

What's happening? Wanes riot, or swells its 
numbers ? ^ 

111 
Festus : ' Summnssi,' a term once used for murmurers ... — 
the raumblers . . . say . . ."^ 

* R., 139. He suggests that Xeoptolemus or Nestor 
inquires from Ulysses or a herald how goes the voting in the 
camp. 

' The passage in Festus is mutilated, but summussi (cp. 
mussare) implies discontent. Therefore I have put the 
fragment here. 

253 



ENNIUS 
112 

Eur., Hec., 299-300 : OA. 'EKdpr) SiSdoKov, firjSe rco 9vfiov- 
fievai I rov ev XeyovTa Svanevij voiov <f>pevi. 

Nonius, 505, H : ' Sonunt ' etiam inde manavit . . . — 
nam neque irati neque blandi quicquam sincere 
sonunt. 

113-16 

Eur., Hec, 367-8, 435 (Polyx. loqu.), 414; Androm., 414, 
603 (Androm. loqu.). 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., I, 21, 48 : Quae est anus tam delira 
quae timeat ista quae vos videlicet si physica non didicissetis, 
timeretis ? — 

Acherusia templa alta Orci 
salvete infera 
pallida let! nubila tenebris 
loca ! 



ANDROMEDA 

Model : Euripides' play of the same name. The following 
summary is based on Hygin., Fab., 64, with ApoUodor., Bibl., 
II, 4, 3. 

Because Cassiope (Cassiepeia), wife of King Cepheus of 
Ethiopia, claimed that her beauty (or that of her daughter 

117-18 

Aristoph., Thesm., 1065 s. (ex Eurip.) : tS vvi iepa ws iJ-anpov 
iTrTTevfia SiwKeis darepoeiSea vcbra 8i<f>pevova' alOepos ipds rov 
oefivoTaTov Si' 'OXviinov (Eur., Andromeda, fr. 114 N.) 

Varro, L.L., 5, 19 : Omnino magis puto a chao choum et 
hinc caelum . . . itaque Andromeda nocti — 

^" salvete infera add. ex Varr., L.L., VII, 6 

» R., 139. But v., 134, CCIII makes Andromache the 

speaker. 

254 



TRAGEDIES 

112 

Ulysses addresses Andromache ? : 

Nonios : ' Sonunt ' is another form derived from this 
word ... — 

for neither the angry nor the courteous utter any- 
thing without guile." 

113-16 

Poiyxena * is about to die : 

Cicero : What old crone is there so crazy as to fear what 
you, I would have you know, would fear if you had not 
learnt nature's laws ? — 

Hail, you tall temples of Orcus and Acheron below, 
you wan places of death, clouded in everlasting 
ebon darkness ! 



ANDROMEDA 

Andromeda ?) was greater than the beauty of Xereus' 
daughters, Neptune sent floods and a sea-monster to plague 
the land. Relief could come only if Andromeda were given 
to the beast to be devoured. So she was chained to a seaside 
rock. 

117-18 
Opening of the play. At the mercy of the monster, Andromeda 
longs for daybreak : 

Varro : I am altogether more of the beUef that from 
'chaos' comes 'chous' ' and from this comes 'caelum' . . . 
and thus Andromeda says to the night — 

* R., 139 : or Andromache, when death threatens her 
together with Molotttis (her son by Neoptolemus) — V., 135 
' salvete infera ' are supplied from Varro, L.L., VII, 6, who 
shows that the words come from this play of Ennius. 

' On this word see line 557 of the Anrtals. 

255 



ENNIUS 

Andromeda 

•(Sacra nox) quae cava caeli 
signitenentibus conficis bigis, 

Cp. Gael. Aurel., Marh. Chron., I, 4, 50 (. . . velut tragicus 
poeta sacram noctem, h. e. magnam appellavit). 

119 

Festus, 570, 28 : ' Urvat ' Ennius in Andromeda significat 
circumdat, ab eo sulco qui fit in urbe condenda urvo 
aratri ... — 

Nuntius 

Circum sese urvat ad pedes a terra quadringentos 
caput, 

120 
Nonius, 189, 25 : ' Scabrea ' pro ' Bcabra es ' . . . — 
scrupeo investita saxo, atque ostreis squamae 
scabrent. 
Cp. Feat. 494, 13. 

121 

Nonius, 20, 18 : ' Corporare ' est interficere et quasi 
corpus solum sine anima relinquere ... — 

Corpus contemplatur unde corporaret vulnere. 

11' Sacra nox mippl. Buecheler 

11* &dfortasse secludendum 

1*0 si suppleas fera, fortasse coniungendum est hoc fr. cum 
119 squamae scabrent Mercier squamis s. Onions 

quam excrabrent odd. 

256 



TRAGEDIES 

Andromeda 

O hallowed night, you who pass over all the hollow 
of the heaven with your star-spangled chariot and 
team of two, 

119 

Perseus fights the beast ; it turris its head : 

Festus : ' Urvat.' By this, Ennius in Andromeda means 
draws round; it is derived from the making of a furrow with 
the ' urvum ' (ploughtaO) when a city is being founded ... — 

Messenger 

Ploughs " the head around itself 
A line well nigh four hundred feet from earth, 

120 

The monster'' s skin : 

Nonius: ' Scabres ' for ' scabra es.' . . . — 

Enwrapped ■v^ith scragg\' stones ; its scales were 

scurfed 
With mussels.'' 

121 
Perseus seeks a vital spot : 

Nonius : ' Corporare ' means to kill, and as it were to leave 
the body only, without life ... — 

He scanned the carcass seeking whence he might 
Make it indeed a carcass with a wound. 

" This seems to me to be the meaning; V., 137 thioks the 
killing of the beast is described. 

* Possibly this line describes the beast when turned to 
stone by Perseus, and so should be put later. Nonius gives 
this Ennian example with scabrent before his example from 
Pacuvius with scabres. 



ENNIUS 

122 

Nonius, 165, 8 : ' Reciproca ' . . . — 

. . . rursus prorsus reciprocat fluctus feram. 

Cp. Non., 385, 1. 

123-4 

Nonius, 183, 17 : ' Visceratim ' . . . — 

alia fluctus difFert dissupat 
visceratim membra, maria salsa spumant sanguine. 

125 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 293, 10 s. : ' His natabus filiabus. 
. . . ' Et ' filiifl ' tamen in eodem genere dictum est . . . — 

Andromeda 
Filiis propter te obiecta sum innocens Nerei. 

126 

Festus, 346, 14 : ' Quaesere ' ponitur ab antiquis pro 
quaerere ... — 

Andromeda 

liberum quaesendum causa familiae matrem tuae. 

Cp. Paulus, 347, 3. 

Eur., Andromeda, 133 N : ayov Se ^' <L ^eiv' e're TrpooTToXov 
deXeis etr dXoxov eire SfiwtSa. 

*** fluctus feram cdd. 385 fructus feram cdd. 165 

fluctus fera Bergk fluctus, feram . . . coni. V 

^*' fortasse scribend. alio 
^2* fortasse - w - ^ filiis e. q. a. \ Nerei 

" Or according to the interpretation of R., 168-9 (he reads 
fera, after Bergk) — ' in and out the beast belched the billows.' 
But Nonius has feram — in two passages ; yet the copy used 
by him may have had feram wrongly. V., 136 takes reciprocat 
as intransitive and feram as dependent on a verb not quoted 
by Non. or Varro. 

258 



TRAGEDIES 

122 

The beast is harassed by wounds and waves : 

Nonius : ' Reciproca ' . . . — 

A wave drove back the beast and back again." 

125-4 
Nonius : ' Visceratiin ' . . . — 
A wave shattered and scattered other limbs 
Piecemeal ; the salt seas spewed a bloody spray. 

125 

Andromeda wiU go with Perseus to Argos *; she addresses her 
mother : 

Priscianus : Dat. and abl. : ' natabus filiabus ' : . . . But 
in the same gender the form ' filiis ' was also used ... — 

Andromeda 

For your sake was I, who had done no hurt. 
Cast out,'' for Nereus' daughters. 

126 

Andromeda declares'' to Perseus her wiUtJigness to be the 
mother of children by him : 

Festus : ' Quaesere ' is used by archaic writers for ' quaerere ' 

Andromeda 

Mother of thy household, for the sake 
Of getting children. 

* Hygin., Fab., 64, Eratosth., Catast., 17, p. 118 R. 

' Either Ennius joined obiecia with filiis, by implication from 
the fact that A. was obiecta ferae, or ehe filiis is ' to satisfy the 
daughters,' obiecia going with ferae not quoted (V., 138). 

** Or, wishes Perseus to confirm his own desire to have 
children by her — V., 137. 

259 

s2 



ENNIUS 

127 
Varro, L.L., VII, 16 : Ennius— 

Perseus 
Ut tibi Titanis Trivia dederit stirpem liberum. 
Titanis Trivia Diana est. . . . 



ATHAMAS 

Athamas, a Thessalian king, in the belief that his wife Ino 
was dead, married Themisto, only to learn that Ino was still 
alive on Parnassus, whither she had come on account of the 
Bacchic celebrations there. He took her back without telling 
her or Themisto who Ino was; but Themisto, knowing that 
Ino was alive somewhere, planned to murder Ino's two sons, 
unknowingly choosing Ino herself to help her. Ino was to 

128-32 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 241, 3 ff. K : ' euhoe ' Maro "VTI. 
. . . Ennius in Athamante — 

Nuntius ? 

His erat in ore Bromius, his Bacchus pater ; 
ilUs Lyaeus vitis inventor sacrae. 
Turn pariter Euhan euhoe euhoe Euhium 
ignotus iuvenum coetus alterna vice 
inibat alacris Bacchico insultans modo. 

1^" <euhoe euhoe> J'abricius 



« v., 137-8. But some (R., 156) would add this fr. to 
Ennius' Medea. 

260 



TRAGEDIES 

127 

Perseus assures her that she shall have her wish : 

Varro : Ennius has — 

Perseus 

As Trivia, Titan's daughter, will grant you off 
spring of children." 

Titan's daxighter Trivia is Diana. . . . 

ATHAMAS 

dress her sons in black, and Themisto's two children in white ; 
but she did the reverse, and Themisto having killed her own 
children by mistake, killed herself also. Ennins' model is 
not known, but it may have been Euripides' 'Ivoi (R., 204-5; 
Hygin., Fab., 4). In the single surviving fragment it seems 
that a messenger tells of the Bacchic crowd in which Ino was 
apparently foimd. 

128-32 

Charisius : Maro in Book VII (389) has ' euhoe ' . . . 

Ennius in Athamas — 

Messenger ? 

Some ' God of Noise ' were mouthing, others ' Father 
Bacchus,' others again ' The Loosener, 
Discoverer of the all-hallowed \ine ' ! 
Then group by group the gathering of girls, 
Beyond our ken,* in concert striking up. 
Sang ' Euhan euhoe euhoe Euhium,' 
Upleaping in a brisk and Bacchic measure. 

* v., 139 seeing no sense in ignotus, suggests unosus, ie. 
universus (cf. V., H., XII, 399 ff.). But might not ignotus 
be right and mean ' distant,' as it does in Tib., I, 3, 3 ? We 
might even take the word as meaning ' having no knowledge,' 
sc. iuvenum, of young men. 

261 



ENNIUS 

GRESPHONTES 

The original of this play is unknown, but the only other 
play of this name is the lost Kprja(f>6vT-qg of Euripides (V., CCIV 
and prooem. 1888-9, 17 ff., from whom I differ materially; 
R., 186 ff. is not convincing). Polyphontes of Messenia slew 
Cresphontes (who in the division of the Peloponnese by the 
Heracleidae had gained Messenia by a trick), took his kingdom 
and married his widow Merope ; a surviving son of Cresphontes 

133 

Nonius, 471, 2 : ' Sortirent ' pro sortirentur. . . . Ennius 
Cresphonte — 

... an inter sese sortiunt urbem atque agros ? 

134-5 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 21 : ' Nee te tua funera mater | 
produxi pressive oculos aut vulnera lavi ' (Aen., IX, 484). 
Eimius in Cresphonte — 

Merope 

Neque terram iniicere, neque cruenta convestire 

corpora 
mihi licuit, neque miserae lavere lacrimae salsum 

sanguinem. 

136 
Festus, 346, 1 : ' Quaesere "... pro quaerere ... — 
Ducit me uxorem liberorum sibi quaesendum gratia, 

^" sese Voss. se cdd. 

134-5 corpora mihi Bothe mihi corpora Macrd). 

262 



TRAGEDIES 

CRESPHONTES 

with the same name Cresphontes (thus Euripides ; Telephontes 
or Aegyptus in other versions) was brought up in Aetolia; 
and wishing to avenge his father's death, came to Poly- 
phontes' court, told him that he had killed the survivor, 
and demanded the blood-money promised by Polvphontes. 
Cresphontes killed Poh"phontes at a sacrifice and became 
master of the kingdom. 

133 

Someone questions Merope about her father's history ? : 

Nonius : ' Sortirent ' for ' sortirentur.' . . . Enniua in 
Cresphontes — 

Or did they share among themselves by lot 
The city and its territory' ? 

134-5 

Merope betoails the fate of Cresphontes and his sons : 

Macrobius, on Virgil's ' Nor did I your mother lead you, 
yes, your dead body, to burial, or close your eyes, or cleanse 
yours woxmds ' : Ennius in Cresphonte 



Merope 

Nor did they let me shroud their blood-stained bodies. 
Nor throw earth over them ; nor could a tear 
Of grief bathe salt their blood. 

136 

Merope describes her forced marriage with Poiyphontes ' : 

Festus : ' Quaesere ' . . . for ' quaerere ' . . . — 

He took me to ^\^fe for to get children of his own. 

" Or perhaps she alludes to her earlier marriage with the 
now dead Cresphontes. — R., 189. 

263 



ENNIUS 

137 

Festus, 370, 21 : ' Redhostirc,' referre gratiam . . . 
Audi atque auditis hostimentum adiungito. 

138 
Gellius, VII, 16, 10: . . . Ennius in Cresphonte — 
Ego meae quom vitae parcam letum inimico deprecer ? 

139 
Nonius, 144, 12 : ' Nitidant,' abluunt, dictum a nitore ... — 
I opie "f Earn secum advocant, eunt ad fontem, 
nitidant corpora. 



ERECHTHEUS 

LycurguSj Kara AecoKparovs, 98-99 : (f>aal yap EvuoXttov rov 
TloadSaJvos Kai XiovtjS fiera @paKuJv eXdeiv rrjs x'^P'^^ ravrr^s 
aii.<f)io p-qrovvTa, tvx^^v 8e xar' eVctVou? roily xP^^ovs ^aaiXevovra 
'Epexdea ywaiKa exovra Tlpa^iOeav Tr/v Kr)(f>i,aov dvyarepa. 
MeyaAou 8c arpaTOTtthov fieXXovTos avrots elapdXXeiv els r^v 
X'jopav, ets AeA^ovs itui' ripcdra tov 6e6v, ti ttoiwv av viK-qv Xd^oi 
irapa twv iroXifxicov. Xprjoavros 8e avrw tov deov rrjv dvyarepa 
el dvaeie irpo rov avftPdXXeiv to* arparoireSu) Kparrjaeiv ratv 
TToXefiiMv, 6 Se rw dew ■neidop.evo? rovr' enpa^e /cat rovs eiriarpa- 
revofievovs eK rijs x^P^^ i^e^aXe. 

^*' audi S audis cd. 

1^* cum meae Gell. 

^" opie earn cdd. opie corrupt, ex Meropen quasi gloss, seclud. 
W Meropam secum abducunt Mr. Pelopiae earn s. avocant 
coni. Linds. 

264 



TRAGEDIES 

137 

Polyphonies entertained the younger Cresphontes (? Tele- 
phontes) until his story might be proved true : 

Festus : ' Redhostire,' to render thanks ... — 

Hear and make requital follow on what you hear. 

138 
Cresphontes {?) the younger is determine to kill Polyphonies : 
Gelling on ' deprecor ' : . . . Ennins in Cresphontes — 
WTiat, though I be merciful to my own life, must 
I forbear death to a foe ? 

139 

The sacrifice at which Cresphontes (?) killed Pdyphontes : 

Nonius : ' Nitidant,' they wash clean, a term derived from 
' nitor.' ... — 

They call to her ° to come with them, they go to 
the spring ; and they cleanse their bodies. 

ERECHTHEUS 

Therecanhe no doubt that Ennius followed Euripides^ ^Epex^evs, 
of which Lycurgus gives us the plot as follows : 

Lycurgus : For they say that Eumolpus, a son of Poseidon 
and Chione, came with a body of Thracians to lay claim to 
this land of Attica, and that the king at that time happened 
to be Erechtheus, who had Praxithea, Cephisus' daughter, 
as his wife. He, when the great army was about to make an 
invasion into their land, went to Delphi, and asked the god 
what he should do to gain the victory over his foes. When 
the god had answered him that he woiild get the mastery over 
his foes if he were to sacrifice his daughter before the two 
armies came to blows, he obediently did this, and expelled 
the attacking host from the land. 

" I take it that cypie in Non. is a corruption of a gloss on 
earn sc. Meropen. 

265 



ENNIUS 
140-41 

Eur., Erechth., 362, 14-15 N : Iweiro reKva tov8' Ikoti tikto- 
(i€v I cos Oecov Te /Sw/ious TrarplSa re pvwficda. 

Servius auctus, ad Aen., II, 62 : ' Occumbere morti ' novae 
locutionis figura et penitus remota. Ennius — 

ut nos nostri liberi 
defendant pro nostra vita morti occumbant obviam. 

142-3 
Nonias, 290, 15 : ' Deprecor ' . . . propulso ... — 

Praxiihea 

cui nunc aerumna mea libertatem paro, 
quibus servitutem mea miseria deprecor. 

Cp. GeUius, VII, 16, 9. 

Cf. Eur., Ereckth, 362, 50-3 N : XPV''^' '^ woAirai toIs e'/xois 
Xoxevjiaaiv \ ac^^taOe, viKoir', avrl yap 4'^XVS /^'cis | ovk ead' oncos 
vvv ttJvS' iyu> ov awaco ttoXiv. 

144 
Festus, 160, 3: <'Nemini8' . . . Enm>u8 Erechtheo — 
Lapideo sunt corde multi quos non miseret neminis. 
Cp. Paul., ex Fast., 161, fin. 

145-6 

Macrob., 8., VI, 4, 6 : ' Turn ferreus hast is | horret ager ' 
(^en., XI, 601). ' Horret ' mire se habet ; sed et Ennius . . . 
in Erechtheo — 

arma arrigunt, 

horrescunt tela. 

140-1 nos nostri . . . nostra Ribb. vosvestri . . . vostra 
cdd. (vos nostri cd. Cass.) 

1*2 cui cdd. Non. qui cdd. Gdl. fortasse rede quis Mercier 

266 



TRAGEDIES 

140-41 

Erechtheus and Praxithea debate as to whether they shall 
sacrifice their daughter : 

Servius (supplement€d), on ' occumbere morti ' in Virgil : 
This is a figure of speech of a strange kind and quite out 
of the way. Ennius — 

. . . that our children shield us, 
And fall in death's way for our own lives' sake.* 

142-3 
Nonius : ' Deprecor,' ... I thrust away ... — 

Praxithea 

For which * I now through my distress do win 
Freedom, for whom I pray God to forbear 
Slavery through my woe. 

144 

Festus : ' Neminis ' . . . Ennius in Erechtheus — 

Stony-hearted are there many. 
Who have no pity, no, for nobody. 

145-^ 

Th^ batik : 

Macrobius, quoting Virgil : ' Then the steely earth bristled 
with spears.' ' Bristles ' is here a strange erpression. But 
Ennius also ... in Erechtheus — 

Weapons they raised ; then bristled up the spears. 

" R., 185. 

* CM I would refer to patria, understood, quibus to cites. 
But if we read qui (GelL), the speaker most he Erechtheus. 

267 



ENNIUS 



EUMENIDES 

Aesch., Eumen., 276-9 : OP. iy^ ht.haxdi.is iv KaKols iniaTa- 
fiai 1 TToXXovs Kadapnovs, xal Xeyeiv ottov hiKr] \ aiydv 9' o/ioicuy. 
iv he Toihe Trpdyfiarc | <j>(ovelv irdxdrjv npoa ao<f>ov hihaoKaXov. 

147-8 

Nonius, 474, 34 : ' Opino ' pro opinor. . . . Ennius 
Eumenld ibu8 — 

Orestes 

Tacere opino esse optumum et pro viribus 
sapere atque fabulari tute noveris. 

U9 

Aeech., Eumen., 463-467 : [OP.] fKrewa tt)v renovaav, ovk 
dpvrjoofiai,, | o-vtiktovols TTOivaiai ifuXrarov narpos. | koI raivhe 
Koivrj Ao^ias inaiTios, | dXy-q TTpo<f>ciivd)v dvTLKevTpa Kaphla | et /xt; 
Tt Twvh' ep^aifii Tovs iiTaniovs' 

Nonius, 292, 18 : ' Exanclare,' efiFundere ... — 

Orestes 
nisi patrem materno sanguine exanclando ulciscerem. 

150-53 

Aesch., JS'Mmew., 614-618 : '.Ml. Xe^oj nposv fids rovh^ Ad-qvalas 
fjieyav | deofiov hiKaiws, ndvris tor 8' ov ilievaofiai. | ov TrwTroT* 
eiTTOV fiavTiKoiaiv iv dpovois \ ovk dvhpos ov yvvaiKos ov Tro'Aecos 
Tripi I o fiTj KeXevaai Zevj 'OXvp.m(x)v nar^qp. 

Cicero, de Oral., 1, 45, 199 : Quid est enim praeclarius quam 
honoribus et rei publicae muneribus perfunctum senem posse 
suo iure dicere idem quod apud Ennium dicat ille Pythius 
Apollo, se esse eum— 

^** noveris corruptum ? fortasse ut noveris 
268 



TRAGEDIES 
EUMENIDES 

This play was modelled, if freely, upon EvfieviSes of 
Aeschylus, and thus the order of the fragments is in most 
cases certain. 

U7-8 
Orestes before the temple of Athene Polias at Athens replies to 
the attack of pursuers : 

Nonius : ' Opino ' for ' opinor.' . . . Ennius in Eumenides 

Orestes 

Best silence keep, I think ; and you will know 
How to be \\ise with all your powers, how talk 
When talking 's safe." 

149 
Orestes tells his case to Minerva : 
Nonius : ' Exanclare,' to pour out ... — 

Orestes 

Unless by spilling out my mother's blood 
My father I avenged. 

150-53 

Apollo defends Orestes * at the Areopagus : 

Cicero : For what is more honourable than that an old man 
who has discharged offices and duties of state should be able to 
say, with justice on his side, what your Pythian Apollo says 
in Ennius, that he is the one — 

" noveris may be corrupt. 

' If v., 142 is right in comparing Aesch., Eumen., 177 S., 
then Ennius described the oracle at greater length than 
Aeschylus did. But R., 147-8 would compare the fr. with 
Aesch., Eumen., 64 S. where Apollo is giving evidence. 

K 269 

I 



ENNIUS 

Apollo 

unde sibi populi et reges consilium expetunt 
suarum rerum incerti quos ego ope mea 
ex incertis certos compotesque consili 
dimitto, ut ne res temere tractent turbidas. 

Eat enim sine dubio domus iuris consulti totius oraculum 
civitatis. 

154 

Aesch., Eumen., 657 : All. kuI tovto Xi^oi koX fidd' oiy 6pdu>s 
epw. 

NoniuB, 505, 16 : ' Expedibo ' pro expediam ... — 

Apollo 

- u id ego aecum ac ius fecisse expedibo atque 
eloquar. 

155 

Aesch., Eumen., 742-3 : A0. dvrjp o8' eK-ne^evyev a'fiaTos 
SiKrjV I taov yap iari Tdpldfirj/xa twv iraAwf. 

Nonius, 306, 26 : ' Facessere ' significat recedere ... — 

Minerva 
Edico viclsse Oresten — Vos ab hoc facessite. 

1*° expetant Cic. trib. Eumen. S 
^** ius atque aecum V 

^** edico Mr. ego dico Auratus dico ego S dico 

cdd. 

" Ennius has altered the sense of the Greek. 
270 



TRAGEDIES 

Apollo 

from whom for themselves peoples and kings seek 
counsel when they are unsure about their affairs, 
whom I in my helpfulness send away partakers of 
my counsel and sure instead of unsure so that they 
may not treat rashly things that are troublous. 

For withoat doubt the lawyer's house is the whole city's 
oracle. 



154 

Apollo expounds the precedence of a father^s rights over a 
mother' 8 : 

Nonius : ' Expedibo ' for expediam ... — 

Apollo 

That he was fair and just in doing it 
I will unfold and tell." 



155 
Acquittal of Orestes : ' 

Xonius : ' Facessere ' means to withdraw ... — 

Minerva 

I proclaim Orestes has prevailed — 
Get you away from there. 

^ Ennius has made the scene more vivid by making Minerva 
interrupt her announcement with an order to ' stand back.' 
If in line 156 we read quid d. ? quam p. i these words are 
spoken by Orestes — ^Aesch., Eutn., 744 : jrcDs aycjv Kpid^jaeTcu; 

271 



ENNIUS 

156 
Varro, L.L., VII, 19 : Enni— 
- o - Areopagitae quia dedere aequam pilam. 
Areopagitae ab Areopago : is locus Athenis. 

157-61 

Aesch., Eumen., 902 s. : XO. ti ovv ft avcayas tvS' e<f>vfivrj- 
aai x^ovi ; \ A.&. onoia viKrjS M"? KaKrjg (.iriaKoira, \ koL ravra 
yrjdev €k re irovTias hpoaov \ i^ ovpavov t€ /cdve'/xcov dijfiara | 
evrjXicos TTveovr' e7riffTei;^eiv p^^dva' | Kap-nov re yaias xal poroiv 
eTrippvrov \ darolaiv evdevovvra fir/ Kafiveiv )(p6v<i), | Kal rcHv 
ppoTeicov anepfidTOJv aaiT-qpiav. Cp. 938 8. 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., I, 28, 69 : Hie autem ubi habitamus 
non intermittit suo tempore — 

Minerva 

Caelum nitescere, arbores frondescere, 
vites laetificae pampinis pubescere, 
rami bacarum ubertate incurvescere, 
segetes largiri fruges, florere omnia, 
fontes scatere, herbis prata convestirier. 
Cp. Cic, de Oral., 38, 154; Non., 122, 17. 

HECTORIS LYTRA 

This play offers several problems which cannot be discussed 
here (R., 188 ff., V., CCV-CCVII), but the following points 
have a degree of probability which justifies their mention : — 
(o) that Hyginus, in Plot 106, entitled The Ransom of Hector, 
carelessly sketched Ennius' play, so that we may assume that 
Ennius covered events from the sulking of Achilles (and its 
cause, told in a prologue ?) to the delivery of the dead Hector 
to Priam and the burial of Hector; (b) that Aeschylus wrote 

1** quia Ribb. quid cdd. (qui Vind.) aequam Ribb. 

quam cdd. pilam Ribb. palam (parum) L tubam 
coni. V pudam cdd. trib. Eumen. S 

272 



TRAGEDIES 

156 

Varro : Of Enoius we have — 

Because the judges of the hill of Ares 
Have cast an equal ballot. 

' Areopagitae ' is from Areopagus ; this is a place at Athens. 

157-61 

Minerva enjoins the Furies to bless Attica : 

Cicero : But here where we dwell there cease not each in 
its season — 

Minerva 

The sky to shine, the trees to put forth leaves, 
Joy-niaking \ines to sprout with fresh young shoots. 
Their branches to bend down with grapes abundant, 
The growing cornfields to bestow their harvests, 
All things to bloom, the springs to bubble, meads 
To be o'erclothed with grasses. 



THE RANSOM OF HECTOR 

a trilogy (' The Myrmidons,' ' The Daughters of Nereus,^ 
' The Phrygians ' or ' The Ransom of Hector ') which extended 
from the sending out of Patroclus by Achilles to the delivery 
of the dead Hector ; (c) that Ennius pressed these three plays 
into one, shaped it to fit the Homeric story, added further 
details from Homer, and gave it the title of "the third play of 
the trilogy. (R., 124, 12&-7; V., I.e.); (d) that the main 
action begins with the events of the Iliad, Bk. XI. 

15' <sao non intermittat tempore > caelum Hermann 
qui trib. Enn. Eumenid. 

273 
VOL. I. T 



ENNIUS 

Hyginus, Fab., 106 : Agamemnon Briseidam, Brisei sacer- 
dotis filiam ex Mysia captivam, propter formae dignitatem 
quam Achilles ceperat, ab Aehille abduxit eo tempore quo 
Chryseida Chiysi sacerdoti Apollinis Zminthei reddidit. . . . 
Quam ob iram Achilles in proelium non prodibat sed cithara 
in tabemaculo se exercebat. Quod cum Argivi ab Hectore 
fugarentur, . . . 

II, I, 182 s., IX, 185 s. 

162 

Nonius, 489, 29 : ' Tumulti.' Ennius Hectoris Ljrtris — 

Agamemno 

Quid hoc hie clamoris, quid tumulti est ? nomen qui 
usurpat meum ? 

163 

Jl, XI, 1 5. ; 10 8. ? 

Nonius, 490, 6 : ' Strepiti ' pro strepitus ... — 
Quid in castris strepitist ? 

164-5 
XI, 56 s. 

Nonius, 355, 4 : ' Occupare ' est propria praevenire ... — 

Nuntius 

Hector vei summa armatos educit foras 
castrisque castra ultro iam conferre occupat. 

^*2 numeros constii. Bothe 

i«* haectoreicdd. (-iiiM 1) vi Mercier 

1*^ conferre Voss. inferre Mercier alii alia 

274 



TRAGEDIES 

Hyginus : Agamemnon, at the time when he gave back 
Chryseis to Chiyses the priest of Apollo Zmintheus, took away 
from Achilles Briseis daughter of the priest Briseits, whom 
Achilles had brought from Mysia on account of her comely 
beauty. . . . Through this wrath of his, Achilles would not 
go out to battle, but sat in his tent amusing himself with a 
lute." And when the Argives were in full flight under Hector's 
attacks. . . . 

162 

Agamemnon * Ji^ars an uproar as he prepares for battle : 

Nonius : ' TumnltL' EnniuB in The Hansom of Hector 

Agamemnon 

\^Tiat is this shouting here ? WTiat means this 

hubbub ? 
Who is it makes free with my name ? 

163 

Nonius : ' Strepiti ' for ' strepitus ' . . . — 
What means this clatter in the camp ? 

164-5 
He is told of an attack made by Hector and Polydamas : 
Nonius : ' Occupare ' means properly to outstrip ... — 

Messenger 

Hector leads out his armed men in full force, 

And pitting camp 'gainst camp e'en now outstrips us. 

" The words Agamemnon . . . reddidit may be a summary of 
a prologue; while the imperfects prodibat, exercebat suggest 
to me a scene where Achilles is in his tent ; possibly, therefore, 
the play began with a prologue spoken by AchlUes. After 
reddidit something was dropped out luiless we alter iram. to 
rem. 

* So v., 144. 

275 
t2 



ENNIUS 
166 



XI, 459 8. 



Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 387, 10 K. : ' Nomus ' pro eo quod est 
novimus . . . Ennius in Lustris — 



Menelaus 
Nos quiescere aequum est ? Nomus ambo Ulixem. 

167 

XI, 658 s. (Nestor loqu.); cp. 825-6; XVI, 23 s. 

Schol. Gronov., ad Cic, pro Eosc. Amer., 32, 89 (' quia ibi 
non est vulneratus ferro Brugio ') : ' Ferro Brugio.' In Ennio 
haec fabula inducitur Achilles quo tempore propter Briseidara 
cum Graecis pugnare noluit, quo etiam tempore Hector 
classem eorum incendit. In hac pugna Ulixes vulneratus 
inducitur et fugiens ad Achillem venit. Cum interrogaretur 
ab Aiace cur fugisset, iUe ut celaret dedecus ... — 

Ulixes 
Quis ibi non est vulneratus ferro Brugio ? 

168 

Servius auctus, ad Aen., Ill, 241 : ' Foedare,' cruentare. 
Ennius — 

ferro foedati iacent. 

i«« Ulixem cdd. Ulixeum Buecheler, Fleckeisen qui 
constit. senar. 

"' trib Hect. Lytr. Ribb. ; Achill. Bergk 



" At least he is the speaker in the parallel passage in the 
Iliad. 



276 



TRAGEDIES 

166 

Ulysses, hard pressed by the Trojans, shouted thrice for help ; 
Menelaus " hears and addresses Ajax : 

Diomedes the grammarian : ' Nomus ' for the form 
' novimus ' . . . Emiius in The Ransom — 



Menelaus 

Is it right for us to be sluggards ? ^ye both know 
Ulysses' voice. 

167 
Ulysses wounded talks with Ajax : 

A scholiast, on ' \Mio was not wounded, etc' {see below) in 
Cicero : This incident is staged in Ennius at the time 
when Achilles,* on account of Briseis, chose not to join with 
the Greeks in fighting; representing the time too when 
Hector set fire to their fleet. In this fight Ulysses is brought 
on to the stage wounded, and in the course of his flight he 
comes to Achilles. When he is asked ' by Ajax why he has 
fled, he, in order to cloak his dishonour, says — 

Ulysses 
Who was not wounded there by Brugian '^ blade ? 

168 

Servius (supplemented), on ' foedare ' in VirgU : To stain 
with blood. Ennius — ' 

From sword-thrusts fouled with blood they lie. 

* The reading is not certain; if Achillis is right, then 
the fr. might belong to Ennius' Achilles. But cf. V., 147. 

« Possibly before he met Achilles. 

■* On ' Brugian ' for ' Phrygian ' see fr. 183. 

' Attribution to this play is admittedly uncertain, but it 
fits well with //., XI, 658-9. 

277 



ENNIUS 

169-81 

XI, 581 5., XVI, 27-8 ; XI, 842 s. 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., II, 16, 38 : Quin etiara videmus ex 
acie efferri saepe saucios et quidem rudem ilium et inexer- 
citatum quamvis levi ictu ploratus turpissimos edere. At 
vero ille exercitatus et vetus ob eamque rem fortior medieum 
modo requirens a quo obligetur — 

Eurypylus 

O Patricoles, ad vos adveniens auxilium et vestras 

manus 
peto priusquam oppeto malam pestera mandatam 

hostili manu — 
neque sanguis ullo potis est pacto profluens con- 

sistere — 
si qui sapientia magis vestra mors devitari potest ; 
namque Aesculapi liberorum saueii opplent porticus, 
non potest accedi. 



Patricoles 

Certe Eurypylus hie quidem est ; hominem exercitum! 

Ubi tantum luctus continuatur, vide quam non flebiliter 
respondeat, rationem etiam adferat cur aequo animo sibi 
ferendum sit — 

Eurypylus 

qui alteri exitium parat, 76 
eum scire oportet sibi paratum pestem ut participet 
parem. 

^** Patricoles inquit Cic. 

!«»-" trib. Hect. Lytr. Ribb.; AcUlL Bergk {et dim Ribb.) 

278 



TRAGEDIES 

169-81 

Eurypylu.s ivounded by Alexander goes for help to Patroclus,, 
and tells him news of the fighting : " 

Cicero : Why, we even see many a time wounded 
soldiers carried away from the battle-line, and moreover your 
raw and untrained recruit groaning most shamefully even 
at a ven,' light thrust; but your seasoned veteran, and all 
the braver for being that, asking for a surgeon merely, and no 
more, to bind him up, says he — 

Euri/pylus 

O Patroclus, I come to all of you, and ask to meet 
help of your hands before I meet death and destruc- 
tion bestowed by the hand of an enemy — ah no ! 
the flowing blood can in no wise be staunched — to 
see if death can be evaded by your wisdom above 
others' ; for the colonnades of Aesculapius' sons 
are filled full with wounded — none can go near ... — 

Patroclus 

Surely it is Eurypylus, no other. A troubled 
toiler he ! 

While this great distress goes on continuoasly,* see how he 
makes reply without weeping, and even tells why and where- 
fore it must be borne with a calm mind — 

Eurypylus 

He who plans death for his foe should know well 
that a like death is planned for himself to share in. 

" The attribution to this play is not certain, but it is 
most probable. As will be seen on reference to the relevant 
passages of the Iliad, Ennius dealt freely with his original, 
as he often did ; the order of the dialogue is changed ; this 
may be due to Aeschylus. After exercitum (line 175) Cicero 
omits several lines which Ennius gave to Patroclus. 

' Here probably Cicero skips a few lines. 

279 



ENNIUS 

Abducet Patricoles credo ut conlocet in cubili ut vulnus 
obliget ; si quidem homo esset, sed nihil vidi minus. Quaerit 
enim quid actum sit — 

Patricoles 
Eloquere eloqucre, res Argivum proelio ut se sustinet. 

Eurypylus 

Non potest ecfari tantum dictis quantum factis 
suppetit. 

Patricoles 
Laberis ; quiesce 

Eurypylus 
Et volnus alliga. 180 

Etiam si Eurypylus posset, non posset Aesopus — 

Eurypylus 

Ubi fortuna Hectoris nostram acrem aciem incli- 

natam<(dedit), 
et cetera explicat in dolore. 
Cp. Cic, de Oral., 46, 155. 

182 

XII, 49 s. ; XIII, 123 {Neft. loqu.) ; XII, 35 s. ; 127 s. al. 

Festus, 234, 19 : ' Obsidionem ' potius dicendum esse quam 
obsidium adiuvat nos testimonio suo Ennius . . . item alio 
loco — 

Hector qui baud cessat obsidionem obducere, 

^*'' laberis Bentley laboris cdd. prob. V laberis . . . 

adiiga trib. Enn. Bentley quiesce igitur Cic. 
^*^ <dedit> suppl. Ribb. prob. V 

" As he does in Homer ; not so in Ennius. 
280 



TRAGEDIES 

Patroclus will lead him away, I suppose, that he may lay him 
down on a bed and bind up his wound " — at least he would 
if he were a man. But I never saw anything less like one. 
For he asks what has happened — 

Patroclus 

Speak out, speak out — 
Gime, tell me how the fortune of the Arglves 
Maintains itself in battle. 

Eurypylus 

I cannot tell you of it all in words 
To fit the deeds that have been done. 

Patroclus 

You sink ; 
Lie quiet. 

Eurypylus 

And tightly bind the wound. 
Even if Eorypylua could do this, Aesopus * could not — 

Eurypylus 

WTien Hector's fortune 
Made our brave battle-line give way, 
and while " still in pain he recoimts the rest. 

182 

Further neves of Hector's attack on the ramparts : 

Festus : In thinking that the term ' obsidio ' should be 
used rather than obsidium, we are supported by the testimony 
of Ennius . . . and in another place — •* 

Hector who 's not slow in drawing round a blockade, 

* Who clearly act€d the part of Eurypylus in Cicero's 
time. He could not have borne real pain as Eurypylus did. 

* i.e. he does not wait to be bound up first. 

"* The attribution to this play is probably right. 

281 



ENNIUS 
183 

XII, 445 5.; XIII, 90 s.; 123-4 {Nept. loqu.). ' 

Cicero, de Oral., 48, 160 : ' Burrum ' semper Ennius, num- 
quam ' Pyrrhum ' — 

vi patefecerunt Bruges . . . 
non ' Phryges ' ; ipsius antiqui declarant libri. 

XII-XIII; XVI, 40 s., 276 s., 490-4. 

Hyginus, Fab. 106 : Quod cum Argivi ab Hectore fuga- 
rentur, Achilles obiurgatus a Patroclo arma sua ei tradidit 
quibus ille Troianos fugavit aestimantes Achillem esse, 
Sarpedonemque lovis et Europae filium occidit. 



XVI, 145 s. 



184-6 



Nonius, 407, 24 : ' Tenacia ' est perseverantia et 
duritia ... — 

Patricoles 

. . . due et quadrupedum iugo ; invitum doma 
infrena et iunge valida <(equorum . . . robora) 
quorum tenacia infrenari minis, 

187-8 
XVI, 233 5. 
Nonius, 111, 7 : ' Fuam,' sim vel fiam ... — 

Achilles ? 

at ego omnipotens 
ted exposco ut hoc consilium Achivis auxilio fuat. 

Non. 407 Hectoris Lystris 

1** fortasse Xanthum et Balium duces (//. XVI, 149) 

185-6 valida quorum tenacia infrenari minis Non. ; locus 
desperatus ; cf. Linds., ed. Non. < equorum . . . robora > 
supplevi etfragm. septenar. constituo 

1*' ego o. < luppiter Ribb. 

^** auxilio Voss. auxilii odd. 

282 



TRAGEDIES 

183 
Sews that Hector has broken open the gales : 

Cicero : ' Bturus ' is the form always used by Ennins, 
never ' Pyrrhus ' — 

The Brugians by force have broken open . . . 

Not ' Phrygians.' The old nianuscripts of the author himself 
make this quite clear. 

Hyginus : And when the Argives were in full flight under 
Hector's attacks, Achilles, scolded by Patroclus, gave up to 
him his weapons, with which Patroclus put to flight the 
Trojans, who believed him to be Achilles, and slew Sarpedon 
son of Jupiter and Europa. 

184-6 
Patroclus orders Automedon to harness the horses Xanthos 
and Balios for battle : 

Nonius : ' Tenacia ' means perseverance and sturdi- 
ness ... — 

Patrochis 

And lead them in a gallopers' collar; break, 
bridle, and harness the horses' braAvny strength 
though they wish it not; . . . whose stubbornness 
... to be bridled -vWth threats," 

187-^ 
Achilles is about to send Patroclus {in Achilles^ annour) into 
battle: 

Nonius : ' Fuam,' the same as ' sim ' or ' fiam ' . . . — 
Achilles ? 

But yet I beg of thee, almighty god, 
That this plan be of help to the Achi\-i.'' 

• This fr. is corrupt. I suggest that valida equorum . . . 
quorum caused a copyist to omit all between valida and 
quorum. 

* v., CCVL thinks Patroclus speaks after the pravers of 
AchiUes in II., XVI, 233 ff. 

283 



ENNIUS 

Hyginus, Fab., 106 : Postea ipse Patroclus ab Hectore 
interficitur armaque ei sunt detracta. 

189 
XVI, 818 s. 

? XVI, 777 ; cp. XVII, 685 s. ; XVIII, 2. 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 345, 3 K : ' Halare ' et ' halitare.' 
Ennius in Lytris — 

Antilochiis 

sublime itei* quadrupedantes flammam halitantes 

190 
XVI, 856 (vel XXIII, 74; vel XXII, 482). 
Nonius, 222, 25 : ' Specus ' genere masculino ... — 

inferum vastos specus 
XVIII, 112 s.; XIX, 35, 65, 140 s. ; 245-265 ; XVIII, 614 s. 

Hyginus, Fab., 106 : Patroclo omisso Achilles cum Agamem- 
none redit in gratiam Briseidamque ei reddidit. Turn contra 
Hectorem cum inermis prodisset, Thetis mater a Vulcano 
arma ei impetravit quae Nereides per mare attulerunt. 

191 

XVIII, 188, 192; Aesch., Myrmid., fr. 140. 

Nonius, 469, 25 : ' Cunctant ' pro ' cunctantur ' . . . — 

Achilles 
qui cupiant dare arma Achilli ut ipsei cunctent 

"1 ipsei Linds. ipse cdd. 

" The context cannot be fixed with certainty. R., 126 
refers this to Achilles' horses, but probably the sun is meant. 
I take it that the speaker is Antilochus, who describes its 
rising on the day on which Patroclus was killed. 

284 



TRAGEDIES 

Hyginus : Later on Patroclus himself was killed by Hector, 
and the weapons were taken from his corpse. 

189 

the sun : 

Diomedes the grammarian : ' Halare ' and ' halitare.' 
Ennius in The Ransom — 

Antilochus 

Gallopers puffing ^fire . . . their lofty course on 
high " 

190 
Antilochus ? tells Achilles of the death of Patroclus ? : 
Nonius : ' Specus ' in the masculine gender ... — 
Wide roomy caverns of the realms below 

Hyginus : After Patroclus was lost, Achilles was recon- 
ciled to Agamemnon and gave Briseis back to him. Then 
when he had gone forth against Hector unarmed, Thetis 
his mother obtained weapons for him from Vulcan, and these 
the Nereids brought to him across the sea.* 

191 

AchUles wonders where he can get new weapons : 
Nonius : ' Cunctant ' for ' cunctantur ' . . . — 

Achilles 

Who might desire their weapons to surrender 
To Achilles so that they themselves become 
As dawdlers * 

* In this Ennius followed Aeschylus, not Homer. 

' v., prooem., 1888-9, 5 ff. R., 123 thinks the speaker is one 
of the MjTmidons who dare not give up their arms and so 
seem to be cowardly; if this is right, then the model here 
was Aeschylus, not Homer. 

285 



ENNIUS 

192 

XIX, 364 s. ; 372, 387. 

Festus, 370, 21 : ' Redhostire ' referre gratiam ... — 

Achilles 

Quae mea comminus machaera atque hasta hostibitis 
manuj 

193 
XXII, 1315.; 395 5. 

Hyginus, Fab., 106 : Quibus armis ille Hectorem occidit 
astrictumque ad currum traxit circa inuros Troianorum. 

Nonius, 510, 32 : ' Saeviter ' pro saeve , . . (511, 11) — 

Nuntius 
Saeviter fortunam ferro cernunt de victoria, 

194-5 

XX, 441 s., al. 

Nonius, 518, 3 : ' Derepente "... — 

Nuntius 

Ecce autem caligo oborta est, omnem prospectum 

abstulit ; 
derepente eontuUt sese in pedes. 

^'^ hostibitis manu V hostibit (hostivit) e manu S 

hostibis coni. Linds. hospius manu cd. 

1*^ fortunam Ribb. fortuna cdd. 

194-5 pQgi abstulit lacun. stat. Ribb. abstulit. <Con- 
stitit : tum> derepente coni. V 

° Thus R., 125 (V., 148 prefers to make Achilles speak these 
words when giving his old weapons to Patroclus). 

286 



TRAGEDIES 

192 

Achilles, possessed of new armour " through Thetis, addresses 
his sword and his spear : 

Festus : ' Redhostire,' to return a favour ... — 
Achilles 

O you my sword and you my spear — you weapons 
Who in close fight some favours ^ will return 
From my own hand, 

193 

A messenger tells of the exploits of Achilles : 

Hyginus : With these weapons Achilles slew Hector and 
then dragged him, tied to a chariot, round the walls of Troy. 

Nonius : ' Saeviter ' for ' saeve ' . . . — 
Messenger 

Right savagely they settle with the sword 
Their chance of victory. 

194-5 
Nonius : ' Derepente ' . . . — 

Messenger 

But see, a mist rose over him, and hid him from 
all view ; on a sudden he gathered himself upon his 
feet.*^ 

* There may be a pun : hostire, ' to requite,' hostire, ' to 
strike ' (Paul., ex Fest., 102); as it were ' bury the hatchet.' 

' This may refer to the death of Patroclus (11., XVI, 790 S.), 
but it more probably tells of Achilles' attack on Hector 
(//., XX, 441); less probably of Ajax (X\^I, 644) or of 
Achilles' fight with Aeneas {XX, 321, 341). 

287 



ENNIUS 

196 

XX, 455 s., 493 s. 

Nonius, 504, 30 : ' Sonit ' pro sonat ... — 

Nuntius 
Aes sonit franguntur hastae terra sudat sanguine. 

197 

XXI, 15-16; 218-220,234*. 

Nonius, 467, 31 : ' Vagas ' pro vagaris ... — 

Ntmtius 
Constitit credo Scamander, arbores vento vacant. 

XXII, 416 s. ; XXIV, 136 «., 440 s. 

Hyginus, Fab., 106 : Quern sepeliendum cum patri nollet 
dare, Priamus lovis iussu duce Mercurio in castra Danaorum 
venit. 

198 
XXIV, 488 ff. (486 Achill. aUoqu.), 503, 680. 
Nonius, 472, 21 : ' Commiserescimus ' . . . — 

Priamus 

Per vos et vostrum imperium et fidem, Myrmidonum 
vigiles, conmiserescite ! 

199 
XXIV, 483; 518. 

Varro, L.L., VII, 12 : ' Tueri ' duo significat, unurn ab 
aspectu . . . unde est Enni illud — 

i«7 cemo Mr. vacant Colonna jn-ob. V vagant cdd. 
288 



TRAGEDIES 

196 

Nonius : ' Sonit ' for ' sonat ' . . . — 

Messenger 

Bronze clatters, spears are snapped, Earth sweats 
with blood. 

197 

Nonius : ' Vagas ' for ' vagaris ' . . . — 

Messenger 

Stood still, it seems, Scamander, and the trees 
Of wind were emptied." 

Hyginus : When Achilles was not willing to give Hector 
to his father to be buried, Priam at the command of Jupiter 
entered, under Mercury's guidance, the camp of the DanaL 

198 

Priam imfiores the pity of the Myrmidons who are keeping 
toatch at Achilles^ tent : 

Nonius : ' Commiserescimus ' . . . — 

Priam 

You watchmen Myrmidons, I pray you all 
Have pity, by your sacred trust and duties ! 

199 

Varro : ' Tueor ' has two meanings, one from the act of 
looking. . . . Whence comes that phrase of Ennius — 

• vacant is right; Nonius has blundered. In any case, 
Ennius adds a detail not in Homer. Cp. p. 394. Whether 
credo is right I am not sure. 

289 
VOL. I. XJ 



ENNIUS 

Achilles 

tueor te senex ? Pro luppiter ! 

Cp. Donat., in Ter., Addph., I, 2, 31. 

Hyginus, Fab., 106 : (Priamus) . . . filii corpus auro 
repensum accepit ; quern sepulturae tradidit. 

200-1 
XXIV, 596 s., 786 s. 
Nonius, 399, 8 : ' Spemere ' rursum segregare ... — 

Priamus 

Melius est virtute ius, nam saepe virtutem mali 
nanciscuntur ; ius atque aecum se a malis spernit 
procul. 



Cf. Aesch., fr. a»^. T^^dT mJ 



C.'J 



HECUBA 



Enrip., Hec., 3 : IIoAuScupo? 'E/cajSijs vrais yeycuj rrfs Kiacretoj. 

Servius, ad Aen., VII, 320 : Cisseis. Regina Hecuba 
secundum Euripidem quem Ennius Pacuvius et Vergilius 
sequuntur. 

202 

Hec, 26-27 : koX Kravwv e? o'S/x' aAoj | fieTrjx' 'v' avros 
Xpvaov iv So'/xoi? exj] \ (vel 28 dXXor' iv ttovtov adXw, cp. 701 
TTOvrov viv e^^veyKe TreAayto? kXvScov). 

Nonius, 223, 24 : ' Salum ' neutri generis . . . Masculini 
Ennius Hecuba — 

Polydori Umbra 

undantem salum 

^'^ <in> u. s. <demisit> coni, V 

" R., 129-13fr; v., 151. Perhaps Ennius follows Aeschylus 
closely here, as R. thinks. 
290 



TRAGEDIES 

Achilles 
Is it you I see, O aged man ? Ah, heavens ! 

Hyginus : Priam toot back the dead body of his son for a 
ransom of gold, and committed him to biirial. 

200-1 

Priam, with Polyxena, Andromache and others discussed long 
with Achilles ; the following words are spoken jtrdbably by 
Priam : ' 

Noniiis : ' Spemere ' again means to set apart ... — 
Priam 

A better thing than bravery is justice ; 

For bravery the >vicked oft attain ; 

But justice and the fair deed thrust themselves 

Far from the wicked. 

HECUBA 

Model : Euripides^ 'EKa^-q. 

The ghost of Polydorus speaks the prologue : 

Servius, on Cisseis (daughter of Cisseus) in Virgil: Queen 
Hecuba, according to Euripides, who is followed by Ennius, 
PsMJUvius, and Viigil. 

202 

He tells of the misdeed of Polymestor : 

Nonius : ' SiJnm ' is of the neuter gender. . . . Ennius has it 
in the masculine in Hecuba — 

Ghost of Polydorus 

the surging sea * 

Or, ' billowing brine ' : but solum or solus {adXos), ' open 
sea,' is apparently not connected with sal. 

291 
u2 



ENNIUS 
203 

Hec., 68 : a> aTepoira Aio;, c3 OKorla vv^. 

Varro, L.L., VII, 6 : In caelo templum dicitur ut in 
Hecuba — 

Hecuba 

O magna templa caelitum conmixta stellis splendidis, 
204-5 

Hec, 166-169 : ai ko-k' eveyKovaai \ TpcodSes, tS kolk^ evf/Kov- 
aai I it^fMar' dnoXeaar' ciAeaaT'* ovKeri (loi ^los | dyaarog ev 
^dei. 

Nonius, 474, 32 : ' Miserete ' . • . — 

Hecuba 

Miserete anuis 
date ferrum qui me anima privem. 

206-8 

Gellius, XI, 4, 1 : Euripidis versus sunt in Hecuba (293-5), 
verbis sententia brevitate insignes inlustresque. Hecuba est 
ad Ulixen dicens. 

ToS' d^ioifia Kav KaKoJs Ae'yr^? to oov 
ireiaer Aoyoj yap e/c t' aSo$ovvT(ov twv 
KdK Tcoy SoKovvTCDV avTOs ov ravTov adevei. 
Hos versus Quintus Ennius cum earn tragoediam verteret 
non sane incommode aeraulatus est. Versus totidem Enniani 
hi sunt — 

Hecuba 

Haec tu etsi perverse dices facile Achivos flexeris, 
namque opulenti quom loquuntur pariter atque 

ignobiles, 
eadem dicta eademque oratio aequa non aeque valet. 

*"* anuis S manu Mr. manus cdd. prob. V 

GelL, XI, 4 : kukos Gell. KaKU)s cdd. Eur. vikS. Gell. 

neiOei vel -neian cdd. Eur. 

*"' namque opulenti cum S nam opulenti cum cdd. 

292 



TRAGEDIES 

203 
Hecuba is about to tell her dream : 

Varro : Men speak of a ' templum ' in the sky, as in 
Hecuba — 

Hecuba 

You mighty precincts of all those who dwell 
In heaven, commingled with the shining stars, 

204-5 
Hecuba has heard news that Poiyxena is to be dain : 
Nonios : ' Miserete ' . . . — 

Hecuba 

Pity me an aged woman ; give me a sword that I 
may reave me of life. 

20e-8 

Hecuba tries to persuade Ulysses to make the Achivi change 
their minds : 

Gellius : There are lines of Euripides in Hecuba remarkable 
and famous for their diction, thought and terseness. Hecuba 
is in the course of a speech addressed to Ulysses." ' But 
your influence, though you speak on the wrong side, will 
prevail. For speech issuing from those held in no repute, 
though it be the same as speech from the reputable, has not 
the same power.' These lines Quintus Ennius, when he was 
translating that tragedy, rivalled in no imsmtable way, I 
can assure you. The lines of Ennius are the same in number, 
as follows — 

Hecuba 

Although this message you will give is crooked, 
An easy task you'll find to sway the Achi\i ; 
For when the well-to-do and lowly born 
Speak in like purport, yet their words and speech, 
Though equal and alike, have not like weight. 

» I give the quotation as our texts of Euripides have it. 
See opposite. 



ENNIUS 
209 

Hec, 438 : ? ol 'yco- TrpoAciVw Auerot Se {lov fieXr). | a) 
Ovyarep, di/taL firjrpos, ejcreivov x«pai | 8os' /^i? AiTTTyj ^' ctTraiS'* 
airwXofirjV, ^t'Aai. 

Nonius, 224, 6 : ' Sanguis masculino genere . . . neutro 
Ennius Hecuba — 

Hecuba 
Heu me miseram interii ; pergunt lavere sanguen 
sanguine ! 
Cp. Non., 466, 27 ; 504, 6. 

210-11 
Hec, 497-8 : 

^ev ^ev yepwv fiiv etfi', oficos 8e /xot davelv \ 

€17) Trpiv ataxpS. ■mpnrf.aetv TV)('f] rivi \ 
Troad., 415 ; koI irevrjs /xeV etfi' iyco. 
Nonius, 494, 3 : ' Pauperies ' pro paupertate ... — 

Talthyhitis 
Senex sum; utinam mortem obpetam prius quam 

evenat 
quod in pauperie mea senex graviter gemam. 
Cp. Non., 507, 18. 

212 

Hec, 627-8 : Keivos oX^iwraros \ otco /car' ■^fiap Tvyxoivei 
firjBev KaKov. 

Cicero, de Fin., II, 13, 41 : Non ... si malum est dolor, 
carere eo male satis est ad bene vivendum. Hoc dixerit 
potius Ennius — 

Hecuba 

Nimium boni est <(huic)> cui nihil est mali <(in diem). 

Nos beatam vitam non depulsione mali sed adeptione boni 
iudicemus. 

^^* <liuic> suppl. W nimium boni est cui nil mali est 
Muret alii alia <in diem> add. ex Eur., Hec, 628 trib. 
Hec. Muret 
294 



TRAGEDIES 

209 
Hecuba despairs of saving Polyxena : 

Nonius : ' Sanguis ' ... in the masculine gender . . . 
Ennius in Hecuba has it in the neuter — 

Hecuba 
Ah ! Woe is me ! I am undone ; on they go, 
to bathe blood in blood I <* 

210-11 
Talthybius has fcmnd Hecuba lying in a swoon : 
Nonius : ' Pauperies ' for ' paupertas ' . . . — 

Talthyhius 

I am an old man ; would that I could meet 
My death before a thing should come to pass 
Which in my poverty * and age I should 
Loudly bewail. 

212 

From Hecuba's speech after she has heard of the death of 
Polyxena : 

Cicero : Even if pain is an evil, to be without that evil 
is not enough to make a'good life. Let Ennius, if he prefers, 
say that — 

Hecuba 

A passing good thing has the man who suffers 
No ill for one day. 

But let us reckon a happy life not by the repulse of evil but 
by the attainment of good. 

" There is no close parallel in Euripides. 

* It is curious to note that ' in pauperie mea ' are words 
suggested by a speech of Talthybius in Euripides' TpcuaSey 
(415). 

295 



ENNIUS 
213 

Hec., 760 : opas veKpov t6v8' ov KaTaaral,o} haKpv; 
Nonius, 155, 28 : ' Guttatim ' . . . — 

Hecuba 
Vide hunc meae in quem lacrumae guttatim cadunt. 

214 

Hec, 826 s. : irpos aolai TrXivpots irais ip-ri koi iil^er ai. . . . 

Nonius, 342, 24 : ' Modicum ' veteres moderatum et com- 
modum dici volunt ... — 

Hecuba 

quae tibi in concubio verecunde et modice morem 
gerit. 

215 

Hec, 836-7 : e' not, yivoiro <l>96yyos iv ppaxioai \ Kal x^P^''- 
Kai KOfiaiat Kal ttoScjv pdaei. . . . 

Cicero, Oral., 45, 153 : Sine vocalibus saepe brevitatis 
causa contrahebant ut ita dicerent ' multi modis ' ' et vaa 
argenteis ' — 

Hecuba 

palm et crinibus 
' tecti fractis.' 

216 

Hec, 1226—7 : iv rots KaKoTs yap ayaOol aa<f>iaTaToi | ^IXoi. 

Cicero, de Amicit., 17, 64 : Quam graves quam difficiles 
plerisque videntur calamitatum societates; ad quas non est 
facile inventu qui descendat ; quamquam Ennius recte — 

^1* trih. Hec Hartung 
296 



TRAGEDIES 

213 
Hecuba shows Agamemnon the corpse oj Polydorus : 
Nonius : ' Guttatim ' . , . — 

Hecuha 
See him on whom my tears fall drop by drop. 

214 

Hecuba implores Agamemnon in the name of Cassandra, icho 
shares his bed, to help her to avenge her son : 

Nonius : ' Modicum ' is a term which the old writers would 
use for moderated and fitting ... — 

Hecuba 

A woman who as bed-mate grants yoiu* wishes 
With shyness and restraint. 

215 

Hecuba wishes thai her very body could speak : 

Cicero : They often used to contract for brevity's sake, 
quite apart from vowels, so as to use expressions like ' multi 
modis,' ' et vas argenteis,' ' palm et crinibus ' — 

Hecuha 

with hand and hair 

' tecti fractis.' " 

216 
Hecuba on true friendship : 

Cicero : How heavy and hard do most people find it to be 
someone's companion in disasters ! It is not easy to find 
anyone who could condescend to such fellowships. Yet 
Ennius is right when he says — 

» R., 145 : v., 154. The attribution to Ennius is doubtful; 
Leo, Quaest. Plant., 299; Birt, Rh. Mus., LI, 248. 

297 



ENNIUS 

Hecuba 
Amicus certus in re incerta cernitur. 

217-18 

Hec, 1247-8 : rax oiv nap' vfilv pdSiov ^evoKroveiv \ ij/xiv 8e 
y' alaxpov Tolaiv "EXXriaiv rdSe (cp. 803-4). 

Nonius, 153, 22 : ' Perbitere,' perire . . . — 

Agamemno 

Set numquam scripstis qui parentem aut hospitem 
necasset quo quis cruciatu perbiteret. 

219 
Hec., 1258 : ov yap /x.e ;^atpetv xP"^ f^ TiiMoypovfievTjv ; 
Nonius, 116, 31 : ' Gratulari,' gratias agere . . . — 

Hecuba 
luppiter tibi summe tandem male re gesta gratulor. 

IPHIGENIA 

Eurip., Iph. A., 1-3 : 

AT. *X1 TTpla^v Boficuv Tu>v8e irdpoidev 

areixe. TIP. arelxo}. ti Se Koivoupycis 
' Ayifiefivov ava^. 

AT. nevaei. 

nP. OTrevSw. 

138-9. dAA' r^' epeuacov gov woSa y^pa 



298 



^' scripstis Vossius scripsistis cdd. 



TRAGEDIES 

Hecuba 
A friend in need is a friend indeed.* 

217-18 

Agamemnon tells Polymestor of his disapproval of Polymestor^s 
crime : 

Nonius : ' Perbitere,' to perish ... — 

Agamemnon 

But you have never made a wTitten law 
Establishing the pains whereby should perish 
The murderer of parent or of guest . 



219 

Hecuba gives thanks for the success of her vengeance on Poly- 
mestor : 

Nonius : ' Gratulari,' to give thanks ... — 

Hecuba 

All-Highest Jupiter, the ill deed done, 
To thee I render thanks at last. 



IPHIGENIA 

That Ennius followed Euripides' 'I^tyeVeta 17 eV AuAt'St 
is certain ; but instead of a chorus of maidens, Ennius most 
fittingly makes his chorus of warriors. This like certain 
other divergences may have been based on a Sophoclean 
version (R., 494 fiE.). 

" Hartung's attribution to this play is very likely right. 

^^^ quo quiB cruciatu lun. qaos quis cruciator cdd. 

cruciatus ilr. is quo Pontanus 

299 



ENNIUS 

220-1 

Festus, 324, 24 : ' Pedum ' est quidem baculum incurvum 
quo pastores utuntur ad comprehendendas oves aut capras, 
a pedibus; cuius meminit etiam Vergilius in Bucolicis (V., 
88). . . . Sed in eo versu qui est in Iphigenia Enni — 

Agamemno 

Procede, gradum proferre pedum 
nitere, cessas o fide 

id ipsum baculum significari cum ait Verrius mirari satis 
non possum, cum sit . . . significatio aperta. 

Cp. Schol. Veron., ad Verg., EcL, V., 88. 
222-5 

Iph. A., 6-10 : 

Ar. Ti's ttot' ap' darrjp o8e nopdfievei ; \ XVP. 2eipioj eyyu? 
T-ffS (.TTTatTopov I nAeiaSos aaaiov in neaa'qprjs | AF. ovkovv 
^Ooyyos y' ovr' opviduiv | ovre OaXdaayjs- 

Varro, L.L., VII, 73 :— 

Agamemno 

Quid noctis videtur in altisono 
caeli clipeo ? 

Senex 

Tenio superat 
Stellas sublime agitans etiam atque 
etiam noctis iter. 

Hie multam noctem ostendere volt a temonis motu. 

Cp. id., V, 19; Fest., 504, 9 (. . . Ennius superat . . .). 
Apulei., de deo Socr., 2, 6 (mundi . . . clipeo). 

2" o fide add. ex Schol. Veron. ad Verg., Ed., V., 88 
o fide < senex > Bergk 
222-8 trib. Iph. Colonna 

22* agitans V agens Varro sublimen Buecheler 
225-6 fij-fQ coniungenda ; sed desunt nonnulla post ite 

300 



TRAGEDIES 

220-1 
Opening of the play : 

Agamemnon bids an old servaTU hurry to him to take a letter 
for Clytaemneslra : 

Festus : ' Pedum ' (sheep-hook) is a curved staff which 
shepherds use for catching hold of ewes or she-goats; it is 
derived from ' pedes.' Virgil among others makes mention 
of it in the Bucolics (V., 88). . . . But I cannot wonder 
enough when Verrius says that in that line which occurs in 
Iphigenia of Ennius — 

Agamemnon 

Come hither, strive to put forward the support of 
your steps — you loiter, O trusty one 

a sheep-hook is actually meant, because . . . the real 
meaning is plain to see." 

222-5 
Progress of the night : 

Varro : — 

Agamemnon 

What is it I see upon heaven's high-sounding shield 
of night ? 

Old Servant * 

The Wain, driving on and on through night's lofty 
course, surmounts the stars. 

He wishes to indicate, from the movement of the Wain, 
a late hour of the night. 

" Festus says the sense is : gradum proferre pedum cessas ; 
nitere. Scaliger thought this fir. was taken from Eur., Iph. A., 
138-39; but cf. V., prooem., 1888-9, 13 ff. Why should we 
not take ' gradum pedum ' as ' the steps of the feet ' ? Com- 
parison with Eiu-ip., 1-3 suggests that Ennius read or misread 
(for irevafi) OTrevBe or anevaov or anevaeis- 

* This division is suggested by the corresponding passage 
in Euripides, with which Ennius has certainly dealt freely. 
v., 156 and prooem., 1888-9, 14 ff. gives the whole quotation 
to Agamemnon. 

301 



ENNIUS 

226-8 

Cicero, de Div., II, 26, 57 : Democritus optimis verbis 
causam explicat cur ante lucem galli canant . . . silentio 
noctis ut ait Ennius — 

Agamemno 

Favent faucibus russis 
<galli) cantu, plausuque premunt 
alas. 

229-30 
Iph.A.,Z\l s.; cp.327. 

Ar. ... at deoL w^s avaia)(yvTov (f)pev6s 

Cic, Tiisc. Disp., IV, 36, 77 : Ira vero . . . cuius impulsu 
existit etiam inter fratres tale iurgium — 

Agamemno 

Quis homo te exsuperavit usquam gentium 
impudentia ? 

Menelaus 

Quis autem malitia te ? 

Nosti quae sequuntur ; alternis enim versibus intorquentur 
inter fratres gravissimae contumeliae ut facile appareat 
Atrei filios esse. . . . 

231 

Iph. A., 329, 331. 

Ar. Ti Se ae ra/id Set (f)vXdaaeLV ; ovk dvaia^WTOv roSe; | 
oup^i Seiva ; tov ifiov oIksIv oIkov ovk idaofiai. ; 

Rufinianus, ap. R.L.M., 41, 28 H : 'KyavaKTfiai.^ indignatio, 
quae fit maxime pronuntiatione. Ennius in Iphigenia — 

^" galli suppl. W, missis V Jortasse <gallique> 

favent • 

302 



TRAGEDIES 

226-8 

Cicero : Democritus with very good argument explains the 
reasons why cockerels crow before dawn ... in the silence 
of the night, in the words of Ennius — 

Agamemnon 

The cockerels indulge their ruddy-wattled throats 
in crowing and with a clap beat their wings.* 



229-30 

Quarrd between Agamemnon and Menelaus : 

Cicero : Next wrath . . . under whose impulse there 
starts even among brothers a brawl like this — 

Agamemnon 

What man in all the world has surpassed you in 
shamelessness ? 

Menelaus 
Or who you in spite ? 

You know what follows; for the brothers hurl the most 
crushing taxmts at each other, line for line, so that you can 
easily see that they are Atreus' sons. . , . 

231 

Rufinianus : *Ayam»cTij<7t? is indignation, which comes 
about chiefly by tone of voice. Enoius in Iphigenia — 

« v., 156-7 and prooem., 1888-9, 10 ff. I have supplied 
galli after russis ; Cicero naturally omits it since he has just 
said : galli . . . qui quidem sileniio jiociis, ut ait Ennius. . . . 

3<^3 



ENNIUS 

Agamemno 
Menelaus me obiurgat; id meis rebus regimen 
restitat. 

232-4 

Iph. A., 384, 388-390, 396 s. : AF. . . . eV iyw Sc'attjp 8a, 
auiv KaKuiv 6 fir] cr^aAetj ; . . . 

Tafia 8' OVK a-rroKTevC) 'yco reKva' kov to aov fikv ev \ napa 
BiKTjv iarai KaKiorrfS €vvi8os rifioypiq,. Cp. id., 482 £f. {Menel. 
loqu.), 

Rufinianus, ap. R.L.M., 47, 16 H : ^xjyKpiois sive avrideais 
comparatio rerum atque personarum inter se contrariarum, 
ut — ■ 

Agamemno 

Ego proiector quod tu peccas? Tu delinquis, ego 

arguor ? 
Pro malefactis Helena redeat, virgo pereat innocens ? 
Tua reconcilietur uxor, mea necetur filia? 

235-6 

Iph. A., 446-49 : 17 8vayevei,a 8' ti? ex" ri xPl^'^H-^^- I '^f'- 
yap 8aKpvaai paSt'cos avrols e^^t | a-rravTa r' etneiv rat Be yevvato) 
<f>vaiv I dvoXpa ravra. 

meTonjmns,Epi8t.,60,Epit.Nepot.,U: . . . Prudenterque 
Ennius . . . ait— - 

Agamemno 

Plebes in hoc regi antistat loco : licet 
lacrumare plebi, regi honeste non licet. 

231 restitat Bentley restat cdd. 

232 proiector cdd. ut ego plectar Bentley proh 
plector coni. Halm 

304 



TRAGEDIES 

Agamemnon 

Menelaus brawls at me ; it is that domination of 
his which stands an obstacle to my affairs. 

232-4 

Rufinianua : ^vyKpiats or avrldeais is to put side by side 
things or persons contrary to each other, for example — 

Agamemnon 

Am I taunted because you do AVTong? Because 
you go astray, am I brought to task? For her 
misdeeds should Helen come back, in her guiltless- 
ness should a maiden perish ? Should your wife be 
brought back to favour, my daughter be butchered ? * 

235-6 

Agamemnon laments because he sees that the sacrifice of 
Iphigenia will be unavoidable : 

Jerome : And wisely does Ennius write — 

Agamemnon 

The commoners stand better than their king 
In this — the commoners may weep, the king 
May not, \^ith honour.'' 

" Comparison with Euripides, Iph. A., 317 ff., given opposite 
shows how freely Ennius has dealt with his original. 
Cf. v., prooem.. 1880, 5. 



***-• trib. Enn. Iph. Ck)lonna 
"^« trib. Iph. Colonna 



305 



ENNIUS 
237-8 

Iph. A., 631-2 : tS ae^as efiol fieyiarov 'Ayafiifivoyv a>'a|, 
•^KOfiev itf>€Tfj,als ovk aTnarovaai aedev. 

Cicero, ad Att., XIII, 47, 1 :— 

Clytaemnestra 

Postquam abs te, Agamemno, ut venirem tetigit 

aures nuntius, 
extemplo . . . 

instituta omisi, ea quae in manibus habebam abieci, quod 
iusseras edolavi. 

239 

Iph. A., 708-9: 

KA. ©ens S' eOpei/tev t] Trarrip 'A;^iAAea ; 

Ar. Xeipcov, iv' tJOt) fir] fiddot. KaKwv ^porcbv. 
Vel 701. Ar. . . . d Tl-qXevs 8' ^^xe Nij/aetj? KoprjV. 

Varro, L.L., VII, 87: ' Lymphata ' dicta a lympha; 
lympha a nympha, ut quod apud Graecos ©eVi? apud Ennium — 

Thelis illi mater. 

240 

Iph. A., 735-7 : Ar. ov KaXov iv ox^u) a' e^ofiiXelodai arpaTov. 
KA. KaXov TCKOvaav rafid fi' eVSowat reKva. 
Ar. Koi ras y' iv oiKto firj fiovas elvai Kopas. 

Servius auctus, ad Aen., I, 52 : Sane ' vasto ' pro desolato 
veteres ponebant ... — 

Agamemno 
Quae nunc abs te viduae et vastae virgines sunt. 

237-8 jjQn ' ut venirem ' (nam id quoque fecissem nisi 
Torquatus esset) sed ut scriberem ' tetigit ' e. q. s. Cic. 
trib. Enn. Iph. Ladewig 

2** extemplo fortasse non Ennio tribuend., sed cp. Non., 
263,5 

239 trib. Iph. V 

306 



TRAGEDIES 

237-8 

Clytaemnestra, complying with a deceitful message, has come 
ivith her daughter and greets her husband : 

Cicero : — 

Clytaemnestra 

So soon as tidings from you, that I was to come, 
reached my ears, Agamemnon, I forthwith ..." 

gave up what I had begun ; I put aside what I had in hand and 
I wrote rough-hewn what you had asked for.* 

239 

From the dialogue where Agamemnon tells Clytaemnestra of 
the past life of Achilles : 

Varro : ' Lymphata ' is a term derived from ' lympha ' 
(water), ' lympha ' from ' nympha ' ; in like manner Bens as 
wi-itten by Greek authors is in a passage of Ennius — ' 

Thelis his mother. 

240 

Agamemnon tries in vain to persuade Clytaemnestra to return 
to Argos : 

Servius (supplemented), on Aen., I, 52 : It is a fact that 
the old writers used to put ' vastus ' for ' desolate ' . . . — 

Agamemnon ^ 
Maids who are now bereft of you and desolate. 

" This is all that can be attributed to Ennius; but of. 
Ladewig, Avai. Seen., 15, R., 98. 

* Cic. gave up work on De Natura Deorum and set to work 
on a letter to Caesar ; ' edolavi ' is from a satire of Ennius ? 
(p. 437.) 

■■ Vahlen's attribution to this play is probable. Varro 
means that just as a change of one letter makes Thetis into 
Thelis, so a change of one letter makes nympha into lympha. 

" V.,prooe>n., 1888, 9 ff. 

x2 



ENNIUS 

241-8 

Iph. A., 801 ff. [Achill. loqu.), 813-8, 1000-1001. 

Gellius, XIX, 10, 12 {de vocabulo praeterpropler) : Statim 
proferri Iphigeniam Q. Enni iubet (Celsinus). In eius tragoe- 
diae choro inscriptos esse hos versus legimus — - 

Charus 

Otio qui nescit uti . . . 

plus negoti habet quam cum est negotium in negotio ; 

nam cui quod agat institutumst non ullo negotio 

id agit, id studet, ibi mentem atque animum delectat 

suum : 
otioso in otio animus nescit <(quid agat)> quid 

velit. 245 

Hoc idem est ; em neque domi nunc nos nee militiae 

sumus; 
imus hue, hinc illuc ; cum illuc ventum est, ire 

illinc Iubet. 
Incerte errat animus, praeterpropter vitam vivitur. 

. • . Petimus igitur dicas . . . quid sit ignotus huiusce 
versus sensus ' incerte errat animus praeterpropter vitam 
vivitur.' 

249-51 

Iph. A., 956-8 : AX. iriKpovs Se irpoxvras ^cpvi^Saj t' evap^erai 
KaXxc-S o /idvTty ti's Sc fiavris ear' avrip, 
OS oAiy' dXtjOii TroAAa Se ifiev8r} Xeyei 
Tvx<^v, orav 8e fir] tv^U Stoi;^eTai ; 

Cicero, de Re Publ., I, 18, 30 : In ore semper erat ille de 
Iphigenia Achilles — 

2*' non ullo negotio Hermann nil nisi negotium Hertz 

militi negotium Ribb. in illis vel in illo cdd. 
2" id agit <id> Ribb. 
2** <quid agat> Dziatzko 
**' illinc cdd. praeter Par. (illuc) 

308 



TRAGEDIES 

241-8 

Impatience of the army held back in AtUia : 

Gellius, on the word * praeterpropter ' : Celsinus at once 
ordered a copy of Quintus Ennius' Iphigenia to be brought 
cat. In a chorus of that tragedy we read the following lines — 

Chorus " 

He who knows not how to use leisure has more 
work than when he is awork at work. For he for 
whom a task is set to do, does it without any work ; 
he attends to it ; therein too he delights his mind and 
his thoughts. In leisurely leisure the mind knows 
not what it does or wants. Thus it is with us also ; 
look you, we are now neither at home nor are we 
afield. We go hither and then thither : and when 
thither we have come, away again it pleases to go.* 
Our mind wanders unsure ; our lives we live but more 
or less. 

. . . Well then we ask you to tell us . . . what is the 
unknown meaning of this line, ' Our mind wanders unsure; 
our lives we live but more or less.' 

249-51 

AchiUes STieers at Calchaa' prophecy : 

Cicero : The famous words of Achilles fix)m Iphigenia were 
always in his mouth — 

" Of warriors — see p. 299 ; V., in £?., XV, 262 ff. 

* These poor soldiers must have felt towards Agamemnon 
like the soldiers of the brave old Duke of York, who had ten 
thousand men. The lines are very corrupt, and inelegant 
even where they are sound. That part of the speech of AchUIes 
in Euripides which gave Ennius his ideas is perhaps an 
interpolation into Euripides' play. 



ENNIUS 

Achilles 
astrologorum signa in caelo quid sit observationis, 
cum capra aut nepa aut exoritur nomen aliquod 

beluarum, 
quod est ante pedes nemo spectat, caeli scrutantur 

plagas. 

Cp. Cic, de Div., II, 13, 30 : Donat., ad Ter., Adelph., 
Ill, 3, 32; Seneca, Apocolocynt., 8. 

252 

Iph. A., 1505-1509 : 1<1>, Ico \ XaiinaSovxos ifiepa Ai\6s re 
^iyyos, irepov erepov \ cdcova Kal fj-olpav oiK'qaofiev \ X^^P^ f^°'- 
<f>iXov (f>dos. vel 1375, Kardavetv iiiv p-oi SeSoKraL. 

Festus, 5 : ' Ob ' praepositione antiques usos esse pro 
' ad ' testis est Ennius quum ait ... in Iphigenia — 

Iphigenia 
Acherontem obibo ubi Mortis thesauri obiacent. 



MEDEA 

SIVE 

MEDEA EXUL 

Eur., 3Ied., 1-8 : 

Eld' axfieX' 'Apyovs (i''] SiaTTrdadai oKa^os 
KdA;(aJV is alav Kvaveas 'XvfnrXyjyo.Sas, 
^TjS' e'v yaTTaiai. TlrjXiov neaeiv nore 
TfirjOeiaa irevKr] firjS' ipeT^aou. X^P^'-S 
avSpiov dpiarojv ol to Trayxpvaov Sepos 
TleXiq. fjLeTrjXdov. ov yap dv Seanoi-v' efit] 
M'^Seto TTvpyovs yfjs enXeva' ItoA/cias' 
epoJTi dv(i6y eKTrXayela' 'idaovos- • • • 

*** sit Cic. fit Yfortasse rede 

" Efforts to emend these lines may be needless — V., 160 
and prooem., 1878, 7. Sit or fit observationis seem to govern 

310 



TRAGEDIES 

Achilles 

. . . what a peering there is at the star-readers' 
constellations in the sky ; when the She-goat or the 
Scorpion rises, or some such name chosen from the 
beasts, no man looks at what is before his feet ; one 
and all scan the stretches of the sky." 

252 

Agamemnon and Menelaus have yielded to the demands of 
Ulysses and the army. Iphigenia is ready to be sacrificed : 

Festus : That the archaic writers used the preposition 
06 for (KiEnnius bears witness when he says . . . in Iphigenia — • 

Iphigenia 

I shall go to meet Acheron, where the treasures 
of Death lie in my way. 



MEDEA 

OR 

MEDEA BANISHED 

Cicero {de Fin., I, 2, 4) includes Ennius' Medea among 
plays which were translated word for word from the Greek. 
That this is not really true of this play the following fragments 
will show. In all the essentials, however, it was a Latin 
reproduction of Euripides' M^Scta. But Ennius extended 
his play to include also the plot of Euripides' Mr/Seta iv \lyel, 
or at least far enough to bring Medea to Athens (Schol. ad 
II., XI, 741 and other sources; V., CCVIII). It is not right 
to assume a second play 'Medea Atheniensis' (R., 157-9; 
see fr. 294-5); Varro, Cicero, and Xonius knew only one 
Medea of Ennius, to which the poet apparently gave the title 
Medea Etui (that is, in exile at Corinth with Jason). 

the accusative signa as though the sentence were e.g. ^ua« 
obsenent homines signa. 

3" 



ENNIUS 

253-61 

Auctor, ad Herenn., II, 22, 34 : Hie quod extremum dictum 
est satis fuit exponere ne Ennium et ceteros poctas imitemur 
quibus hoc modo loqui concessum est — 

Nutrix 

Utinam ne in nemore Pelio securibus 

caesae accedissent abiegnae ad terram trabes, 

neve inde navis inchoandi exordium 255 

coepisset quae nunc nominatur nomine 

Argo, quia Argivi in ea delecti viri 

vecti petebant pellem inauratam arietis 

Colchis imperio regis Peliae per dolum ; 

nam numquam era errans mea domo efFerret pedem 

Medea animo aegro amore saevo saucia. 

Nam hie satis erat dieere, si id modo quod satis esset 
curarent poetae ' utinam ne era errans mea domo efferret 
pedem Medea animo aegro amore saevo saucia.' 

Cp. Prise, ap. G.L., III, 423, 36, etc., etc. 

262-3 

Med., 49—51 : naXaiov oikcov Krijixa SeaTroivr/s ifJ^'^JS, \ ri rrpos 
nvAaiai, tt^vS' dyova' eprj/jilav \ ear-QKas, avrrj dpeo^evrj aavrfj 

KaKO.. 

Nonius, 38, 29 : ' Eliminare,' extra limen eicere. . . . 
Ennius Medea exule — 

Paedagogus 

Antiqua erilis fida custos corporis, 
quid sic te extra aedes exanimata eliminas? 
Cp. Non., 292, 20. 

2** caesae accedissent (vel accidissent vel cecidissent) 

abiegnae auct. ad Herenn., Prise, III, Cic, alii caesa 

aceidisset (accedisset Prise. VII) abiegna vel sim. Varro, 
Prise. VII prob. V 



TRAGEDIES 

253-61 

Opening of the play ; prologue spoken by Medea's aged 
nurse : 

The author of To Herenniu-s says : I have deemed what I 
have last said to be enough by way of exposition at this point, 
lest we be found to be copying Ennius and the rest of the 
poets, who were granted the right to speak in the following 
way — 

Nurse 

Would that the firwood timbers had not fallen 
to earth hewn by axes in a Pelian grove ; and that 
thereupon no prelude had been made to begin the 
ship which is now known by the name of Argo, for 
that chosen Argive heroes were carried in it when 
they were seeking the golden fleece of the ram of 
Colchis, by trickery, at the behest of King Pelias. 
For thus never would my misled mistress Medea, 
sick at heart, smitten by savage love, have set foot 
outside her home. 

For if the poets had a care for that only which were enough, 
then it was enough to say here, ' would that my mistress 
Medea, sick at heart, smitten by savage love, had not set 
foot outside her home.' 

262-3 

The usher to Jason's children addresses the nurse : 

Nonius : ' Eliminare,' to thrust outside the ' Umen ' . . . 
Ennius in Medea Banished — 

Usher 

You aged faithful woman, guardian of your 
mistress' person, wherefore bring you yourself thus 
outdoors, forspent outside your dwelling ? 



ENNIUS 
264-5 

Med., 57-8 : oiad^ tfiepos /u.' VTrijXde yfj re Kovpavw \ Ae'^ai 
fioXovarj Sevpo SeoTToivrjs rv^as- 

Cicero, Tu^c. Disp., Ill, 26, 63 : Sunt autem alii quos in 
luctu cum ipsa solitudine loqui saepe delectat, ut ilia apud 
Ennium nutrix — 

Nutrix 

Cupido cepit miseram nunc me proloqui 
caelo atque terrae Medeai miserias. 

266-8 

Med., 214-18 : KopivOiai yvvaiKes, i^-^XOov hoiiajv, \ /x-q nol ti 
fiefi<f>Tja8' olSa yap ttoXXovs ^porcov \ aefivovs yeyaiTas, tovs fiiv 
ofifiaTCOv dno 1 tovs 8' ev Bvpalois' ol 8' a<f>' rjtjvxov ttoSoj | 
dvoKXeiav eKXTjaavro Kal padvplav, 

Cicero, ad Fam., VII, 6, 1 : Tu modo ineptias istas et 
desideria urbis et urbanitatis depone et quo consilio profectus 
es id assiduitate et virtute consequere; hoc tibi tarn ignos- 
cemus nos amici quam ignoverunt Medeae — 

Medea 

Quae Corinthum arcem altam habetis matronae 
opulentae optimates, 

quibus ilia manibus gypsatissimis persuasit ne sibi vitio 
illae verterent quod abesset a patria; nam — 

Multi suam rem bene gessere et publicam patria 

proeul, 
multi qui domi aetatem agerent propterea sunt 

inprobati. 

Quo in numero tu certe fuisses nisi te extrusissemus. 



*** habebant Cic. ne mihi vos vitio vortatis a patria 
quod absiem add. ex Eur. Elmsley 
266-8 i^ii)_ £fin. Med. Politianus 



TRAGEDIES 

264-5 

From the end of the nurse's reply : 

Cicero : But there are others to whom in their grief it 
is often a delight to hold converse with loneliness itself, for 
example the well-known nurse in Ennius — 

Xurse 
Now has a desire taken hold of me, poor wretch, 
to speak out to heaven and earth Medea's miseries. 

266-8 
Medea comes out of the palace and defends her moody behaviour : 

Cicero writes to Trebatius : All you have to do is to lay 
aside the silly fads and longings of town and town's fashions, 
and follow up with zest and fortitude the plan with which 
you set out. We as your friends will pardon you this as readily 
as Medea was pardoned by — ■ 

Medea 
You well-to-do and well-born ladies, who have for 
your own the lofty stronghold Corinth, 

whom she with thickly plastered hands persuaded not to call 
her to task that she was away from her native land " ; for — 

Many there are who have performed well their 
own and their commonweal's tasks far from the 
fatherland ; and many there are who because they 
passed their days at home were for this held in no 
honour. 

Among the latter number you certainly would have been 
numbered had we not pushed you out of it. 

" As will be seen from the quotation opposite, Ennius 
misunderstood the Greek of Exiripides. That Poliziano was 
right in assigning this fragment to Ennius' Medea is clear 
from the fact that Cicero goes on to quote (without naming 
the author) fr. 271 which we know from another passage 
of Cicero to belong to Ennius; see below, line 271. In 
gypsaiissimis Cic. alludes to the whitened hands of the actor. 



ENNIUS 
269-70 

Med., 250-51 : oiy rpls av vap' aani8a 

arrjvai OeXoifi' av /xaAAov ^ t€K€iv dna^. 
Nonius, 261, 18 : ' Cernere ' rursum dimicare vel conten- 
dere . . . 

Medea 
. . • nam ter sub armis malim vitam cernere 
quam semel modo parere. 

Cp. Non., 261, 9; Varro, L.L., VI, 81. 

271 

Med., 303-05 ? Cp. 381-3 ; 400-1. 

Cicero, ad Fam., VII, 6, 2 : Tu qui ceteris cavere didicisti, 
in Britannia ne ab essedariis decipiaris caveto, et quoniam 
Medeam coepi agere, illud semper memento — 

Medea 
Qui ipse si sapiens prodesse non quit, nequiquam 
sapit. 
Cp. Cic, de Off., Ill, 15, 62 (ex quo Ennius e. q. s.); Cic, 
ad Fam., XIII, 15, 2 . . . vera praecepta EvpimSov fiioto 
ao<l>iaTr]v oaris ovx aurai ao<}>6s (fr. 905 N). 

272-3 

Med., 352—4 : et a' ij VioCaa Aa/XTra? o^ctoi diov \ Koi ttoiSo? 
ivTOs TTJaSe Tfpfiovwv xdovos, \ davei. 

Cicero, pro Rabir., 11, 29 : Regum autem sunt haec 
imperia . . . et illae minae — 

Creon 
Si te secundo lumine hie offendero, 
moriere. 

Quae non ut delectemur solum legere et spectare debemus, 
sed ut cavere etiam et fugere discamus. 

Cp. Cic, ad Att., VII, 26, 1. 



3l6 



*'" quam s. m. parere add. ex Non., 261, 9 
272-3 trib. Enn. Med. S 



TRAGEDIES 

269-70 
Nonias : ' Cemere ' also means to fight or strive ... — 

Medea 

for I would fain make trial of my life thrice under 
arms, than give birth just once. 

271 

Medea angwering Creon who is suspicious of her : 

Cicero writes to Trebatius : You who have learnt to look 
out on behalf of the rest of mankind, in Britain look 
out lest you be taken in by carters, and (since I began " 
with playing the part of Medea) remember you at all times that 
famous line — 

Medea 

He who, though wise himself, cannot help himself, 

is wise in vain ^ 

272-3 

Creon threatens Medea as he grants a day^s delay before she 
leaves the land : 

Cicero : And to kings belong these commands.' . . . 
And the famous threat — 

Creon 

If one day hence I do light upon you, you shall die. 

Of these we ought to be readers and spectators, not that we 
may merely be delighted by them, but that we may learn how 
to beware also and to escape. 

« See fr. 266-8. 

* Wherever we place this line, we need not doubt that 
Ennius took the words from one of the lost plays of Euripides, 
not his Medea. 

' Scaliger attributes to Ennius' Medea all of the three 
examples given by Cicero. 



ENNIUS 

274-80 
if ed., 364-75; 398-99. 

Cicero, de Nat. Deor., Ill, 25, 65 : Balbus ' interpellare 
te,' inquit ' nolo, Cotta, sed sumemus tempus aliud; efficiam 
profecto ut fateare. Sed ... — 

Medea 

Nequaquam istuc istac ibit ; magna inest certatio. 
Nam ut ego illi supplicax'em tanta blandiloquentia 
ni ob rem ? 

Parumne ratiocinari videtur et sibi ipsa nefariam pestem 
machinari ? Illud vero quam callida ratione — 

Qui volt esse quod volt, ita dat se res ut operam 
dabit. 

Qui est versus omnium seminator malorum — 

lUe traversa mente mi hodie tradidit repagula 
quibus ego iram omnem recludam atque illi perniciem 

dabo, 
mihi maerores illi luctum, exitium illi exilium mihi. 

Hanc videlicet rationem quam vos divino beneficio homini 
solum tributam dicitis bestiae non habent. Videsne igitur 
quanto munere deorum simus adfecti ? 

281 

Med., 431-2 : av 8' eV fiev olkcov TTaTp<^atv enXevaas J fjiaivo- 
fifva KpaSla • • • | 627 S. : "Epwres inep fiev dyav eXdovres 

K.T.X. 

Nonius, 297, 16 : ' Efferre ' significat proferre. . . . 
Ennius Medea — 



2'**- trib. Enn. Med. Osann 

^'^ ni ob rem Mayor alii alia ni orbem vel obem vel 
sim. cdd. 



TRAGEDIES 

274-80 

After the departure oj Creon, Medea in a monologue pondert 
on her plan of revenge : 

Cicero : I do not want to interrupt you, Cotta, said Balbus, 
so let us choose another time; I will certainly make you 
confess. But ... — 

Medea 

In no way thither shall the business go ; not on that 
course ; great is the striving within it. What I Would 
I have humbled myself before him with such charm 
of speech were it not to my purpose ? 

Do you think her reasoning is at fault and that rfie is 
engineering for herself an unspeakable evil ? But with what 
cunning reasoning does she argue in these well-known words — 

\^Tioever has a \vish that whatever he wishes shall 
come about, according to the trouble he will take, 
so turns out the event. 

This is a line which is a sower of all and every ill — 
Yonder wretch crooked in soul has this day given 
me charge of bolts and bars whereby I shall let open 
all my wrath and make ruin for him, yes, sorrows 
for me, grief for him, for me a banishment, for him 
a bane. 

To be sure this gift of reasoning, which you say is bestowed 
by divine kindness on man alone, is something which the 
beasts have not. Do you see what a great gift of the gods we 
are blessed with ? 

281 

The chorus speaking to Medea • in an ode : 

Nonius : ' Efferre ' means to put forward. . . . Ennius in 
Medea — 



• R., 154; contrast V., 170. 



319 



ENNIUS 

Chorus 

Utinam ne umquam Mede Colchis cupido corde 
pedem extetulisses . . . 

282-3 

Med., 475-82: cV rwv Se irpcorwv Trputrov ap^o/iai Aeyeiv. | 
eocjaa a . . . iTefi<f>devra ravpcov TTvpiTVOoiv i^niaraTrfV | ^eJyAcwai 
Kai anfpovvra davaaip-ov yvrjv \ SpaKOVTO, 6' . . . Kreivaa* dvea^ov 
aol <f>dos auiT'fjpiov. 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 284, 7 K : Fit schema dianoeas . . . 
per paralipsim, cum volumus negantes aliquid indicare 
tamquam — 

Medea 

Non commemoro quod draconis saevi sopivi impetum, 
non quod domui vim taurorum et segetis armatae 
manus. 

Cp. id., 286-7. 

284-5 

Med., 502-4 : vvv iroi rpaTTCjfiai : irorepa irpos irarpos Sofiovs \ 
ovs aol TrpoSovaa Kal Trarpav d<f)iK6p.r)v \ -q rrpos rdXaivas IleAiaSaj ; 

Cicero, de Oral., Ill, 58, 217 : Aliud vocis genus iracundia 
sibi sumat . . . aliud miseratio ac maeror, flexibile plenum 
interruptum flebili voce — 

Medea 

Quo nunc me vortam ? Quod iter incipiam ingredi ? 
Domum paternamne anne ad Peliae filias ? 

**i mede cordis cdd. Colchis Lips Medea foras 
Onions Mede portis coni. Linds. extetulisses Buecheler 
extulisses cdd. trochae. octon. constit. V anapaest, 

Buecheler 

320 



TRAGEDIES 

Chorus 

O Medea of Colchis, would that you had not ever 
with hankering heart set foot outside . . . 

282-^ 

Dispute between Medea and Jason : 

Charisius : A ' figiire of thought ' comes about ... by 
' paraleipsis ' when we want to point out something while 
denying that we are doing so, for example — 

Medea 

... I say no word " of how I lulled 
To sleep the funi- of the savage snake. 
Nor how I tamed the temper of the bulls, 
And the stout valour of the warrior crop. 

284-5 

Medea stresses her lonelinefs : 

Cicero : Let wrath claim for itself one kind of voice . . . 
pity and grief another kind — wavering, full, broken by a 
sobbing tone — 

Medea 

Whither shall I turn now ? What road set out 
To tread ? Towards my father's home, or what ? 
To Pelias' daughters? 

" v., 169. Notice how Ennius uses a device of rhetoric 
thoroughly Roman ; contrast the Greek. 



2"-^ trib. Enn. Med. Welcker 
*»*-' trib. Enn. Med. Colonna 



321 



ENNIUS 

286 

Mtd., 530-1 : cos 'E-pcos a' ^vay^aae [ to^ois di^wrots Tovfxov 
(KawaaL Se'/xas. 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., IV, 32, 69 : Quid ait ex tragoedia 
princeps ille Argonautarum ? — 

lason 
Tu nie amoris magis quam honoris servavisti gratia. 

Quid ergo, hie amor Medeae quanta miseriarum excitavit 
incendia. 

287 

Med., 152: AT. o/xvu/xi Faias SdneSov 'HAt'ou re ifxxis- vel 
764 : MH. to ZeO Ai'/ct; re X-qvos 'hAiou re ^coy. 

Nonius, 170, 8 j ' Sublimare,' extollere. Ennius Medea — 
Sol qui candentem in caelo sublimat facena 

288 

Med., 773 : [MH.] Ae'fco- hi^ov 8e jxr] npos fjSovfiv Xoyovs. 
vel 132 : XO. (kXvov (jxavav IkXvov 8« ^oav. 

Nonius, 467, 7 : ' Aucupavi,' activum positum pro passive 
fructus vex'borum aures aucupant. 
289-90 

Med., 1070—2 : Sot' aairdaaadai Hffrpl 8e^iav x^P"- 1 '^ 
(fnXTaTT) X^'-P> <f>^XTaTov Se /xoi arofxa \ Kal axrjfia Kai Trpoaajnov 
evyfves tckvcdv, . . . 

Nonius, 84, 31 : ' Cette ' significat dioite vel date ab eo 
quod cedo ... — 

Medea 

salvete optima corpora ; 
cette manus vestras measque accipite. 

*** trib. Enn. Med. Colonna 

^** fructus cdd. fremitus Mr. fortasse fluctus 

322 



TRAGEDIES 

286 
Jason replies to Medea : 

Cicero : What saj-s the renowned leader of the Argonauts 
in the tragedy ? — 

Jason 

You saved me more for love's sake than for 
honour's. 

Well then, what a blaze of woes did this love of Medea stir 
up. 

287 

Kijtg Aegeus of Athejis on making a;i oath, or Medea reveals 
her plan of taking refuge with Aegeu-s at Athens : 

Xonius : ' Sublimarc,' to lift right up. Ennius in Medea — 

. . . The sun, 
Who lifts aloft in heaven his blazing brand 

288 

Medea revealing her plan to the chorus ? : 

Nonius : ' Aucupavi,' an active form put for the 
passive ... — 

a harvest of words catches the ears. 

289-90 

Medea takes leave of her children : 

Xonius : ' Cette ' means ' tell ye ' or ' give ye,' from the 
word cedo ... — 

Medea 

Good-bye, you dearest little things ; there now ! 
Give me your hands and you take mine. 

y2 



ENNIUS 
291-3 

Med., 1251-4 : ld> Ta re Kai Traix(f>ar)s | olktIs 'AeXlov KariBer' 
tSere tclv | ovXofievav yvvaiKa nplv <f>o(.viav \ reKvois irpoa^aXelv 
Xep' avTOKTOvov Cp. 1258-9. 

Probus, ad Verg., E., VI, 31 : Homcrum ipso hoc loco (II., 
XV^III, 483) possumus probare quattuor elementorum men- 
tionem fecisse . . . similiter et Ennius in Medea exule in his 
versibus — 



Chorus 

luppiter tuque adeo summe qui res omnis inspicis 
quique tuo Sol luniine mare terrain caelum contines, 
inspice hoc facinus priusquam fiat, prohibessis scelus. 

Nam et hie luppiter et Sol pro igni, qui mare et terram et 
caelum continet, ut non dubie caelum pro aere dixerit. 



294-5 
Nonius, 469, 34 : ' Contempla ' . . . Ennius Medea — 

Asta atque Athenas anticum opulentum oppidum 
contempla, 

Varro, L.L., VII, 9 : In hoc templo faciundo arbores 
constitui fines apparet f et intra eas regiones qua oculi con- 
spiciant, id est tueamur, a quo templum dictum et contemplare, 
ut apud Ennium in Medea ' contempla ' — 

et templum Cereris ad laevam aspice. 

2»i-2 sunune qui . . . tuo Sol Havet, Rev. de Phil., Ill, 80 
summe Sol qui res omnes spicis, | quique tuo cum V 
summe Sol qui res omnis inspicis quique tuo lumine cdd. 



TRAGEDIES 

291-3 

From the song »ung by the chorus while Medea does her horrid 
xcfirJi within : 

Probus : We can prove that Homer also in this very passage 
made mention of the four elements . . . and Ennius likewise 
in Medea Banished, in the following lines — 

Chorus 

O Jupiter, and thou too, Sun most high, 
\Mio lookest upon all things, and pervadest 
Sea land and sky ^vith thy light, look on this 
Dread deed before 'tis done ; prevent this sin. 

For here too both Jupiter and the Sun are put for fire, 
which pervades sea and land and sky ; so we need not doubt 
that he used the term ' skv ' for ' air.' 



294-5 

Medea in flight approaches Athens ; the city is pointed out 

to her : 

Nonius : ' Contempla,' . . . Ennius in Medea — 

Stand there and Athens " contemplate, a city 
Ancient and wealthy, 

Varro : In making this sort of ' temple ' we see that trees 
are established as the boundaries,* t and also within those 
regions where the eyes look forth, that is where we ' tueamur,' 
from which is derived ' temple ' and ' contemplate,' as we 
read in Ennius in Medea — ' contemplate ' . . . — 

and towards the left, 
Look upon Ceres' temple. 

" This goes beyond the plot of Euripides' Medea — see p. 31 1 . 
* A clause has dropped out of Varro's text here. 



ENNIUS 
MELANIPPA 

Of the two plays of Euripides on the tale of Melanippe 
Ennius took as his model MeXavLTnrrj rj ao^-q. Melanippe, in 
the absence of her father King Aeolus, bore twin sons by 
Poseidon ; she exposed the m ; but they were reared by wild 
kine. When her father returned, some cowherds took the 
children for a monstrous brood of one of the cows, and brought 

296-7 
Nonius, 469, 3 : ' Auguro ' . . . Ennius Melanippa — 
Certatio hie est nulla quin monstrum siet ; 
hoc ego tibi dico et coniectura auguro. 

298 
Nonius, 246, 9 : ' Auscultare ' est obsequi ... — 

Hellen 
Mi ausculta, nate, pueros cremitari iube. 

299-300 
Nonius, 176, 2 : ' Sospitcnt,' salvent ... — 

Hellen ? 

regnumque nostrum ut sospitent 
superstitentque. 
Cp. Non., 170, 10. 

2** cremitari (vel iube cremarier) Bothe cremari cdd. 
300 om. ut cdd. 170 superstitentque cdd. 176, 170 

fortasse que delendum 

326 



TRAGEDIES 

MELAXIPPE 

them as such to the king. The children were doomed to be 
burnt. Melanippe, who was given the duty of preparing them 
for the p}Te, tried to prove, by Anaxagorean metaphysics, that 
the babes might be the natural offspring of the cattle. When 
Aeolus learnt the truth, he imprisoned Melanippe in a dungeon 
and had the babes thrown to the mercy of wild beasts. 

296-7 
Hellen ' (father of Aeolus) or a herdsman-messenger ? : 
Xonius : ' Auguro ' . . . Ennius in Melanippe — 
Here can there be no dispute that it is a monstrous 

brood. This I say unto you and foretell it a<: from a 

sign. 

298 

Ilellen advises Aeolus thai the babes he burnt with brush- 
irood * .• 

Xonius : ' Auscultare ' means to obey ... — 

Hellen 

Listen to me, my son ; enjoin you that the boys be 
burned. 

299-300 

Hellen (f) prays for the fortunes of the kingdom : 
Nonius : ' Sospitent,' they may save ... — 

Hellen ? 
and that they may save and spare our realm for long. 

• v., 173. 

' For bv burning the monsters upon aypia $vXa ill luck 
would be avoided. R., 178 ; Bhet. 0., VII, 1313 W : d 5c t^ toC 
irarpis 'zX^rfvos yvcofirj neiadel; oXoKavTOvv tol pp(<l>rj Kplvas 

K.T.X. 



ENNIUS 
301 

? Eurip., Mel., 485-8 N: kovk i/xos 6 fivdos dAA' ifirjs fnjrpos 
irdpa, I toy ovpavos re yala t' ■^v fj.op<l>ri ixla- \ eTTfi. S' e^wpiadrjoav 
dAA^Acov 8i;^a | tiktovoi, -navra KaveSojKav els (f>dos, k.t.X. vel490. 

Macrobius, S., VI, 4, 7 : ' Splendet tremulo sub lumine 
pontus ' {Aen., VII, 9). Tremulum lumen de imagine rei ipsiua 
expressum est : sed prior Ennius in Melanippe — 

Melanippe ? 
Lumine sic tremulo terra et cava caerula candent. 

302 

Gellius, V, 11, 11 : Media forma quaedam est . . . qualis 
a Quinto Ennio in Melanippa perquam eleganti vocabulo — 

stata <( forma) 

dicitur, quae neque Koivr] futura sit neque iroiv^q . . . 

303 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 516, 14 K : ' Scindo scidi.' Vetustis- 
simi tamen etiam scicidi proferebant ... — 

Aeolus ? 

quum saxum sciciderit, 

NEMEA 



Cp. Gell., VI, 9, 15. 



According to the original story, Adrastus founded the 
Nemean games in honour of Opheltes (son of King Lycurgus 
of Nemea) ; who, left unguarded by Hypsipyle while she guided 
the ' Seven against Thebes ' to a spring, was killed by a snake ; 



323 



TRAGEDIES 

301 

Possibly Melanippe speaks the following words in her effort 
lo prove thai the babes are the cattle^ s natural offspring : 

Macrobius, on ' The sea shines bright under the flickering 
light ' in Virgil : ' Flickering light ' is an expression drawn 
from a picture of the thing itself. But Ennius used it first 
in Melanippe — 

Melanippe ? 

Thus ^vith flickering light 
Do earth and heaven's blue hollows brightly glare. 

302 

Melanippe^s moderate beauty : 

Gellius : There is a kind of middling looks ... I mean 
the sort to which the term — 

well balanced looks 

is applied in a most elegant choice of a word by Quintus 
Ennius in Melanippe; looks which are destined neither for 
' common gain ' nor ' private pain.' 

303 

Aeolus shuts Melanippe up in a dungeon : 

Priscianus : ' Scindo scidi.' Nevertheless the oldest writers 
used to say ' scicidi "... — 

Aeolus ? 
when she has riven the rock, 

NEMEA " 

to this other details were added later. We know nothing of 
Ennius' play, except that its title suggests that the model 
was Aeschylus (R., 159 ff.). 

• i.e. ' the Vale,' ' Grove ' or ' Town Nemea ' — otherwise 
Nonius and Priscianus would have written Nemeis. 

329 



ENNIUS 
304 

Prisciamis, ap. G.L., TI, 171, 4 K : Hie et Imec et hoc pecus. 
Ennius in Neniea — 

Pecudi dare vivam marito. 

305 
Nonius, 183, 14 : ' Venor,' circumvenior. Ennius Nemea — 
Teneor consipta undique venor. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 4.3, 37 : consiptum apud E. pro conseptura. 

PHOENIX 

The material for plays about Phoenix was found in the 
Iliad, IX, 447 ff., from which we can get glimpses of the 
plot of Ennius' play. Comparison of lines 312-13 with what 
we iinow of Euripides' ^olvi^ (who made his hero innocent and 

306 
//., IX, 447 {Phoen. loqu.). . . . 



'H S' cue*' ifie XiaoeaK€TO yovvoiv 
TtaWaKihi. TTpo^iyfjvai Iv' exSpripeie yepovta. 
Tfj mOofiTjv Kai tpe^a- naT'^p S' efios ainLK o'Cadei^ 
TToXXa KarrjpaTO. 

Nonius, 91, 4 : ' Cupienter,' cupidissime. . . . Ennius 
Phoenice — ■ 

Phoenix ? Amyntor ? 
Stultus est qui cupida mente cupiens cupienter cupit. 

*"* consipta S sec. Paul. concepta G consepta rell. 

30* stultust vel stultast quae Linds. siqui cupienda 

Bergk qui non c. Ribb. sicui cupido Mr. mente 

add. V 

33° 



TRAGEDIES 
904 

Priscianus : ' Pecus,' all genders. Ennius in Nemea 
To give her alive to a bull " as her mate. 

305 
Xonius : ' Venor,' I am surrounded. Enniua in Nemea — 
I am held hedged in, on all sides am I hunted.'' 



PHOENIX 

blinded by his father) suggests that Euripides was the model. 
But if I have interpreted line 318 rightly, Euripides cannot 
have been the pattern throughout. 



306 

Amyntor's wife persuaded her son Phoenix to become the lover 
of her husband's mistress. This enraged Amyntor. Either he 
or Phoenix speaks the follou'ing : 

Xonius : ' Cupienter,' with much cupidity. . . . Ennius in 
Phoenix — 

Phoemx ? Amyntor ? 

A fool is he who lusts with lustful mind, 
Lusting lustingh\ 

" The meaning is not known, but it might refer to Europa 
and Zeus. 

*> These words may be from a speech by Hypsipyle in 
flight after the death of little Opheltes. In one passage Paulus 
(43, 37) tells us that Ennius used consiptum for conseptum; 
in another (45, 15) he says consiptum means cJavis praefixum. 



ENNIUS 
307 

IX, 435-6 : fn^noTe yovvaaiv qIolv e(f>€aa€a6ai <f>iXov vlov \ t^ 
tfifdev yeyaoJTa. 

Cicero, de Oral., 46, 155 : Itaque idem poeta qui inusitatius 
contraxerat . . . non dicit ' libenim ' . . . sed ut isti 
volunt — 

Ami/ntor 

neque tu meum umquam in gremium extollas 
liberorum ex te genus. 

308-11 

Gellius, VI, 17, 10 (de vocabulo ' obnorius ') : lam vero 
illud etiam Q. Ennii quo pacto congruere tecum potest quod 
scribit in Phoenice in hisce versibus ? — 

Phoenix 

Sed virum vera virtute vivere animatum addecet 
fortiterque innoxium stare adversum adversaries, 
ea libertas est qui pectus purum et firmum gestitat ; 
aliae res obnoxiosae nocte in obscura latent. 

312-13 

Eur., Phoenix, 809 N: rjSr) Se noXXcJv TipedrjV X6ya>v Kpirrjs- 
Nonius, 245, .30 : ' Argutari ' dieitur loquacius proloqui . . . 

Amyntor 

Turn tu isti crede te atque exerce linguam ut argutarier 
possis. 

*"' trib. Enn. Phoen. Bergk meum add. V 

^^^ te Haupt tu nee metuisti credere ? (Amyntor) 
tuque exercere Ribb, 



TRAGEDIES 

307 

Amyntor curses Phoenix : 

Cicero : And so the same poet, who had somewhat 
unusually contracted words, . . . does not say ' liberum ' 
. , . but as your purists would like it ' liberorum ' — 

Amt/ntor 

And may you never lift up to my bosom any 
offspring of children gotten of you. 

308-11 

Phoenix makes a stund against Amyntor : 

Gellius (on the word ' obnoxius ') : Well now, tell me, in 
what way can your argument be squared with what no less a 
person than Quintus Emiius writes in Phoenix, in the following 
lines ? — 

Phoenix 

But it behoves a man of virtue true 

To live a life inspired, to stand steadfast 

With guiltless bravery in the face of foes. 

The man who bears himself both pure and staunch — 

That is true liberty. All conduct else 

Lies lurking in dim darkness, fraught with guilt." 

312-13 

A myntor jeers ai the ready speech of Phoenix ? * ; 

Nonius : ' Argutari ' is an expression used in the sense of 
to declaim very glibly ... — • 

Ami/ntor 

Then trust yourself to yonder fellow, and give 
your tongue training, that you may be able to trick 
by your prating. 



" In obnoxiosae and node there is a play of words. 
* The context is not clear; V., 176; R., 194. 



333 



ENNIUS 

314 
//., IX, 458 s. : 

Tov fiev iyu) ^ovXevaa KaraKrafxev o^ei )(aXKa>, 
aXXd Ti? adavdrcDV iravaev ■)(6Xov os p iv\ dvfiui 
8T)fiov di)K« ^OLTiv KaX dv€iSca ttoAA' dv$p{i>iru)V . . 
ws fir) narpoiftovos fxer 'A;^aiotcrtv KaXioifiyfV. 

Nonius, 507, 22 : ' Faxim,' fecerim ... — 
Phoenix 
Plus miser sim si scelestum faxim quod dicam fore. 

315 
Nonius, 510, 32 : ' Saeviter ' pro saeve ... — 
saeviter suspicionem ferre falsam futtilum est. 

316 

IX, 464-5 : 

1^ fitv TToXXd erai koX aveifiioi a/x^ij iovres 
avTov Xiaaofievoi KaTeprjrvov iv niydpoiatv. . . . 

Nonius, 512 : ' Duriter ' pro dure ... — 

Quam tibi ex ore orationem duriter dictis dedit ! 

Cp. Charis., ap. G.L., I, 197, 27 K. 

317 
Nonius, 514, 12: ' Futtile,' futtiliter . . .— 
Ut quod factum est futtile amici vos feratis fortiter. 

318 

IX, 478 s. ? 

Nonius, 518, 4 : ' Derepente ' . . . — 
Nuntius ? 
Ibi turn derepente ex alto in altum despexit mare. 

" This fr. certainly suggests that in this play Phoenix is 
innocent of any association with his father's mistress, and 
here laments that his father suspects him of it. 

334 



TRAGEDIES 

314 
Phoenix mym temjiled to kill his father, but some god held him 
back lest he should be called a parricide by the Achaeans : 

Nonius : ' Faxim,' the same as ' fecerim ' . . . — 

Phoenix 
More -wTctched would I be should I perform 
What I would come to call a villainy. 

315 
Xonius : ' Saeviter ' for ' saeve ' . . . — 

It is the part of shallow-wits to bear 
A false mistrust ■with passion." 

316 
Phoenix desired to leave his father's house but uns kept back 
forcibly by his friends and kinsmen ; a friend * speaks ? : 

Xonius : ' Duriter ' for ' dure ' . . . — 
How hard were the words of his mouth which he 
mouthed unto you ! 

317 
Nonius : ' Futtile,' the same as ' futtiliter' . . . — 
My friends, see to it that you bravely bear 
Wiiat has been vainly done. 

318 
Phoenix escaped and fled to Peleus in Phthia : 
Nonius : ' Derepente ' . . . — 

Messenger ? 
Then and there he suddenly looked down from a 
height onto the high sea."^ 

» v.. 176. 
I attribute this fr. to some speech coming near the end 

of the play and reporting the escape of Phoenix. 

335 



ENNIUS 

TELAMO 
319-22 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., Ill, 13, 28 : Videntur . . . omnia 
repentina graviora ; ex hoc et ilia iure laudantur — 

Telaino 

<^liberos)> 
ego cum genui turn morituros scivi et ei rei sustuli : 
praeterea ad Troiani cum misi ob defendendam 

Graeciam, 
scibam me in mortiferum bellum non in epulas 
mittere. 

Cp., 24, 58 (atque hoc idem et Telamo ille declarat ' ego 
cum genui.' . . .) Fronto, de b. Parlh., 217; Seneca, de 
Consolat., 11, 12. 

323 

Nonius, 172, 19 : ' Squalam ' pro squalidam. Enniua 
Telamone — 

Telamo ? 

- strata terrae lavere lacrumis vestem squalam et 
sordidam. 

Id., 504, 4 (terra cd. Harl.). 

324 

Nonius, 505, 35 : ' Audibo ' pro ' audiam.' ... — 

Telamo 

More antiquo audibo atque auris tibi contra utendas 
dabo. 

33^ 



TRAGEDIES 
TELAMOX 

The original of this play is unknown : nor has any probable 
theors- been put forward (R., 133 ff. ; V., CCIX; Hermann, 
Opusc., VII, 378 ff.). 

319-22 

Telamon in Salamis bears bravely the loss of Ajax : 

Cicero : All disasters which are sudden seem to come the 
heavier. Hence it is that the following lines are rightly 
praised — 

Telamon 

WTien children I begat, I knew that they 
Must die, and for that end I took them up ; 
Moreover, when I sent them out to Troy 
That they might Greece defend, I did but know 
That I was sending them not to a banquet 
But to death-dealing war. 

323 

Grief of Eriboea " for her son Ajax : 

Nonius : ' Squalam ' is used by Ennius in Telamon for 
' squalidam ' — 

Telamon ? 

Stretched on the ground 
She bathed with tears her dingy dress of mourning. 

324 
Telamon to his ba-stard son Teucer {by Hesione) : 
Nonius : ' Audibo ' for ' audiam.' ... — 

Telamon 

By age-long custom will I hear in turn, 
Lending to you my ears to use. 

" It might be a fr. referring to the grief of Hesione for 
Teucer, who was at first thought to be dead. R., 134. 

337 

VOL. I. z 



ENNIUS 

325-6 

Nonius, 85, 23 : ' Claret,' clara est . . . — 

Teucer 

Nam ita mihi Telamonis patris atque Aeaci et proavi 

lovis 
t gratia ea est t atque hoc lumen candidum claret 

mihi, 



327 

Festus, 234, 19 : ' Ubsidionem ' potiuB dicendum . . . quam 
obsidium ... — 



Telamo 

Scibas natum ingenuum Aiaccm cui tu obsidionem 
paras. 

328-9 

Cicero, de Div., II, 50, 104 : Si sunt di benelici in homines 
sunt. Quis hoc vobis dabit ? . . . An noster Ennius ? Qui 
magno plausu loquitur adsentiente populo — 

Telamo 

Ego deum genus esse semper dixi ct dicam caelituni, 
sed eos non curare opinor quid agat humanum genus ; 

Et quidem cur sic opinetur rationem subicit. 



*2* gratia ea est cdd. gratia extet (est) Ribb. astet 
vel adsit Buecheler gratia ease est V., Abh. B. Ak. 1888, 
38 «. 



TRAGEDIES 

325-6 
Teucer having told his story protests his innocence in the 
matter of Ajax's death : 

Xonius : ' Claret,' ' is clear ' . . . — 

Teucer 

As this bright light 
Shines on me, so stands sure regard in me 
For Telamon my father, for Aeacus, 
For Jupiter my great-grandfather,* 

327 
Telamon accuses Teucer : 
Festus : ' Obsidio ' should be used rather than ' obsidium ' 

Telamon 
You knew that Ajax, of whom you, yes you. 
The assailant stand, was in true wedlock born. 

328-9 
Teucer seems to have told how the seer Calchi-s represented 
Ajax^s death as divine justice. Telamon in reply * ; 

Cicero : If there are gods, then they are kindly towards 
mortal men. \VTio will grant you this ? . . . Can our Ennius 
do it ? But he, with great applause from the crowd who 
thinks alike with him, speaks thus — 

Telamon 
For my part I have always said, will say, 
There is a race of gods in heaven ; and yet 
They take no thought, it seems, how fares man- 
kind; 
And indeed he goes on to give the reason why he thinks so. 

" The reading is not certain, but it is clear that Teucer 
is making a solemn statement that he is innocent. 
" v., 179, R., 134. 

339 
z2 



ENNIUS 

330 

Cicero, de Nat. Dear., Ill, 32, 79 : Telamo . . . uno versu 
locum totum conficit, cur di homines neglegant — 

nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis ; quod 
nunc abest. 

331 

Soph., Ai., 746 a. ; 950 s. ; 1036; al. 

Cicero, de Div. , I, 40, 88 : Atque etiam ante hos Amphiaraus 
ct Tiresias, non humiies et obscuri neque eorum similes ut 
apud Ennium est — 

qui sui quaestus causa fictas suscitant sententias, 

sed clari et praestantes viri. 

332-6 

Cicero, de Div., I, 58, 132 : Non habeo . . . nauci Marsum 
augurera, non vicanos haruspices, non de circo astrologos, 
non Isiacos coniectores, non interpretes somniorum. Non 
enim sunt hi aut scientia aut arte divini sed — 

. . . superstitiosi vates inpudentesque harioli, 

aut inertes aut insani aut quibus egestas imperat ; 

qui sibi semitam non sapiunt, alteri monstrant 

viam ; 
quibus divitias pollicentur, ab iis drachumam ipsi 

petunt. 
De his divitiis sibi deducant drachumam, reddant 

cetera. 

Atque haec quidem Ennius qui paucis ante versibus esse 
deos censet sed eos non curare opinatur quid agat humanum 
genus (vide 328-9). 



'*2 fortasse <sunt> superstitiosi 
338 Jortasse non Enni 



340 



TRAGEDIES 



330 



Cicero : Telamo sums up in one line the whole topic why 
the gods trouble not about mankind — 

for if they did care, it would go well with well-doers, 
and ill with ill-doers ; but this, as things are, is not 
to be seen. 

331 

Cicero : And even before these Amphiaraus and Tiresias, 
men not lowly or obscure or like those, we find in a passage of 
Ennlus — " 

WTio for the sake of their own gain call up 
Thoughts that are false, 

but illustrious and outstanding. 

332-6 

Cicero : I care not a fig for your ilarsian diviner, nor your 
village-trotting gut-gazers, nor your star-readers from the 
circus, nor your guessers of Isis, nor your interpreters of 
dreams. For it is not b\- knowledge or skill that they are 
prophetic, but they are — 

soothsaying prophets, shameless gut-gazers, clumsy 
or crazy, or obedient to the behests of want ; men 
who know not their own path yet point the way for 
another, and seek a shilling from the very persons to 
whom they promise riches. From these riches let 
them take out a shilling for themselves, and hand 
over the rest. 

All these are words, if you please, of Ennius, who a few 
lines before believes that there are gods, but thinks that they 
take no thought how fares mankind. 

" The attribution to this plav is probably right — R., 96, 

v., 195. y . y ^ o 

341 



ENNIUS 

337 

Nonius, 475, 20 : ' Partiret ' pro ' partiretur ' . . . — 

Teucer 
Eandem me in suspicionem sceleris partivit pater. 

338 
Nonius, 160, 5 : ' Porcet ' significat prohibet ... — 

Teticer 
Deum me sancit faeere pietas, civium porcet pudor. 



TELEPHUS 

From Euripides' Tt^Ac^os. Reconstruction must be largely 
guesswork. Telephus, heir of Teuthras' realm in Mysia, 
wounded in battle by Achilles, was told by Apollo that only 

339 

Eurip., Tel., 698 N : tttcox' d/i^t'jSAijTa aw/xaros Xa^wv 
paK-q I aXtcrrfpia tu;^ijs. 

Nonius, 537, 23 : ' Stolam ' veteres non honestam vestem 
solum sed omnem quae corpus tegeret. Ennius Telepho — 

Telephus 

Caedem caveo hoc cum vestitu squalida saeptus 
stola. 
Cp. Fast., 486, 34. 



^^' in me Delrio 

338 sancit Bergk sinit id Buecheler sentit cdd. prob. 

V {H., XV, 260), Linds. 

342 



TRAGEDIES 

337 

Teuctr is troubled about his father's suspicions : 

Nonius : ' Partiret ' for ' partiretur ' . . . — 

Teucer 
My father in that verj' same " misgi\'ing 
Has made me share — that I'm a miscreant. 

338 
Teucer, banished, will not retaliate : 
Nonius : ' Porcet ' means prevents ... — 

Teucer 
My loyalty * towards the gods ordains that I do 
this, respect for my to^\Tismen hinders me from it. 

TELEPHUS 

the thing which had wounded him could cure him. Hearing 
that Achilles was in Argos, where Agamemnon held sway, 
Telephus went thither. 

339 

Telephus in Argos tells why he has left his native land : 

Nonius : ' Stola ' is a term used by the old writers not only 
for a respectable garment but also any garment which covers 
the body. Ennius in Telephus — 

Telephus 
Slaughter avoid I by this garb, wrapped up 
In a mean shabby coat. 

" I.e. the same suspicion £is Agamemnon and Odysseus 
incurred in the matter of Ajax's death. V., 179, 180. 

* pietas here may mean obedience to Apollo, on whose 
advice Teucer acted. 

*'* caedem caveo h. c. v. Geel cedo et abeo iladvig 

sorde et scabie Mr. convestitus Colonna cedo et caveo 
cum vestitus c<W. quam ve <• . . Fe^t. 

343 



ENNIUS 
340 

Tel., 703 N: /x^ /xot <j>dovr)ariT avSpes 'eXXi]vcov aKpoi 
el TTTcjxos wv t€tAtjk' iv eadXoiaiv Aeyetv. 

Festus, 124, 12: ' Muttire,' loqui . . .— 

Palam muttire plebeio piaculum est. 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 125, 14. 

341 

Cp. Tel., 699 N : Set yap fie 86^ai irrojxov. vel 698 {v. supra). 
Nonius, 537, 23 : ' Stolam ' . . . idem in eadem — 

Telephus 
Regnum reliqui saeptus mendici stola. 

342 

Tel., 720 N : kukuis oAoiar'' a^iov ynp 'EAAaSt. 

Nonius, 342, 6 : ' Mactare ' malo adficere significat ... — 

Agamemno 
Qui ilium di deaeque magno mactassint malo ! 

343 

Tel., 723 N : a> noAis 'Apyovs KXved' ofa Xeyei. 713 N : 
diraaav rifiaJv ttjv ttoAiv KaKoppodei. 

Nonius, 429, 1 : Urbs est aedificia, civitas incolae ... — 

et civitatem video Argivum incendere. 

*** telefus et vel telefo et cdd. Telepho set Mr. sed 
Linds. (qui incedere coni. pro incendere) 

344 



TRAGEDIES 



340 



Telephus addresses the Greek lenders at Argos, keeping up 
his part of a low-born fugitive : 

Festus : ' Muttire,' to speak . . . — 

Telephus 

It is a sin for commoner to mutter 
A word in open gathering. 

341 
Telephus reveals himself to Clytaemnestra ? : 
Nonius : ' Stola ' . . . the same poet in the same play — 

Telephus 
Wrapped up in beggar's coat I left my kingdom. 

342 
Agamemnon " to Telephus as he seizes the babe Orestes ? : 
Nonius : ' Maetare ' means to afflict with evil ... — 

Agamemnon 

What ! May the gods and goddesses doom him 
To dire damnation ! 

343 

Dissension caused by Telephus' boldness ? : 

Nonius : A ' town ' consists of buildings, a ' state ' consists 
of inhabitants ... — 

And I see he sets the Argives' town ablaze. 

" This seems to me to be likely. Cf. Hyginus, Fab., 101, 
monitu Clytaemnestrae Orestem . . . rapuit. 

345 



ENNIUS 
344 

Nonius, 490, 10 : ' Itiner ' pro iter ... — 

deumque de consilio hoc itiner credo conatum 
mode. 

345-6 
Nonius, 232, 17 : ' Advorsum ' rursum apud significat . . . — ■ 
Te ipsum hoc oportet profiteri et proloqui 
advorsum illam mihi. 

347-8 
Nonius, 15, 3 : ' Enoda ' significat explana • . . — 
Verum quorum liberi leto dati 
sunt in bello, non lubenter haec enodari audiunt. 



THYESTES 

What models Ennius used for his Thyestes (his last play — 
Cic., Brut., 20, 78) we do not know; and the stories about 
Thyestes were various. There are traces of a Euripidean 
origin. My reconstruction is based on the belief that the play 
had two scenes — one at the court of Atreus, the other at 
the court of Thesprotus; it appears that Ennius made a 



*** fortasse te de cdd. 
^^* advorsqs Mr, 



TRAGEDIES 
344 

Agamemnon (?) tells Telephus that he understands that T. 
had come by divine will to be a guide against Troy : 

Nonius : ' Itiner ' for iter ... — 

I think too, 'twas by counsel of the gods 
That you did lately venture on this journey. 

345-6 

Telephus " demands that Agamemnon shall assure him safety ; 
Clytaemnestra must hear his assurance : 

Nonius : ' Advorsum ' also means ' in the presence of ' . . . — 

Yourself must in her presence thus avow, 
I pray you, and affirm this. 

347-8 

Chorus in a commentary on the course of events ? : 

Nonius : ' Enoda ' means explain ... — 

But those whose children have been given up to 
death do not willingly hear such riddles unknotted, 

THYESTES 

greater impression with the second part of his play. Hyginus, 
Fab., 88, provides us with a sketch of the action. 

Atreus, King of Mycenae, wishing to take vengeance on 
his brother Thyestes, pretended to be reconciled to him and 
welcomed him at his court. 



" R., Ill; or possibly Agamemnon, who demands from 
Telephus that he will not harm the baby Orestes. 

347 



ENNIUS 

349 

Nonius, 369, 29 : ' Putare,' animo disputare. . . . Ennius 
Thyeste— 

Ibi quid agat secum cogitat curat putat. 

350 
Nonius, 261, 13 : ' Cernere,' iudicare ... — ■ 
Impetrem facile ab animo meo ut cernat vitale 
brabium. 

351 

Probus, ad Verg., Ed., VI, 31 (de quattuor elementis). 
Principem habuerunt Empedoclem Agrigentinum qui de his 
ita scripsit : 

Tfaaapa 8r] -rravTcov pi^wfiara npajTov eaaiv, 
Zevs apyrjs .... 

ut accipiamus Zeiis apy^s ignem qui sit ^ewv et candens, 
quod ignis est proprium, de quo Euripides : 

opas Tov vtpov TovS' direipov alOepa 

Kal yfjV nepi^ e)(ovd' vpyalg iv ayKaXais ; 

TovTov vofii^e Zijva, t6v8' rjyov deov (935 N). 

et Ennius — 

Aspice hoc sublime candens quem invocant omnes 
lovem. 

Cp. Fast., 442, 16 {. . . Ennius in Thyeste); Cic., de Nat. 
Deor., IT, 2, 4, etc. 

Cp. Eur., 869 N : atdtjp . . . Zeus og avOpwirois oyofid^eTai. 

*** curat Studemund parat cdd. 

*5" meo suppl. Quich. babium cdd. habitum V 

{H., XII, 254) viam Buecheler abigeum Ribb. 

vitale brabium Linds. 

**i sublime Cic, Apulei., Prob. sublimen epit. Fest., 
Ritschl (0pp., II, 462 ff.) non prob. Klotz, Heraeus {Philol., 
LV, 197 a.) vocant Fest., Prob. invocant rell. vide Eur., 
935 N. 

348 



TRAGEDIES 

349 

Prologue ? Evil plans of Atreus : 

Nonius : ' Putare,' to debate in the mind. . . . Ennius 
in Thyestes — 

Thereon he muses, ponders, and considers 

In his own mind what he should do. ■' -i-- . - 

350 
Atreus forms his plan ? : 

Xonius : ' Cemere,' to judge ... — 

May I with ease cause him to adjudge the vital 
prize " to my liking. 

351 

H'Aen Atreus served Thyestes his oum sons at a feast, the 
very sun turned aside his chariot : * 

Probus, on the four elements : Their chief expounder was 
Empedocles of Acragas, who writes about them thus : ' Firstly, 
four roots there are of all things; White Zeus, etc' So we 
may take ' White Zeus ' as fire which is ^ecjv and glowing 
white, a peculiar property of fire, of which Euripides says : 
See you this ether on high, boundless, embracing earth in 
pliant arms ? This you shall believe is Zeus : this shall you 
think is a god.' And Ennius— 

Look you on this that glows white aloft : all men 
call on it as ' lupiter.' 

" I accept Lindsay's reading brabium, i.e. Ppafielov, a prize 
won in athletic contests. But we do not know how the word 
is used here. 

* I base this interpretation on Hygin., Fab., 88 ob id 
scelus eiiam sol cumim avertit. In Ennius, sublime candens 
is the sky, but I suggest that the occasion is the sun's horror 
which someone points out. Other views — R,, 201-2; V., 
CCX, CCXIX, 18.5. 

349 



ENNIUS 

352 

Nonius, 268, 9 : ' Contingere,' evenire . . . 

Thyestes 
Quam mihi maxime hie hodie contigerit malum. 

353 
Nonius, 97, 29 : ' Delectare,' illicere, attrahere . . . - 
et me Apollo ipse delectat ductat Delphicus. 

354 
Nonius, 255, 25 : ' Crepare,' fcrire ... — 
sed sonitus auris meas pedum pulsu increpat. 



355 

Cicero, Oral., 55, 184 : Similia sunt quaedam etiam apud 
nostros, velut ille in Thyeste — ■ 



Chorus 
Quemnam te esse dicam qui tarda in senectute . . . 

et quae scquuntur; quae nisi cum tibicen accessit, orationis 
sunt solutae simillima. 



*^- mihi m. cdd. maxime mihi Bothe 

^'^ et cdd. set Mercier prob. V 



350 



TRAGEDIES 

352 

Thyestes betcails his fate : 

Nonius : ' Contingcre,' to turn out ... — 

Thyestes 

How utterly has ruin befallen me 
Here on this day. 

353 

and plans to consult Apollo about vengeance on Atreus : 

Nonius : ' Delectare,' to entice, attract ... — 

and Apollo himself of Delphi charms and draws me 
on. 

354 

Thyestes fled to Thesprotus King of Epirus. One of the 
L'pirotes (chorus-leader ?) hears the approach of Thyestes ? : 

Nonius : ' Crepare,' to beat ... — 

But beats upon my ears a sound of footsteps. 

355 

He addresses Thyestes : 

Cicero : There are some examples like this even in works of 
our own poets ; take the speaker in Thyestes " — 

Chorus 

And who pray shall I say you are, who thus 
With aged lagging steps ... 

and the words which follow. Except where a flute-player 
accompanies them, they are much like prose. 

" Probably not Pacuvius' Thyestes. 

351 



ENNIUS 

356-60 

Cicero, Ttisc. Disp., Ill, 11, 25: Nunc aegritudinem si 
possumus depellamus . . . taetra enim res est, misera . . . 
fugienda; qualis enim tibi ille videtur? — 

Thi/estes 

Tantalo' prognatus Pelope natus qui quondam a 

socru 

Oenomao rege Hippodameam raptis nanctus nuptiis, 

lovis iste quidem pronepos. Tamnc ergo abiectus tamque 
fractus ? — ■ 

Nolite hospites ad me adire, ilico istic ! 
Ne contagio mea bonis umbrave obsit. 
Meo tanta vis sceleris in corpora haeret ! 

Tu te Thyesta damnabis orbabisque luce propter vim 
sceleris alieni ? 

361 

Cicero, de Oral., Ill, 41, 164 : Nolo esse verbum angustius 
id quod translatum sit quam fuisset illud proprium ac suum — 

Chorus 

Quidnam est obsecro quod te adiri abnutas ? 

Melius esset ' vetas ' ' prohibes ' ' absterres,' quoniam ille 
dixerat ' ilico. . . . 



'^' socru Bentley socero cdd. 

''^ post nuptiis trib. Ennio verba lovis i. q. p. Bentley 

358 ]\'^olite inquit hospites Cic. istim Wolf 

3*" meo add. Bentley alii alia 



352 



TRAGEDIES / 

Thyestes telh who he is ; he" uxirns them not to touch him : 

Cicero : Well now, let us thrust distress away if we can ... 
for it is a loathsome, wretched thing ... to be avoided. 
What think you of the well-known hero ? — 

Thyestes 

I, sprung from Tantalus, begotten of Pelops, 
\Mio having once gained Hippodamea, 
A ravished wife from King Oenomaus, 
The father of my bride, 

Well, he was a great-grandson of Jupiter ! And then was 
lie so downcast, so broken ? Says he — 

Strangers, draw you not near to me ! Back there, 
back I Lest a tainted touch from me, lest my very 
shadow harm you that are sound. Oh, such a deadly 
violence of sin clings to my body ! 

What, will you, Thyestes, utter your own doom, and rob 
yourself of the light of day, because of the ' violence ' of 
another's sin ? 

361 

Cicero : I do not w&nt a word which is figurative to have 
a narrower meaning than the same would have had in its 
own proper sense — 

Chorus 

WTiy then is it, I pray you, that you nod me back 
from approaching you? 

' Do you forbid ' or ' debar ' or ' scare away ' would be 
better, since the other speaker had said just before : ' Back 
there. . . .' (line 358) 



" With a sudden change of movement comes a change of 
metre. No doubt can be felt that Cicero quotes from Ennius' 
Thyestes. 



ENNIUS 
362 

Nonius, 90, 13 : ' Conglomerare,' involvere, superaddere. 

Thyestes 

Eheu mea fortuna ut omnia in me conglomeras 
mala! 

363-5 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., Ill, 19, 44 : Quaerendum igitur quern 
ad modum aegritudine privemus eum qui ita dicat — 

. . . Pol mihi fortuna magis nunc defit quam genus. 
Namque regnum suppetebat mi, ut scias quanto e 

loco 
Quantis opibus quibus de rebus lapsa fortuna accidat. 

Quid ? Huic calix mulsi impingendus est ut plorare desinat, 
aut aliquid eius modi ? 

366-70 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., I, 44, 107 : Exsecratur luculentis sane 
versibus apud Ennium Thyestes, primuni — 

Ut naufragio pereat Atreus ! 

Durum hoc sane; talis enim intcritus non est sine gravi 
sensu ; ilia inania — 

Ipse summis saxis fixus asperis evisceratus, 
latere pendens saxa spargens tabo sanie et sanguine 
atro, 

^*^ eheu L heu cdd. 
3«3-6 trib. Thyest. Ribb. 

'** fortasse ut n. p. A. Ennii sententiam non verba indicant; 
ut n. p. A. trib. Enn. Schol. Basilic. 

354 



TRAGEDIES 

362 

Thyestes goes on to tell of his misfortunes : 

Nonius : ' Conglomerare,' to roll upon, to add over and 
above ... — 

Thyestes 

Alas, my fortune, how dost thou roll all 
And every ill upon me ! 

363-5 

Cicero : We must inquire, therefore, in what way we are 
to free from distress him who thus speaks — 

And now i' faith my fortune more than birth 
Fails me ; that you may know from what great 

pride 
Of place, what wealth, what worldly goods my 

fortune 
Has slipped and fallen — I once did have a kingdom. 

Well ? Must we tip him a cup of mead to make him stop 
wailing, or something of that kind ? 

366-70 

Thyestes curses Atreus : 

Cicero : In a play of Ennius Thyestes utters curses in lines 
admittedly magniiicent; first comes — 

May Atreus perish by shipwreck! 

Admittedly a cruel prayer, for such a death does not come 
without great suffering. The following lines are meaningless — 

He, set disbowelled on sharp steep rugged rocks. 

Hanging by his own flank and spattering 

The rocks with gore, with mess of black-hued blood," 

" Lucilius quoted these two lines ; see Remains, etc.. Vol. III. 

355 
aa2 



ENNIUS 

Non ipsa saxa magis scnsu omni vacabunt quam ille ' latere 
pendens,' cui se hie eruciatum censet optarc. Quae crant dura 
si sentiret ; nulla sunt sine sensu. lUud vero perquam inane — 

Neque sepulchrum quo recipiat habeat portum 

coi-poris 
ubi remissa humana vita corpus requiescat malls. 

Vides quanto haec in errore versentur ; portum esse corporis 
et requiescere in sepulchre putat mortuum, magna culpa 
Pelopis qui non erudierit filium nee docuerit quatenus csset 
quidque curandum. 

Cp. Cic., in Pison., 19, 43; Non., 405, 3. 

371-2 

auctor, ad Herenn., II, 25, 39 : Item vitiosum est cum id 
pro certo sumitur quod . . . etiam nunc in controversia est, 
hoc modo — 

Thesprotus 

Eho tu di quibus est potestas motus superum atquc 

Inferum, 
pacem Inter sese concillant conferunt concordlam. 

Nam ita pro suo iure hoc exemplo utentem Thesprotum 
Ennius induxit quasi iam satis certis rationibus ita esse 
demonstasset. 

Cp. Cic.,rfe7nu., I, 49, 91. 

373 
Nonius, 110, 11 : ' Flaccet,' languct, deficit . . . — 

Thesprotus 
Sin flaccebunt condiciones repudiate et reddito. 
^'^ sin Guilielmus in cdd. 

" This was after Thyestes had left. During a famine at 
M3'cenae, Atreus was ordered to restore Thyestes. 

" It is not certain whether or not CresphoiUem should bo read 
here. Cf. V., CCX, 184 and prooem., 1888-9, 17, which I accept. 

<^ I suspect that the scene is where Atreus, having obtained 
the hand of Pelopia, possibly has suspicions of her ; she had 



TRAGEDIES 

The very stones will not be freer of pain than he ' hanging 
by his flank,' for whom Thyestes thinks he is desiring torments. 
These would be heavy pains if he felt them ; they are nothing 
without feeling. Then the following is utterly meaningless — 
And may he have no tomb where he may find 
A haven for his carcase, where that carcase, 
The mortal life let out, may rest from trouble. 

You see how great is the error in which all this is involved ; 
he believes there is a ' haven * for the body, and that a dead 
man ' rests ' in a tomb, to the great discredit of Pelops, in 
that he did not school his son or teach him how far everything 
should be a cause for anxiety. 

371-2 

Atreus' has come to Thesprotm' court; Thesprotus believes 
the brothers icill be reconciled ? : 

The author of To Uerennim : There is again a fault when 
something is taken as decided, which is still a matter of dispute, 
in this way — 

Thesprotus 

Ho I See you, the gods who guide the power and 
busy bustle of beings that dwell above and below, 
they make a friendly peace among themselves and 
talk together of agreement. 

For in this manner does Ennius stage Thesprotus * as making 
use of this example on his own authority, as though he had 
already proved it by really convincing arguments. 

373 
Thespratvis makes an agreement with Atreus abaid Pelopia: 
Nonius : ' Flaccet,' pines, weakens ... — 

Thesprotus 
But if our terms go lax, then cast her off 
And give her back.'' 

been ravished by her father Thyestes (who did not know 
she was his daughter) and was already with child (who was 
afterwards Aegisthus) — Hygin., Fab., 88. 

357 



ENNIUS 

AIJAE FABULAE 
AMBRACIA 

Ennius accompanied Marcus Fulvius Nobilior on his 
appointment to a command against the Aetolians, and 
shared in the campaign which Fulvius conducted there in 
189 B.C. (Cic, Tusc. Disp., I, 2, 3; Brid., 20, 79; cp. pro. 
Arch., 11, 27). That Ennius' work entitled Ambracia was a 



374 

Nonius, 183, 11 : ' Veget ' pro vegetat vel erigit vel vegetum 
est. . . . Ennius Ambracia — 

' et aequora salsa veges ingentibus ventis.' 



375 
Nonius, 471, 11 : ' Populat ' . . . — 
Agros audaces depopulant servi dominorum domi. 

376 
Nonius, 87, 29 : ' Cluet,' nominatur. ... — 
Esse per gentes cluebat omnium miserrimus. 

3'^ domiBuecheler domini Bothe minis Ribb. m.| 
<non coerciti> coni. V dominis cdd. prob. Pascal 

3^« esse per gentes Guietus per gentes Asiae Buecheler 

per gentes esse cdd. 

» E., 207-211; V., XIII-XV. The same subject was 
dealt with in the XVth book of the AtinQls, 



OTHER PLAYS 

OTHER PLAYS 
AMBRACIA 

' fabula praetexta ' is probable." It was written with the 
object of glorifying M. Fulvius with special reference to 
his capture of Ambracia — qnam victoriam per se magnificam 
Q. Ennius amicus eius insigni laude celebravit {' Vict.,' de Vir. 
Illustr., 52 M). 

374 

The dangers of the Adriatic ? : 

Nonius : ' Veget ' for ' vegetat,' ' lifts up ' or ' is big.' . . . 
Ennius in Ambracia — 

' and thou makest the salt seas to grow big with 
mighty winds.' 

375 

Lawless character of the Aetolians ? : 
Nonius: ' Populat.' . . . — 

The naughty slaves lay waste at home * their 
masters' fields. 

376 

One of the Aetolians : 

Nonius : ' Cluet,' is called. ... — 

Through all the nations was he called the 
wretchedest of men. 

* In Nonius dominis at the end of the line has perhaps 
ousted by dittography another word, possibly one in the 
ablative case. But domi would be typical of the alliterations, 
assonances and word-plays so common in old Latin verse. 

359 



ENNIUS 

377-8 
Nonius, 469, 25 : ' Cunctant ' pro cunctantur ... — 

' Bene mones ; 
tute ipse cunctato ; o vide fortem virum. 



SABINAE 
379-80 

lulius Victor, ap. R.L.M.,i02, 30 H : Ab eventu in qualitate, 
ul qualia sunt ea quae evenerunt aut videantur eventura, 
tale illud quoque existimetur ex quo evenerunt; ut Sabinis 
Ennius dixit — • 

Cum spolia generis detraxeritis, - ^ - 
quara inscriptionem dabitis? 



CAUPUNCULA 

381 

Xonius, 155, 30 : ' Propitiabilis ' <promptus> ad 
propitiandum. Ennius Caupuncula — 

hinc est animus propitiabilis. 

^" cunctato o vide V cunctato rel cuncto cdd. 

monens . . . ipse cunctat o Buecheler 

379-80 generis lahn, Christ pro6. Vgenericdrf. detraxeritis 
<impie> teZ <mortuis> V detraxeritis quam patres | 

inscriptionem Mr. prob. Ribb. 

5*^ Nov,., 155 promptus add. W propitiabilis ad p. LuQ 

360 



OTHER PLAYS 

377-8 
The campaign : 
NonioB : ' Cunctant ' for ' cunctantur ' . . . — 

' That's good ad\ace of yours ; then you yourself 
Hold back. Oh ! See the valiant warrior. 

THE SABINE WOMEN 

Doubtless a ' fabula praetexta ' " on the story of the rape 
of the Sabines. 

379-80 

Julius Victor : Again, there is argument as to quality made 
from an event, so that that from which things have resulted 
is deemed to be of like kind as the things which have resulted 
from it or may seem likely to result : like the words of Ennius 
in The Sabine Women — 

Now that you have dragged us as spoils from our 
bridegrooms, what inscription will you cut upon us ? * 



THE LITTLE HOSTESS 

A comedy ; but the single fragment does not even give us 
the title for certain. 

381 

Nonius : ' Propitiabilis,' ready to be propitiated. Ennius 
in The Little Hostess— 

Hence can the feelings be soothed. 

<» Vahlen, Rh. Mus., X^^, 580. R., 205-7. 
" As though we were dedicated spoils of war. 

a propitiando reU. prob. Linds. caupuncula Ribb. 
cupuncula V coponicula Onions cupiuncula cdd. Xon. 

361 



ENNIUS 

PANCRATIASTES 

382 

Nonius, 505, 35 : ' Audibo ' pro andiam. Ennius . . . 
Pancratiaste — 

A 

Quo nunc me ducis ? 

B 

Ubi molarum strepitum audibis 
maximum. 

383 
Nonius, 513, 12 : ' Poterviter ' . . . — 
Quis est qui nostris foribus tarn proterviter? 

384 
Nonius, 517, 10 : ' Desubito' . . . — 
cum desubito me orat mulier lacrimansque ad 
genua accidit. 



EX FABULIS INCERTIS 

EX TRAGOEDIIS 

385 

I. 

Servius, ad Aen., IX,. 253 : ' integer aevi,' integri aevi 
figurate, id est adulescens cui aetas integra superest, unde 
Ennius — 

deos aevi integros 
362 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

THE ALL-ROUND CHAMPION 

A corned V. 

382 

Nonius says : ' Audibo ' for ' audiam ' . . . the same in 
The All-round Champion — 

A 

Where are you leading me now ? 

B 

Where you'll hear a mighty rumble of mills. 

383 
Nonius : ' Proterviter ' . . . — 
WTio's that so boldly at our doors ? 

384 
Nonius : ' Desubito ' . . . — 

when on a sudden the woman takes to praying and 
falls weeping at my knees. 

UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 
OF PLAYS 

FROM TRAGEDIES 

385 

I. From passages connected with gods and religious things : 

Servius, on ' integer aevi ' in Virgil : Figuratively for 
' integri aevi ' ; that is, a young person whose life still remains 
unimpaired. WTienee Ennius — 

the gods untouched by time 



ENNIUS 

386 

Tereutius, Eun., Ill, 5, 42 : 

At quem deum ! Qui templa caeli summa — 

sonitu concutit 

Donatus, ad loc. : ' Sonitu concutit ' parodia de Ennio. 
* Templa caeli ' sententia tragica, sed de industria non errore. 

387 

Cicero, de Orat., Ill, 40, 162 : Quo in genere primum est 
fugienda dissimilitudo — 

caeli ingentes fornices. 

Quamvis sphaeram in scaenam ut dicitur attulerit Ennius, 
taraen in sphaera fornicis similitude non potest inesse. 
Cp. Varro, L.L., V, 19. 

388 

Cicero, de Nat. Deor., II, 25, 65 (de love) : Hunc igitur 
Ennius ut supra dixi nuncupat ita dicens . . . planius quam 
alio loco idem — 

Cui quod in me est exsecrabor, hoc quod lucet, 
quidquid est — 

389 

Eur., Med., 168-70 {niUrix loqu.) : KXveO' ola Xiyei Kam- 
^odrai I defuv evKraiav Zijvd 0' o? opKCDV \ BvrjTots ra^ias vevo- 
fjLioTai. Cp. id., 207-8. 

Cicero, de Off., Ill, 29, 104 : Est enim ius iurandura 
adfirmatio religiosa . . . non ad iram deorum quae nulla 
est sed ad iustitiam et ad fidem pertinet; nam praeclare 
Ennius — 

O Fides alma apta pinnis et ius iurandum lovis ! 

Cp. Apulei., de deo Socr., 5, 10. 

886 Jig,. . qyj ^ (. s.fortasse Ennio tribuenda 
'** trib. MeJanipp. R qui Gulielmus 

3S9 trib. Thyeat. vel Med. V 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 
386 

Terence : And what a god ! He who heaven's highest 
precincts — 

with thunder shakes * 

Donatus on this line : ' With thunder shakes ' : a parody 
of Ennius : ' Heaven's precincts ' : an idea from tragedy, 
but put here on purpose, not by mistake. 

387 

Cicero : In dealing with a thing of this kind we must 
first avoid any unlikeness — 

Heaven's huge arclies. 

Although, it is said, Ennius brought a sphere on to the stage, 
nevertheless you camiot possibly find a likeness between an 
arch and a sphere.* 

388 

Cicero : It is Jupiter, therefore, as I said above, who is 
named by Ennius in the words . . . more plainly too than 
he does in another place — 

This that shines, whate'er it is, to which so far as 
in me lies I shall utter my curses — 

389 

Cicero : For sworn oath is a solemn affirmation ... it 
has nothing to do with the wrath of the gods, which does not 
exist, but with justice and faith. For Ennins has a brilliant 
saying — 

O Faith, kindly wing-girt goddess ; O thou oath 
sworn in Jupiter's name ! 

" Only these words, I think, belong to Ennius. 

* The allusion is not known, but V. quotes a suggestive 
passage of Hygin., Fab., 130 : Atlanti . . . caeli fomicem 
super humeros imposuit. 



ENNIUS 

390-1 
Festus, 430, 6 : ' Sospes ' . . . Ennius — 

parentem et pa<(triam . . . 

y sospitcm. 

392-3 
II. 

Diomedes, ap G.L., I, 447, 5 K : ' Homoeoteleuton ' 
oratio similibus clausulis terminata . . . ut apud Ennium — 

Eos reduci quam reliqui, devehi quam deseri 
malui. 

Cp. Charis., ap. G.L., I, 282, 10 K; Donatus, ap. IV, 398, 
25 K. Cp. Eur.,/;jA. .4.,370-2, 495. 

394 

Varro, L.L., VII, 49 : Apud Ennium — 
quin inde invitis sumpserint perduellibus 
perduelles dicuntur hostes. 

395-6 

Plinius, N.H., XV^III, 84 : Pulte non pane vixisse longo 
tempore Romanes manifestum quoniam et pulmenteria 
hodieque dicuntur et Ennius antiquissimus vates obsidionis 
famem exprimens — 

OfFam eripuere liberis plorantibus 
patres. 

commemorat. 

'*'~i pa<triam di servate> S trib. Ereckth. R 

392-3 ij-lff Jpfiig, R 

395-« liberis pUrantibus 8t. eripuisse plorantibus liberis 
Plin, eripuere patres pueris plorantibus offam Bergk, 

0pp., I, 258 n. alii alia 

366 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

390-1 
Festus : ' Sospes ' . . . Ennius — 
Parent and native land . . . safe and sound. ^ 

392-3 
II. From passages referring to warfare arid fighting : 

Dioniedes : ' Homoeoteleuton ' comes about when parts of 
a sentence end with the same closing sound . . . for example, 
in a passage of Ennius * — 

I preferred 

That home they should be taken, not forsaken; 

And shipped aMay, not cast away. 

394 

Varro : In a passage of Ennius — 

that they took it not thence against the will of their 
foes 

' perduelles * is a t«rm used for foes. 

395-6 

Pliny : It is clear that the Romans lived for a long 
time on pulse, not bread, since we speak of ' pulmentaria ' 
even to-day, and Ennius, a very early archaic poet, to express 
the hunger of a siege, uses the words — 

Fathers snatched the morsel from their wailing 
children."^ 

* Scaliger's restoration, which is generally accepted, does 
not seem to me to fill the gap in Festus (cf. Fest., ed. Linds.). 

* This might well come from Iphigenia. 

■^ To transpose plorantibus and liberis, and so get a senarius 
with one word over, seems to be the simplest emendation; 
I therefore put this fragment among the plays. 



ENNIUS 

397 

III., XII, 275 s.; 28.5. 

Nonius, 196, 29 : ' Caemcnta ' . . . feminini Ennius— 
Labat, labuntur saxa, caementae cadunt. 

398 
? II., XII, 253 s. 

Nonius, 205, 23 : ' Frctum ' . . . masculini. . . . Ennius — 

Crassa pulvis oritur, omnem pervolat caeli fretum. 

399 
? //., XVI, 802-3 (de Patrocl. interitu). 

Varro, L.L., VII, 93 : ' Euax ' verbum nihil significat, 
sed eSutitum naturaliter est ut apud Ennium — 

Hehae, ipse clipeus cecidit. 

Cp. auct. ap. G.L., V, 574, 24 K. 

400 
III. 

Gellius, V, 15, 9 : Ennianum Xeoptolemum probabamus 
qui profecto ita ait — 

Neoptolemtis 
Philosophari mihi necesse, paucis, nam omnino 
baud placet. 

Id., V, 16, 5 : eiusdemquc illius Enniani Neoptolcrai de quo 
supra scripsimus consilio utendum est qui degustandum ex 
phiiosophia censet, non in earn ingurgitandum. 

Cf. Cic, Tusc.Disp. II, 1, 1. 

401 

Fronto, Epp., Vol. I, p. 76 Haines : De Herode quod 
dicis perge, oro te, ut Quintus noster ait, — 

Pervince pertinaei pervicacia. 

'** trib. Heel. Lytr. R, comoediae Spengel 

*"** philosophandum est paucis Gell. philosophari sibi ait 
necesse esse sed p. Cic. alteram versum degustandum ex 
ea non in earn ingurgitandum censeo constU. llibb. 
368 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 
397 

Nonius : ' Caementa ' . . . Eimius has it in the feminine — 
It totter 'd, and tottered the stones, the blocks 
fell dowTi. 

398 
Nonius : ' Tretum ' ... in the masculine . . . Ennius— 
Thick rose the dust and soared over the sea of 
heaven. 

399 

Varro : The word ' euax ' means nothing, but is a natural 
exclamation, like the one in a passage in Ennius — 

Aha ! His very shield fell. 

400 
III. Philosophic and moral precepts : 

Gellius : I agreed with Neoptolemus in Emiius ; he speaks 
as follows — 

Xeoptolemtis 

I must needs be a philosopher — in a few things ; 
for in all ways — that displeases me. 

Gellius : And we must follow the counsel of that very same 
Neoptolemus in Ennius, of whom I wrote above: he says, 
' A man should take a taste of philosophy, and not rush to 
swallow her.' 

401 

Marcus Aurelius, in Fronto's correspondence : About 
Herodcs, I pray you go on with what you say, ami, in the 
words of our Quintus " — 

Conquer with sturdy staunchness. 

" Probably Quintus Ennius. 

"1 Irib. Enn. R 
VOL. I. B B 



ENNIUS 

402-3 

Cicero, de Off., I, 8, 26 : Apud Ennium — 

Nulla regni sancta societas 
nee fides est. 

Cp. Cic, de re publ, I, 32, 49. 

404 

Fronto, Epp., Vol. I, p. 136 Haines : ... adfinitate 
sociatum neque tutelae subditum, praeterea in ea fortuna 
constitutum in qua ut Q. Ennius ait — 

Omnes dant consilium vanum atque ad voluptatem 
omnia. 

405-6 

Cicero, de Orat., II, 54, 221 : Est hominibus facetis et 
dicacibus difficillimum, habere hominum rationem et temporum 
et ea quae occurrant, cum salsissime dici possunt, tenere. 
Itaque nonnulli ridiculi homines hoc ipsum non insulse 
interpretantur ; dicere enim aiunt Ennium — 

Flammam a sapient! faeilius ore in ardente oppvimi 
quam bona dicta teneat ; 

Haec scilicet bona dicta quae salsa sint. 

407 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., IV, 33, 70 : Mihi quidem haec in 
Graecorum gymnasiis nata consuetudo videtur, in quibus 
isti liberi et concessi sunt amores ; bene ergo Ennius— 

Flagiti principium est nudare inter cives corpora. 

Cp. Eur., Androm., 595 ff. 

40i regni Jortasse retciendum trib. Thyesl. R 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

402-3 

Cicero : In a work of Eiinius — 

When one is king no partnership, no pledged word 
is holy. 

404 

Marcus Aurelius, in Fronto's correspondence : . . . a man 
allied by kinship and not entnisted to a guardian; and 
moreover established in that rank of society in which, as 
Quint us Ennius has it — • 

They all give empty counsel ; all their deeds they 
do with an eye to pleasing. 

405-6 

Cicero : The wags and wits find it hard to take proper 
account of time and character, and as thoughts occur to 
them, to hold them back at the moment when they can be 
expressed most smartly. And so there are some jokers who 
give a quite worthy turn to this also. For they declare that 
Ennius says — 

'Tis easier for a wise man to smother the flame of 
burning speech than to hold in good words ; 

that is to say, those ' good words ' which are smart. 



407 

Cicero : As for me, I think that this custom had its birth 
in the gymnastic schools of the Greeks : in them such love- 
making was free and tolerated. Rightly, therefore, does 
Ennius say — 

It is the beginning of disgrace to bare the body 
among fellow-citizens. 

371 

BB 2 



ENNIUS 

40&-9 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., Ill, 3, 5 : At et morbi perniciosiores 
pluresque sunt animi quam corporis; hoc enim ipso odiosi 
sunt quod ad animum pertinent eumque sollicitant, animusque 
aeger ut ait Ennius — • 

Animus aeger semper errat, neque pati neque 

perpeti 
potis est, cupere numquam desinit. 

410 

Cicero, de Off., II, 7, 23 : Omnium autcm rcrum nee aptius 
est quicquam ad opes tuendas ac tenendas quam diligi nee 
alienius quam timeri; praeclare enim Ennius — 

Quern metuunt oderunt, quem quisque odit periisse 
expetit. 

Cp. Ovid., Am., II, 2, 10; Hieron., Epist., 82, 3 (I, 737 
Migne). 

411 

Paulus, ex F., 88, 31 (10): ' Metus ' feminine diccbant. 
Ennius— 

Vivam an moriar nulla in me est metus. 

412-14 

Cicero, de Off., I, 16, 51 : Omnium autem communia 
hominum videntur ea quae sunt generis eius quod ob Ennio 
positum in una re transferri in permultas potest — • 

Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam 
quasi lumen de suo lumine accendat facit ; 
nihilo minus ipsi lucet cum illi accenderit. 
Cp. id., Ill, 13, 54 ; pro Balbo, 16, 36. 

*"* animusque aeger ut ait Ennius semper e. q. s. Cic, 
poti (potiri) Ribb. fortasse recte 
*"' potis est Ribb. potest Cic. 

372 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

40a-9 

Cicero : But the diseases too of the soul are more deadly 
and more numerous than those of the body. For they are 
loathsome through the very fact that they have to do with 
the soul, and trouble it, and, as Ennius says — 

A sick soul is always wandering ; it can neither 
bear troubles nor bear with them ; it never ceases 
longing. 

410 

Cicero : But in all the world there is nothing better fitted 
for guarding and keeping one's power than to be loved, 
nothing more remote from this than to be feared. For 
brilliantly does Ennius put it — 

Whom men fear they hate ; whom anyone hates 
he desires to be dead. 



411 

Paulus : Writers used to use ' metus ' in the feminine. 
Ennius — 

Should I live or die- — there is no fear in me. 



412-14 

Cicero : But all men, it seems, have in common goods 
of the kind which, applied to one example only in Ennius, 
can be transferred so as to apply to very many — 

The man who kindly points the way to a wanderer, 
does as though he kindle a light from the light 
that is his ; it shines none the less for himself when 
he has kindled it for his fellow. 



412 u trib.Tdeph.R suae lumine accendit facie Hartman, 
Mnemos., XXI, S82fortasse rede 

373 



ENNIUS 

415 
Varro, L.L., VII, 89 : Apud Ennium— 

Si voles advortere animum comiter monstrabitur. 
comiter hilare ac lubenter. 

41& 

Cicero, de Off., II, 18, 62 : In iis qui se adiuvare volent . . . 
restricti omnino esse nullo modo debemus sed in deligendis 
idoneis iudicium et diligentiam adhibere. Nam praeclare 
Ennius — 

Benefacta male loeata malefjvcta arbitror. 

417 
IV. 

Rutilius Lupus, ap. R.L.M., 8, 14 H : 8i.a<f>opd. Hoc schema 
cum verbum iteratum aliam sententiam significat ac signi- 
ficavit prime dictum. Id est huiusmodi . . . item in Ennii 
versu — 

mulierem ; quid potius dicam aut verius quam 
mulierem ? 

Cp. Eur., Hec, 1178; Stheneh., 607 N. 

418 

Nonius, 197, 28 : ' Quia ' et generi feminine attribui posse 
veterum auctoritas voluit . . . Ennius — 

. . . Et quis illaec est quae lugubri succincta est stola ? 

419 

Servius ad Aen., I, 4 : ' Saevae.' . . . Saevam dicebant 
veteres magnam. Sic Ennius — j 

induta fuit saeva stola 

"5 trib. Teleph. R 

Rutil. : in Enni versu Meinecke universum cdd. 

*** trib. Andromedae R et quis cdd. set quis Ribb. 

374 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

415 

Varro : In a passage of Ennius — 

If you will deign to turn your mind to me, kindly 
shall it be sho^\Ti to you. 
' comiter ' means cheerfully and willingly. 

416 

Cicero : In dealing with persons who will want help given 
them . . . we ought by no means to be niggards towards 
all of them ; but yet we ought to bring judgment and diligence 
to bear in picking out the worthy. For brilliantly does 
Ennius put it — 

Good deeds ill placed I think are ill deeds. 

417 
IV. Various : 

Rutilius Lupus : Diaphora. This is a figure of speech 
which comes about when a word by repetition takes a meaning 
different from that which it had at the first utterance. This 
is the kind of thing . . . again in Ennius' line — 

a woman ; what better or truer term could I use than 
' woman ' ? * 

418 

Nonius : The old writers held it possible to assign the word 
' quis ' to the feminine gender also. . . . Ennius — 

and who is she girt up in a gown of mourning ? 

419 

Servius, on ' saevae ' in Virgil : The old writers ' used the 
term ' saeva ' for ' big.' Thus Ennius — . 

Clothed she was in a huge gown 

" This might well come from Hecuba : V., 198. The second 
utterance of the word ' woman ' is scornful. 
* Certainly not Virgil in Aen., I, 4. 

375 



ENNIUS 

420 

Festus, 548, 3 : At antiqui tarn etiam pro tamen usi sunt, 
ut . . . Eniiius — 

ille meae tarn potis pacis potiri. 
421 

Varro, L.L., V, 23 : ' Terra' ut putant eadem et humus; 
ideo Ennium in terrain cadentis dicere — 

cubitis pinsibant humum 

422 

Festus, 538, 14 : ' Tesca ' sunt loca augurio designata . . . 
aspera, difficilia aditu ... — 

<^lo)ca aspera, saxa tesca tuor 

423 

Servius auctus, ad Verg., Georg., I, 12-13 (Vol. Ill, p. 134, 
T.) : Nonnulli vero ob hoc ' cui prima frementem fudit 
aquam ' legunt quod veteres murmura aquae fremitum 
dieebant. Ennius— 
ager oppletus imbrium fremitu. 

424-5 
Varro, L.L., V, 14 : ' Locatum ' veteres id (collocatum) 
dicere solitos apparet apud . . . Ennium — 

O terra Thraeca ubi Liberi fanum inclutum 
Maro locavit, 

Cp. Eur., Hec., 1088. 

426 
Aero, ad Hor,, C, III, 11, 18: 'Muniant angues caput 
eius ' . . . ut ait Ennius — 

anguivillosi canis. 

*22 trib. Andromedae R, cf. V., 203 

*24-5 trib. Erechth. vel Hec. V inclutum Gulielmus 

iuciviQ cd. locavi Varro 

*2« anguivillosi coni. V angue villosi canis Aero 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

420 

Festus : But the archaic writers used ' tarn ' even fer 
' tamen ' : for example . . . Ennius — - 

Still he can get my good will. 
421 

VaiTo : ' Terra,' it is thought, is the same as ' humus ' ; 
and that therefore Eruiius \\ ith the words — 

They did bruise their elbows on the ground 

speaks of persons falling." 

422 

Festus : ' Tesca ' is a term used of places which are marked 
out for augury . . . rough, and not easy to approach . . , — 

I see rough places and high ragged rocks 

423 
Servius (supplemented) on a passage in Virgil : But there 
are some who read ' cui prima frementem fudit aquam ' 
(instead of equum) because the old writers were wont to use 
' fremitus ' for the murmuring of water. Ennius — 

The land was filled with the roar of waters. 

424-5 
Varro : That the old writers were wont to use ' locatum ' 
for ' coUocatum ' appears in . . . Ennius — 

O land of Thrace, where Maro '' did place a re- 
nowned temple of Liber, 

426 
Aero, on ' Though snakes fortify his head ' ... in Horace : 
of the snake-shaggy dog.*^ 

" As they stand the words suggest an assembly of people 
lying on the ground and listening to a speaker; cp. pinsutU 
terram genibits in Annals, fr. 342. 

*> Maro, a companion of Bacchus, who founded the Thracian 
town Maronea. 

* i.e. Cerberus. 

377 



ENNIUS 

EX COMOEDIIS 

427 

Cicero, de Div., II, 62, 127 : lam vero quis dicere audeat 
vera omnia esse somnia — 

Kj Aliquot somnia vera <(sunt) 

inquit Ennius — 

sed omnia non necesse est. 

428 

Festus, 170, 6 : ' Naucum ' ait Ateius philologus poni pro 
nugis. . . . Ennius — 

- o - ^ Illic est nugator, nil, non nauci homo. 

429 
Varro, L.L., VII, 101 : Apud Ennium — 
Voclbus concide ; fae lam musset obrutus. 

Mussare dictum quod muti non amplius quam fiv dicunt. 

430 

Diomedes, ap. O.L., I, 400, 15 ff. K : Moro . . . crebro 
moror dicimus. , . . Ennius — 

An aliquid quod illi dono moraret ? Non, sed accipit. 

*-' sunt add. W alii alia non fluno necesse est 
Voss. B nonnunc haec eet Voss. A Vind. 

*2* sic constituo. nihili Ursinus nihil cdd. nauci 
< est > V 

^^* fac iam musset Zander facito musset Mr. faxis 
musset Ribb. facimus et obrutus (obrutum Flor. 

facimus musset cd. Turn.) 

**" Ennius an aliquid quod dono illi morare sed accipite 
demolio cdd. Ennius anali Stowasser do nil morares ? 
accipe V accipe. item demolio coni. Keil illi dono 

moraret ? non sed accipit W 

378 



UNASSIGXED FRAGMENTS 
FROM COMEDIES" 

427 

Cicero : Well now, who would dare to say that all dreams 
are true. Says Ennius — 

Some dreams are true; but it does not follow 
that all are so.** 

428 

Festus : Ateius the philologist says that ' naucus ' is a 
term put for nonsense. . . . Ennius — 

That fellow there is a noodle, a nobody, a good-for- 
nothing. 

429 

Varro : In a passage of Ennius — 

Split him with shouts; reduce him to mumbles 
at once, all smothered.^ 

' Mumble ' is used because the dumb say no more than 
' mum.' 

430 

Diomedes : ' iloro ' we frequently use in the form ' moror.' 
. . . Ennius — 

Would he delay to take any gift I offer him? 
No, but he takes it.** 

■» We can judge these (doubtfully at best) only by the 
general tone of the words quoted. 

* It is uncertain in what metre Ennius wrote this saying. 
By adding sunt, I make an iambic septenarius (tetram. calal.), 
a metre found chiefly in Plautus and Terence (cp. Catullus, 
XXV) and so suggesting a comedy. 

' All restorations are doubtful. 

'' A very corrupt fragment. 

379 



ENNIUS 

431 
Varro, L.L., VII, 93 : Apud Ennium— 
Heu mea puella ipse quidem id succenset tibi ! 

432 

auctor ad Ilerenn., IV, 12, 18 : Vitabimus eiusdera litterae 
nimiam adsiduitatem cui vitio versus hie erit exemplo . . . 
et hie eiusdem poetae— 

Quicquam quisquam cuiquam quemque quisque 
conveniat neget. 

INCERTA 

433 

Varro, L.L., VII, 12 : A tuendo et templa et tesca dicta 
cum discrimine eo quod dixi ; etiam indidem iilud Ennii — 

Extemplo acceptum me necato et filium. 

Extemplo enim est continue, quod omne templum esse debet 
continuo septum nee plus unum introitum habere. 



434 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 345, 1 K : Item ' adeo adis'; hoc 
iteramus ' adito aditas ' dictitantes, ut Ennius — - 

Ad eum aditavere. 



435 

Servius, ad Aen., VI, 686 : * Genis,' palpebris. Ennius de 
dormiente — • 

imprimitque genae genam. 

**^ ipse quidem L e spe quidem id successit Ribb. 
(sec. 0. Mueller) puella spe q. i. succenset cdd. 
«32 c/. v., p. 201 



380 



UNASSIGNED FRAGMENTS 

431 

Varro (on exclamations) : In a passage of Ennius — 
Oh dear, my girl, that very man is in a heat of 
rage at you for that ! 

432 

The author of To Herennius ; We will avoid too frequent 
repetition of the same letter; for which blemish the following 
line will be an example . . . and this line of the same poet — 

Let anyone deny anyone anything, whoever meets 
■whomever, 

THE FOLLOWING MIGHT COME EITHER FROM 
TRAGEDIES OR FROM C05IEDIES 

433 

Varro : Both ' templa ' and ' tesca ' are derived from 
' tueor ' with the difference which I have spoken of. From 
the same derivation comes also the following by Ennius — 

Forthwith take and slay me and my son. 

For ' extemplo ' means ' without a break,' because " every 
* temple ' must be fenced round ' without a break ' and have 
no more than one entrance. 

434 

Diomedes : Again, ' adeo, adis ' ; we get the frequentative 
form of this verb by saying ' adito,' ' aditas,' ; for example, 
Ennius — 

They kept going up to him. 

435 

Servius on ' genis ' in Virgil * : ' Genis,' eyelids. Ennius 
describes a person sleeping — 

and he presses eyelid to eyelid. 

" This is, of course, fanciful. 

' Aen., VI, 686 where gtnia could mean ' on his cheeks.' 

381 



ENNIUS 
436 

Servius (auctus), ad Aen., IX, 399 : ' Pulchram proi)eret 
per vulnera mortem ' ; aut deest adire aut deest ad . . . aut 
certe antique properet mortem ut . . . Ennius — 

festivum festinant diem 

Cp. Serv. auct., ad Verg., Georg., IV, 170. 



437 

Festus, 532, 4 : ' Topper ' significare ait Artorius cito, 
fortasse, celeriter, temere. . . . Sinnius vero sic : topper 
fortasse valet in Enni et Pacuvi scriptis; apud Ennium est — 



Topper quam nemo melius scit 



SATURAE 

It is a matter of doubt whether Ennius wrote four or six 
books of Satires ; nor is it known whether any or all of Ennius' 
minor works under other titles should be included in them. 
With regard to the number of books, Porphyrio, ad Hor., S., 
I, 10, 46, says that Ennius left four books of Satires. But 
Donatus, ad Ter. Phorm., II, 2, 25, seems to quote from a 
sixth book. In Porphyrio, UII was perhaps written or 
misread as IIII, and even the name Ennius is not there clearly 
recorded; or in Donatus IV was read or miscopied as VI. 
With regard to certain minor works, it is possible that the 
work Scipio cited by several authors (see below) is the title 
of the third book of the Satires, to which the frs. of Scipio 



" The fragment might be from the Annals, but Festus in 
this passage seems to be quoting from plays only. 

382 



SATIRES 



436 



Servius (supplemented) on ' Hastens death ' in Virgil : 
We must supply ' adest ' or ' ad ' . . . or at any rate ' pro- 
peret mortem ' is put in archaic style as we find in . . . 
Ennius — ■ 

They hurry the merry-making of the day 



437 

Festns : Artorius sajs that ' topper ' means quickly, 
perhaps, swiftly, rashly. . . . But Sinnius writes thus : 
' topper ' in the writings of Ennius and Pacuvius has the force 
of ' perhaps ' ; we find in a passage of Ennius ' — 

Whom perhaps no one ^ knows better 



SATIRES 

would thus belong. I would point out that only Nonius quotes 
from Satires Bk. Ill, and he never quotes from Scipio. But 
in view of Gellius, ^^, 9, 1, etc., and IV, 7, 2 (quoted below), 
we most separate Scipio from the Satires. We can see that 
the Satires were written in a variety of metres: that they 
included dialogues and fables; that some of them had a 
direct and censorious bearing on public morals and politics; 
and that Ennius claimed to write in a free conversational and 
light-hearted manner. It seems that, the old native drama 
satura having been replaced by Greek plays, Ennius invented 
here a new form of literature which preserved some of the 
essential spirit of the earlier type. 



* Yet topper seems to be simply toto opere, ' with all speed ' 
or ' diligence.' 

383 



ENNIUS 

Liber I 
1 

Nonius, 474, 22 : ' Convivant ' pro convivantiir. 
Ennius Satyrarum lib. I — 

Malo hercle magno suo convivat sine modo ! 



2 
Nonius, 510, 7 : ' Celere ' pro celeriter ... — 
Dum quidquid des celere. 



Liber II 
3-4 

Servius (auctus), ad Acn., XII, 121 : ' Pilata,' fixa et 
stabilia. . . . Ennius Saturarum II — ■ 

Contemplor 
inde loci liquidas pilatasque aetheris oras, 

cum lirmas et stabiles significaret quasi pilis fultas. 

5 

Nonius, 147, 8 : ' Obstringillare,' obstare ... — 

Restitant occurrunt obstant obstringillant obagitant. 

^ magno suo Bothe suo m. Non. convivat. Sine 
modo Bothe, Bh. Mus., V., 266 fortasse rede 

384 



SATIRES 

Book I 

1 
a glutton : 

Nonius : ' Convivant ' for ' convivantur.' . . . Ennius 
in Book I of the Satires — 

He's one of the guzzlers without limit, and, by 
god, may he be utterly damned for it ! 

2 
giving : 

Nonius : ' Celere ' for ' celeriter ' . . , — 

So long as whatever you give it is done quickly. 



Book II 
3-4 

Servius (supplemented), on ' pilata ' in Virgil : ' Pilata,' 
fixed and standing steady. . . . Ennius in Book II of the 
Satires — 

From that place I gaze on the piled spaces of the 
ether, 

where he meant ' firm and standing steady,' as it were 
supported by ' pilae.' 

5 

busybodies : 

Nonius : ' Obstringillare,' to stand in the way. . . — 

They loiter and run to meet you, they hinder and 
hamper and harass you. 

385 

VOL. I. C C 



y 



ENNIUS 

Liber III 

6-7 

Nonius, 33, 4 : ' Propinare ' a Graeco tractum, post potum 
tradere. . . . Ennius Satyrarum lib. Ill — 

Enni poeta salve qui mortalibus 
versus propinas flammeos medullitus ! 

Cp. Non., 139, 15. 

8-9 

Nonius, 470, 19 : ' Criminat ' . . . — 

Nam is non bene vult tibi qui falso criminat 
aput te. 

10-11 

Nonius, 66, 18 : ' Politiones ' agrorum cultus diligentes, 
ut polita omnia dicimus exculta et ad nitorem deducta ... — 

Testes sunt 
lati campi quos gerit Africa terra politos. 



Liber IV 

12-13 

Macrobius, 8., VI, 5, 5: ' Tristis ' pro amaro translatio 
decens est, ut ' tristisque lupini.' Et ita Ennius in libro 
Saturarum quarto — 

neque ille triste quaeritat sinapi 
neque caepe maestum. 

Cp. Serv., auct. ad Verg., Georg., I, 75. 

* namque is olim V (Rh. Mus. XIV, 567) 
386 



SATIRES 

Book III 

6-7 

Nonius : ' Propinare ' is derived from the Greek ; it means 
to hand on after drinking. . . . Ennius in Book III of the 
Satires — 

Your health, poet Ennius, who pass to mortal men 
a cup of flaming verses drawn from your very marrow ! 

8-9 

Nonius : ' Criminat ' . . . — 

For no well-wisher of yours is he who spreads 
slanders in your family. 

10-11 

Benefits conferred by Scipio ? : " 

Nonius : ' Politiones ' means zealous cultivation of fields ; 
even so we call ' polita ' all things that are carefully worked 
and brought up to brilliance ... — 

The broad plains which the land of Africa bears 
in neat tillage are witnesses. 

Book IV 

12-13 

Habits of the refined ? : 

Macrobius : ' Tristis ' is a neat figure of speech for ' amarus,' 
like ' harsh lupine ' (Virg., G., I, 75). And so also Ennius in 
the fourth book of the Satires — 

He seeks and yearns neither for harsh mustard 
nor for the weepy onion. 

" A great store of com brought by Scipio from Africa in 
201 B.C. was distributed among the people (cf. Livy, XXXI, 4). 

387 
cc2 



ENNIUS 

Ex LiBRis Incertis 
14-19 

Donatus, ad Ter., Phorni., II, 2, 25 : ' Tene asymbolum 
venire . . . (ille ringitur tu rideas).' Haec non ab ApoUodoro 
Bed e IV ( ?) Satyrarum Ennii ... — 

Quippe sine cura laetus lautus cum advenis 

inferctis malis expedite bracchio, 

alacer celsus, lupino expectans impetu — ■ 

mox cum tu alterius abligurias bona 

quid censes domino esse animi ? Pro divum fidem 

is tristest dum cibum servat, tu ridens voras. 

Gellius, II, 29, 1 s. : fabula de avicula ' cassita.' 

20 

Festus, 444, 2 : ' Subulo ' Tusce tibicen dicitur ; itaque 
Ennius— 

Subulo quondam marinas propter astabat plagas. 
Cp. Varro, L.L., VII, 35. 



Donat. sed de sexto sails cdd. Leid. Dresd. cf. V., p. 206, 
vide supra, p. 382. 

1' expectans 1. Muret 1. e. cdd. 

1' mox cum cdd. Quam mox Muret abligurias 
Leid. obligurias Vat. tu addidi 

^* domino Muret domlnos cdd. 

1' is W tristest Plasberg ille tristis cibum dum vulg. 
ille tristis est dum cdd. voras ed. princ. vorans cdd. 



» From a sixth book? V., 206-7; prooem., 1880, 14 ff. 
But see p. 

^ This seems to be correct here ; but in all other occurrences 
of the verb infarcio (infercio) the meaning is ' I stuff.' 

388 



SATIRES 

Unplaced Fragments from the Satires 

14-19 
A parasite " ; 

Donatus on ' The idea of your coming scot-free ' in Terence : 
All this is taken not from Apollodorus but from the fourth (?) 
book of Ennius' Satires — 

WTiy, when you come along without a care in the 
world, gaily spick and span, your cheeks unstuffed,* 
your arm bared ready, tripping a-tip-toe, waiting 
all taut like a wolf — when soon you are lapping up 
another's goods, in what mind, think you, is your 
host? He's down in the dumps, God's truth, while 
he lays up a store of vittles and you gobble it with a 
grin. 

I. In trochaic metre. 

A complete (?) Satire on Aesop's fable ' The crested Lark and 
its Chicks.* ' See text and translation in the Loeb edition of 
(rellius. 

20 

On the flute-player who tried to catch sea-fish by piping to 
them.^ 

Festus : ' Subulo ' is a Tuscan term for a flute-player ; 
and so we have in Ennius — 

A piper once stood near the regions of the sea. 

« Aesop, f., 210 H.; Babr., 88; Avianus, 21. There can be 
no doubt, on the evidence of words and phrases of archaic 
look and of trochaic metre in Gellius' reproduction, that 
Vahlen is right in believing that Gellius' prose reproduces 
Ennius' verse though it hides the metre almost completely — 
v., CCXI-CCXII ; Ribbeck, Rh. ilus., X, 290 S. (an attempt 
at restoring Ennius' verses). 

" Herod., I, 141 ; V., CCXIII-CCXIV. 



ENNIUS 

21 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 434, 6 K : Nos quoque philosopher 
architector poetor in usu habuimus. Ennius — 

Numquam poetor nisi si podager. 



22 

Gtellius, VI, 9 : Q. Ennius in Saturis ' memorderit ' dixit 
per e litteram non momorderit — 

Non est meum ac si me canis memorderit. 



23 

Cicero, de Nat. Deor., I, 35, 97 : Ipsa vero quam nihil ad 
rem pertinet quae vos delectat maxime similitudo. Quid ? 
Canis nonne similis lupo atque ut Ennius — 

Simla quam similis turpissima bestia nobis ! 

At mores in utroque dispares. 

Cp. Seren. Sammon., Lib. Med., 819. 



24 

Paulus, ex Fest., 41, 27 (23) : ... Ennius . . . cum 
dicit — 

Propter stagna ubi lanigerum genus piscibus pascit, 

esse paludem deraonstrat in qua nascuntur pisces similes 
ranunculis quos oves consectatae edunt. 

2^ si add. V sim Mr. nisi p. cdd. 
^^ non est ut cdd. Non. meum inquit non est ac cdd. 
Oell. 

$90 



SATIRES 

II. In iambic metre. 

21 

Ennius and his Satires : 

Priscianus : We also have had in use the verbs ' philosopher,' 
' architector,' ' poetor.' Ennius — 

I never indulge in poetics 

Unless I am down with rheumatics. 

22 

His indifference : 

GelUus : Quintus Ennius in the Satires used ' memorderit ' 
with the letter e, not momorderit. He says — 

It's not my way, as if a dog has bitten me. 

III. In hexameters. 

23 

Cicero : But that very resemblance which takes j^oiu" 
fancy so very much — how utterly beside the point it is ! 
Why, does not a dog look like a wolf ? And again, as Ennius 
has it — 

That ugly beast the ape 's the very spit of us ! 

But in both the habits are different. 

24 
Beginning of a fable ? : 
Paulus : . . . Ennius . . . when he says — 

Hard by the pools where the woolly tribe feeds on 

fishes, 

he illustrates the existence of a swamp in which are bred 
fishes looking like buttercups * which sheep hunt out and eat. 

" I take the word as meaning the flower described by 
Pliny, XXV, 172. Would sheep hunt things looking like 
little frogs or tadpoles? :, . 

391 



ENNIUS 
25-6 

Varro, L.L., VII, 71 : Apud Ennium — 
<massas) - ^ decern coclites quas montibus summis 
Ripaeis fodere, 
ab oculo codes ut ocles dictus, qui uuum haberet oculum. 



27 

Festus, 490, 7 : ' Scirpus ' est id quod in palustribus 
locis nascitur leva et procerum unde tegetes fiunt. Inde 
proverbium est in eas natum res quae nullius inpedimenti 
sunt, in scirpo nodum quaerere. Ennius — 

Quaerunt in scirpo soliti quod dicere nodum. 

Cp. Isidor., Orig., XVII, 9, 97. 



28-31 

Gellius, XVIII, 2, 7 : Nuper quaesita esse memini numero 
septem quorum prima fuit enarratio horum versuum qui 
sunt in Saturis Q. Enni uno multifariam verbo concinniter 
inplicati. Quorum exemplum hoc est — 

Nam qui lepide postulat alterum frustrari 
quem frustratur frustra eum dicit frustra esse; 
nam qui sese frustrari quem frustra sentit, 
qui frustratur frustra est si non ille est frustra. 

*' <massas> L 

'" nam qui sese cdd. nam si se Usenet, Hosius 

frustra sentit Pet. frustras rell. 

*^ ille frustra est Skutsch 



SATIRES 
25-6 

Gold-mining of the Arimaspi in Scythia : ' 

Varro : In a passage of Enoiua — 

ten nuggets which the One-Eyed have mined on the 
Ripaean mountain-tops, 

' codes,' as it were ' ocles,' was derived from ' ocuIob,' ' codes ' 
meaning a man having one eye. 

27 

Ill-natured critics : 

Festus : ' Scirpus ' is that smooth tall plant which grows 
in marshy places and from which mats are made. From this 
rose the proverb which is applied to things which present 
no hindrance — ' to look for a faiot in a bulrush.' Ennius — 

As the common saying goes, they are seeking a 
knot in a bulrush. 

IV. In Salumian metre. 

28-31 
On cheattTtg : 

Gellius : I remember that not long ago we put questions 
seven in number, of which the first was an explanation of 
those lines in the Satires of Quintus Ennius, which are deftly 
tangled up with one word used in a number of different 
phrases. They read as follows — 

For he who wants to be smart and trick his fellow, 
is tricked when he says the other whom he tricks is 
tricked. For he who is tricked into feeling that he 
is tricking someone, the tricker is tricked if the other 
is not tricked. 

• Herod., m, 116; IV, 13, 14, 27. The fr. suggests a 
mocking allusion to ostentatious wealth. 

393 



ENNIUS 



Quintilianus, IX, 2, 36 : Sed formas quoque fingimus 
saepe ut . . . Mortem et Vitam quas contendentes in satura 
tradit Ermius. 



SCIPIO 

This poem (probably not to be taken either as a drama or as 
the third book of the Satires or as part of it — see p. 382) 
celebrated the African campaigns of Ennius' friend Scipio 
Africanus, in which Scipio brought the second Punic War to a 



Suidas, s.v. "Ewios • Pcufiaios ttoltittjs ov AiXiavos enaiveiv 
d^iov (firjaiv. ^Ktiriwva yap aScuv Kal em fieya tov avbpa e^dpai 
PovXo/ievos <f>rjai fiovov dv 'O/i-qpov ina^iots inaivovs etnelv 
'S.KLniuivos ■ 

1-4 

Macrobius, S., VI, 2, 26 : ' Turn pater omnipotens . . . 
premit placida aequora pontus ' (Aen., X, 100 s.). Ennius in 
Scipione — 

Mundus caeli vastus constitit silentio 
et Neptunus saevus undis asperis pausam dedit, 
sol equis iter repressit ungulis volantibus, 
constitere amnes perennes, ar bores vento vacant. 



" It was probably a poem with the same idea as Novius' 
' Mortis et Vitae iiidicium.' Vahlen, CCXIII. 

* I would compare Livy, XXIX, 27 (204 B.C.) ; others 
cite Livy, XXVIII, 17 (206 B.C.). 

394 



SCIPIO 

V. Unknoum. 

A dialogue between Life and Death : 

Quintilian : But we often enough personify the abstract, 
as Ennius does in one ■• of his Satires where he represents 
Death and Life wrangling with each other. 



SCIPIO 

close with the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. I have not adopted 
Vahlen's order, because it seems to me natural that in the 
poem the description of the campaign should come before the 
description of Scipio's reception by the Roman people. 



I. Prelvde. 

Scipio is vcorthy of the greatest of poets : 

Suidas : Ennius, a Roman poet whom Aelian states to be 
worthy of praise. For, in a poem of praise on Scipio, with the 
desire of extolling his hero he says that ' Homer alone could 
utter praises worthy of Scipio.' 



II. Scipio's African campaigns described in varying metres to 
suit either slow or rapid action. 

1-4 

The calm crossing to Africa : * 

Macrobius, on Virgil's verses about the calm caused by 
Jupiter speaking : Ennius in Scipio — 

The vast firmament of heaven stood still in silence, 
and ^\-ild Neptune gave rest to his rough billows, 
Sun checked the charge of his horses' winged hoofs, 
the ever-flowing rivers stood still, and the trees were 
void of wind. 

395 



ENNIUS 



Gellius, IV, 7, 3 : Solius Ennii versum unum ponit (Probus) 
ex libro qui Scipio inscribitur ; eum versum quadrate numero 
factum subiecimus, in quo nisi tertia syllaba de Haimibalis 
nomine circumflexe promatur numerus clausurus est. Versus 
Ennii quem dixit ita est — 

. . . qua propter Hannibalis copias considerat. 
6 

II., XIII, 339-40 : e^pifev 8e nd)^r) (ftOiaifi^poTOS iy\eiy]aiv \ 
fiaKpfjs- 

Macrobius, S., VI, 4, 6 : ' Tum ferreus hastis | horret 
ager.' 'Horret' mire se habet; sed et Ennius ... in 
Scipione — 

Sparsis hastis longis campus splendet et horret. 

Cp. Serv., ad Aen., XI, 601. 



Cicero, Ornt., 45, 152 : Nobis ne si cupiamus quidem distra- 
here voces conceditur. Indicant . . . omnes poetae praeter 
eos qui ut versum facerent saepe hiabant . . . Ennius 
saepe — 

Scipio invicte 

8-9 

Paulus, ex F., 561, 32 (20) : ' Vel' conligatio ... est 
disiunctiva . . . earum (rcrum) quae non sunt contra, e 
quibus quae eligatur nihil interest, ut Ennius — 

' Vel tu dictator vel equorum equitumque magister 
esto vel consul.' 

^ qua cdd. quaque Hertz si qua Buecheler 

" Some compare App., Lift., 39: 'S.Knrioiv TlapBov . . . elXe 
Kox TrXrjaiov 'AvvtjSou fieTeoTpaToneSevev. 

* Or, ' wherefore he reconnoitres Hannibal's host.' In this 
line Hannibahs must be spoken with the third syllable long 
instead of short. 



SCIPIO 



Scipio pitches his camp close to Hannibal : ' 
(Jellius : It is from Enniiis alone that Probus cites a line, 
and only one, from the book entitled Scipio, I have given this 
line below, written in eight-footed rhythm; in this line, 
unless the third sj-llable of the genitive of the name ' Hannibal ' 
is spoken with a circumflex ' Hannibalis,' the rhythm is bound 
to halt. The line of Ennius which he quoted is as follows — 

where near Hannibal's host he had made his 
camp.* 

6 

A battle : 

Macrobius, on ' the plain bristles with spears ' in Virgil : 
' Horret ' is a very strange term. But Ennius also has . . . 
in Scipio — 

The plain gleams and bristles with long spears 
all over it. 

m. After the victory, the Boman people offer great honours 
to Scipio : 

7 

Cicero : We do not allow ourselves to leave a hiatus even 
if we may wish ; ... all the poets point this way to us . . . 
except those who \ised many a time to allow a hiatus in order 
to make a line . . . Ennius often does it— 

O Scipio ' unconquered 

&-9 
The people offer him a perpetual ^ dictatorship or consulship : 
Paulus : ' Vel ' is a connecting particle which is disjunctive 
. . . and parts those things which are not opposites, and of 
which it does not matter which you choose; for example, 
Ennius has — 

' Be you dictator or master of the horse and 
horsemen, or be you consul.' 

' As Cicero shows in his next example, Ennius' phrase scans : 
Scipio invicte. ' Livy, XXXVIII, 36. 

397 



ENNIUS 
10-11 

Trebellius Pollio in Hist. Atig., Clmid., 7, 6 : Rogo quantum 
pretium est clypeus in curia tantae victoriae, quantum una 
aurea statua ? Dicit Ennius de Scipione — 

[Quantam statuam faciet populus Romanus 
quantam columnam quae res tuas gestas loquatur ?] 

12-14 

Cicero, de Fin., II, 32, 106 : Fluit igitur voluptas corporis, 
et prima quaeque avolat saepiusque relinquit causam paeni- 
tendi quam recordandi. Itaque beatior Africanus cum patria 
illo modo loquens — 

* Desine Roma tuos hostes 
et reliqua praeclare — 

* Nam tibi moenimenta mei peperere labores. 

Cicero, de Oral., Ill, 42, 167 : Ornandi causa proprium 
proprio commutatum ... — 

* Testes sunt campi magni. 



EPIGRAMMATA 
1-2 

Cicero, Tmsc. Z)isp.,V, 17, 49 : Estinaliqua vitapraedicabile 
aliquidetgloriandumacpraeseferendum.ut . . . Africanus — 

10-11 fortasse quantam statuam faciet quantam ve colum- 
nam I Romanus populus quae te et tua gesta loquatur 
vel -KJK,- q. s. q. c. | R. p. faciet tua gesta loquentem, 
Quam tantam statuam statuet populus Romanus | quamve 
columnam quae te res gestasque loquatur L Quantam 

statuam statuet p. | quamve c. | quae te et tua gesta loquatur 
Rciper, de Q. E. Scip., 29 

^' moenimenta Klotz munimenta Muret moni-, 

monumenta cdd. 



EPIGRAMS 

10-11 / 

They desire to set up statues of him : 

Trebellius Pollio : What sort of reward for so great a victory, 
I ask you, is a shield in the senate-house or a golden statue ? 
Ennius says of Scipio — 

WTiat statue, what pillar, will the Roman people 
make, such as will tell of your great deeds ? " 

IV. Scipio refuses * all these honours : 

12-U 

Cicero : Well then, bodily pleasures flow away ; each in 
turn fades and leaves oftener cause for repentance than for 
remembrance. The happier therefore was Africanus when he 
was conversing with his fatherland in the following fashion — 

' Rome, cease you your foes to fear 

and the rest, a brilliant speech — 

' since bulwarks for you have my toils begotten. 

Cicero : For the sake of adornment one proper name i8 
exchanged for another ... — 

' The great plains are witnesses."^ 

EPIGRAMS (Epitaphs) 

I. On Scipio Africanus : 

1-2 

(a) Cicero : In some life or other there is something worthy 
to be praised and boasted of and shown in full view; for 
example . . . Africanus — 

" Trebellius has not given Ennius' verses. I give some 
possible restorations ; see the critical note. 

' Livy, I.e. 

' In this passage of Cicero this fr. is preceded by line 12, 
and so it probably belongs to Ennius' Scipio. For the place 
called Magni Campi, cf. Livj', XXX, 8. 

399 



ENNIUS 

A sole exoriente supra Maeotis paludes 
nemo est qui factis aequiperare queat. 



3-4 

Lactantius, Div. Instil., I, 18, 10 : Siquis unum hominem 
iugulaverit pro contaminate ac nefario habetur . . . Ille 
autem qui infinita hominum milia trucidarit . . . non modo 
in templum sed etiam in caelum admittitur. Apud Ennium 
sic loquitur Africanus — 

Si fas endo plagas caelestum ascendere cuiquam est, 
mi soli caeli maxima porta patet. 

Cp. Sen., Ep., 108, 34. 

5-6 

Cicero, de Leg., II, 22, 57 : (Sulla) primus e patriciis 
Corneliis igni voluit cremari. Declarat enim Ennius de 
Africano — 

Hie est ille situs 

vere, nam siti dicuntur ii qui conditi sunt. 

Seneca, Ep., 108, 32 : (grammaticus) deinde Ennianos 
coUigit versus et in primis illos de Africano scriptos — 

cui nemo civis neque hostis 
quibit pro factis reddere opis pretium. 

Ex eo se ait intellegere aput antiquos non tantum auxilium 
significasse opem sed operam; ait enim Ennius neminem 
potuisse Scipioni neque civem neque hostem reddere operae 
pretium. 



^ Sen., Ep., 108, 32 Ennianos, Pintianus inanes cdd. 
* quibit Pintianus quivit Muret qui vult cdd. 

opis V operae cdd. 

400 



EPIGRAMS 

From the rising of the sun above the marshes 
of Maeotis " comes no one whose deeds could balance 
his. 

3-4 

Lactantius : If anyone has cut even one man's throat 
he is held to be polluted and loathsome . . . but he who has 
butchered men in thousands without end ... is received 
not only into a temple but even into heaven. In a passage of 
Ennius, Africanus speaks in this way— 

If it is right for anyone to go up into the 
regions of heaven's dwellers, for me alone 
heaven's great gate lies open. 

5-6 

(6) Cicero : Sulla was the first of those Comelii who were 
patricians to see fit that his corpse should be burnt. Xow 
Ennius has a statement about Africanus — 

Here lies the man 

truly so; for ' lies ' is a term applied to those who have been 
buried in a grave. 

Seneca : And then the scholar collects verses of Ennius, 
especially those written about Africanus — 

to whom no one, fellow-countryman 
or foeman, will be able to render for his pains a 
recompense fitting his deeds. 

From this the scholar states he understands that in works 
of archaic writers ' ops ' meant not only help but efforts ; 
for what Ennius means is that no one, neither countrjman nor 
foeman, was able to render Scipio a recompense for his efforts.* 



' Sea of Azov. 

* The close imion of these quotations from Cic. and Sen. is 
probably right, but the reading in the second line is doubtful. 
Cf. v., 215-16, whom I have followed. 

401 

VOL. I. D D 



ENNIUS 
7-10 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., I, 15, 34: Quid? Poetae nonne post 
mortem nobilitari volunt ? Unde ergo illud — 

Aspicite o cives senis Enni imaginis formam. 
Hie vestrum pinxit maxima facta patrum. 

Mercedem gloriae flagitat ab iis quorum patres adfecerat 
gloria. Idemque — 

Nemo me lacrimis decoret nee funera fletu 

faxit. Cur ? Volito vivus per ora virum. 

Cp. id., 49, 117; de Senect., 20, 73. 



SOTA 

Cf. Fronto, Epp., Vol. I, p. 78, Haines : Sota Ennianus 
remissus a te et in charta puriore et volumine gratiore et 
littera festiviore quam antea fuerat videtur. 

1 

Paulus, ex F., 41, 25 (23) :— 

Cyprio bovi merendam 

Ennius Sotadico versu cum dixit significavit id quod solet 
fieri in insula Cypro, in qua boves humano stercore pascuntur. 



* pinxit cdd. panxit edd. 

^-i" decoret n. f. f. faxit add. ex Cic, id., 49, 117 et de 
Senect., 20, 73 

402 



SOTAS 

n. On Ennius himself. 

7-10 

(a) For his portrait ; (b) » for his sepulchre : 

Cicero : Why, do not poets wish to be made famous after 
death? Well then, hence arises the famous — 

(a) Look, ye citizens, on the portrait of Ennius 
in his old age. 'Twas he painted the doughtiest 
deeds of your fathers. 

He demands a guerdon of glory from those whose fathers he 
had endowed with glory. And the same poet has — 

(b) Let none embelHsh me with tears, 
Or make a funeral with wailing ; 

And why ? Alive from lips to lips of men 
I go a-winging. 



SOTAS 

This title was probably one given by Ennius to some poem 
of Sotades (a coarse poet of the third century B.C.) which 
he translated. Sota would correspond with 2ajrds a shortened 
form of SorrdSijj. 

1 

On cattle of Cyprus : 

Paulus : When Ennius in a Sotadic line used the phrase — 

lunch for a bull of Cyprus 

he referred to what often happens in the island of Cyprus, 
where the kine are pastured on human dung. 

" Cicero's own way of quotation here makes it certain 
that these are two separate epigrams; and other passages 
(see opposite) show that the author of both was Ennius; 
cf. Jahn, /ferm., II, 242. 

403 
DD 2 



ENNIUS 



Varro, L.L., V, 62 : A vinctura dicitur vieri id est vinciri, 
a quo est in Sota Enni — 

Ibant malaci viere Veneriam coroUam ! 

Cp. Fest., 570, 22 : auct., de metr., ap. G.L., VI, 613, 15 K. 



Festus, 538, fin. : ' Tonsam ' Ennius significat remum, 
quod quasi tondeatur ferro, cum ait ... in Sota — 

Alius in mari vult magno tenere tonsam 



Paulus, ex F., 539, 5 : ' Tongere ' nosse est, nam Praenestini 
tongitionem dicunt notionem. Ennius — 

alii rhetorica tongent. 

Cp. Fest., 538, 12. 

5 

auct., de metr., ap. O.L., VI, 613, 16 : lonicus a maiore — 
lUe ictus retro reccidit in natem supinus. 
habet vitium in tertia syllaba. 



* trib. Sot. et cum 3 coniunx. S 

* trib. Enn. Sot. L 



404 



SOTAS 

2 
Wanton living : 

Varro : From ' vinctura ' is derived ' vieri ' which means 
' vinciri.' Hence it is we have in Ennius' Solas — 

They were going along to plait a little love- 
garland — the lechers ! 

3 

Ambitions of men ; the uxmld-be mariner : 

Festus : By ' tonsa ' Ennius means oar, because it as it 
were ' tonditur ' with a knife, when he says ... in Solas — 

One man wishes to hold a trimmer on the mighty 
main 



Would-be orators : 

Paulus : ' Tongere ' means to know, for the Praenestines 
use the term ' tongitio ' to express knowing. Ennius — 

Others ken well the rules of rhetoric." 



A comic scene ? : 

A grammarian : Ionic ' a maiore ' — 

Punched he fell back again square on his bum. 

This line has * a fault in the third syllable. 

"» The attribution of this and the next fragment is not 
certain, but they probably do come from Solas. 

* Xot if we elide the s in icius and read llle tctu' retro. This 
line is quoted closely after line 2. 

405 



ENNIUS 
PROTREPTICUM 

SIVE 

PRAECEPTA 
1-3 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 532, 16 K : Vetustissimi tamen 
etiam in simplici ' serui ' protulisse inveniuntur pro ordinavi 
et pro sevi. Ennius in I'raeceptis — 

Ubi videt avenam lolium crescere inter triticum, 
selegit secernit aufert; sedulo ubi operam addidit, 
. . . quam tanto studio seruit. 



HEDYPHAGETICA (?) 

Cp. Athenae., Ill, 92 d : 

'ApxearpaTos S' eV TaaTpovofiia <f>r]al- 

Tovs fJ'VS Afros «X^t fieyaXovs ooTpua 8' 'A^vSos 

Tovs Se KT€vas y] VlnvXrjVTj' 
nXeiOTovs 8' 'A/ij8pa/cia irapexei 2-3 

VII, 300 d : Tov S' eXon' eade fiaXiara ^vpaKovaais evi 
kXuvois I TOV ye KpariorevovTa. 6 

VII, 320 a : oKapov e^ 'E^e'crou ^TjTct. . . . Kal oKapov iv 
■napaXo) KaX-)(rjh6vi tov fieyav onTa. 7 

VII, 318 f : TTOvXvnoi. Iv re &daa) Kal Kapla elalv apioToi 10 
Kal KepKvpa rpe'^ei (leydXovs ttoXXovs tc to nXijOos- 

Protkepticus V, E. in Protreptico Charis. G.L., I, 54 
' lacun. post 2 stat. W quoniam V., Rh. Mus., XVI, 580 
quam odd. 

" Charisius, quoting ' pannibus ' as abl. or dat. plural for 
' pannus ' (rag), says Ennius in Protreptico. Vahlen would 

406 



EXHORTATION 
AN EXHORTATION 

OR 

RULES OF CONDUCT 

Doubtless a poem of precepts based on a Greek model of 
which the title was nporpeTrriKov." 

1-3 

Priscianus : Still the oldest writers are found to have 
used, when conjugating, the form ' semi ' even in the non- 
compounds, both in the sense of ' I put together' [i.e. from 
sero, sertum) and of ' I sowed ' {i.e. from sera, satum). Ennius 
in Rules of Conduct — 

When he sees wild oats and darnel growing among 
the wheat, away he picks them, parts them, carts 
them ; when he has further bestowed honest care ^ 
. . . which was sown with such ardour. 



DELIKATESSEN (?) 

Whether this be the true title or not, it is certain that 
Ennius wrote a poem on tit-bits based on a mock-heroic 
poem of Archestratus of Gela (fourth cent. B.C.), which is 
quoted under various titles. The single surviving fragment 
of Ennius' version is quoted by Apuleius from the part dealing 
with fish and other sea-animals. He quoted from memorj- and 
could remember only a few lines ; the corresponding fragments 
of Archestratus given opposite suggest that Apuleius left 
out some lines. Some of the readings ' are very uncertain, 
and there are irregularities in the metre. 

make the title npoTpe-rrrtKos, but the title (?) Praecepta given 
by Priscianus suggests that Protrepticum Ls right. 

* It looks as though a whole line and one word more has 
dropped out here. 

' For these cf. V., Rh. Mus., XVI, 581 S. Bergk., Annal. 
Fkckeis., LXXXII, 621 £E, 

407 



ENNIUS 

1-11 

Apuleius, Apolog., 39 : Q. Ennius hedyphagetica scripsit. 
Tnnumerabilia genera piscium enumerat quae scilicet curiose 
cognorat. Paucos versus memini; eos dicam — 

Omnibus ut Clupea praestat mustela marina ! 
Mures sunt Aeni asperaque ostrea plurima Abydi. . . 
Mitylenae est pecten erebrumque apud Ambraciae 

or as. 
Brundisii sargus bonus est, hunc magnus si erit sume. 
Apriculum piscem scito primum esse Tarenti. 5 

Surrenti tu elopem fac emas glaucumque aTro Ku'/xr/s. 
Quid scarus? Praeterii, cerebrum lovis paene 

supremi, 
(Nestoris ad patriam hie capitur magnusque bonusque) 
melanurum turdum merulamque umbramque 

marinam. 
Polypus Corcyrae est, calvaria pinguia, acarnae, 10 
purpura, muriculi, mures, dulces quoque echini. 

Apul. : Hedvphagetica Scriver hedesphagitica cdd. 
» Clupeae T"^ clipea cd. FL, 68, 2 
^ Aeni super B 

* fortasse Mitylenae | e. p. c. a. Ambraciai fines 
crebrum B, W caradrum 17., 68, 2; 29, 2 oras W 
Ambracienses Casaubon 'A/ijSpa/ci'r^^iv coni. V. Am- 
braciae finis FL, 68, 2, 29, 2 caradrumque apud Ambraciai 
Vliet finis seclud. Vliet 

* fin. vers, corrupt. ? latei fortasse assum 

* Surrenti tu B Surrentid Saumaise Surrenti face 
emas helopem oliyn V surrentia elope fac emas vel 
surenti a telope face emas FL, 68, 2; 29, 2 aTro Ku/xi;y 
Bergk glaucum prope Mr. face Cumis B aput 
cumas FL, 68, 2; 29, 2 

' Quid scaru' Bergk quid scarum cdd. 

* fortasse et t. et merulam melanurum u. m. 

^" Corcyraest Bergk corcir^ cdd. acarnae Saumaise 

acarne cdd. fortasse came 
11 muiex Casaubon 

408 



DELIKATESSEN 



1-11 



Apuleius : Quintus Ennius wrote on delikatessen. He 
enumerated countless kinds of fish with which no doubt 
he was acquainted as a connoisseur. I remember a few lines 
and will give them here — 

How the sea-weasel from Clupea " beats all 
others ! There are sea-mice at Aenus and scaly 
oysters in great plenty at Abydus. ... At Mitylene 
is the scallop ; it's a common thing * along the shores 
of Ambracia. The sarge is fine at Brundisium— buy 
it if it's big. Know that the little boar-fish can 
be had first-rate at Tarentum. Make sure it's 
at Surrentum that you purchase your herring, 
and from Cumae " your blue-fish. What of the 
parrot-fish ? I overlooked that I It's almost the 
verj' brain of all-highest Jupiter! This fellow is 
caught big and fine in Nestor's land. And I over- 
looked the black-tail, the plaice, the sea-merle, the 
sea-shadow. At Corcyra men catch the cuttle, 
fat flounders, acamae, the purple and the little 
purple-fish, sea-mice and sweet urchins too. 

" In Africa. I suggest we might read clupeis here as the 
name of tiny fresh- water fish (Pliny, IX, 44). Thus Ennius 
is going to tell of the greater excellence of salt-water fish over 
river-fish. The sea-weasel is the dog-fish. 

* A glance at the corresponding lines of Archestratus 
makes one suspect that caradrum (which occurs here onlv) 
is wrong and crehrum right. For fines I read oras in the 
belief that it was ousted by fines as a gloss. Or finis was 
perhaps added to mark ' end of line ' ; or, if we read Caradrum 
(as a place-name) and Ambracini, it may have been added to 
fill up a supposed gap in the sense. 

* ano KvfiT)^ is probably right — note, however, that 
there is a fish which was called apua, 

409 



ENNIUS 

Alioa etiam multis versibus decoravit, et ubi gentium quisque 
eorum, qualiter assus aut iusulentus optime sapiat, nee 
tamen ab eruditis reprehenditur. 



EPICHARMUS 

Ennius probably based this didactic poem on a separate 
work of tile Greeli piiilosopiier-poet (or on one whicli passed 
for his) about nature and the four elements. Cf. V., 
CCXVIII ff., XXXVII S. Epicharmus of Cos (c. 540-450 
B.C.) dwelt at Syracuse and wrote two kinds of comedies: 

1 

Cicero, Ac. Pr., II, 16, 51 : Num censes Ennium cum in 
hortis cum Servio Galba vicino suo ambulavisset dixisse 
visus sum mihi cum Galba ambulare ? At cum somniavit 
ita narravit ... in Epicharmo — 

Nam videbar somniare med ego esse mortuum. 



Varro, L.L., V, 60 : Quibus iunctis caelum et terra omnia 
ex se genuerunt, quod per hos natura — - 

Frigori miscet calorem atque humeri aritudinem. 



Varro, R.R., I, 4, 1 : Eius principia sunt eadem quae mundi 
esse Ennius scribit — 

aqua terra anima et sol. 

Cp. Menand. ap. Stob., Flor., 91 {adfr. 10-14 adscr.). 



1 med ego Manutius me ego cdd. 
^ trib. Enn. Epicharm. Colonna 

' et sol cdd. et seel. Politianus prob. V trib. Epicharm. 

Colonna 

410 



EPICHARMUS 

He honoured others also with many verses and told in what 
part of the world each of them is to be found, and in what 
condition, fried or stewed, each tastes best. And still he is 
not brought to task by the experts. 



EPICHARMUS 

mythological travesties, and plays dealing with different 
classes of people at Syracuse. The dramas were noted for 
their pithy philosophic sajnngs, but we have no tradition that 
he wrote a definite work on philosophy. For an echo of this 
work of Ennius in the Annals, see pp. 6-7. 

1 

Prelude : 

Cicero : Surely you do not believe that Ennius, when he 
had walked in the gardens with his neighbour Servius Galba, 
said ' Methought to myself I was walking with Galba ? ' 
But when he had dreamed, he related as follows ... in 
Epicharmus — 

For I thought in a dream that I was dead. 

2 
Nature's working : 

Varro : From a union of these (sc. of cold with heat and 
of dryness with moisture), sky and earth gave birth to all 
things from their own stuff, for it is through these that 
nature — 

mingles heat with cold, and dryness with moisture." 

3 

Beginnings of the Universe : 

Varro, on tillage : The first beginnings of it are the same 
as those which, according to what Ennius writes, are the 
first beginnings of the universe — 

Water, earth, air, sun. 

" Varro in the same chapter quotes Epicharmus by name. 
The subject of this fr. further supports the attribution. 

411 



ENNIUS 
4-6 

Varro, L.L., V, 64 : Terra Ops, quod hie omne opus et 
hac opus ad vivendum ; et ideo dicitur Ops mater quod terra 
mater. Haec enim — 

Terris gentis omnis peperit et resumit denuo ; 

quae — 

dat cibaria, 
ut ait Ennius ; quae — 

quod gerit fruges, Ceres ; 
Antiquis enim quod nunc g c. 



Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 341, 19 K : Hie et haee amentis et 
hoe amente ; nee mirum cuius simplex quoque mentis Ennius 
protulit in Epicharmo — 

Terra corpus est at mentis ignis est 
pro mens. 



8-9 

Varro, L.L., V, 59 : ... Epicharmus dicit de mente 
humana — ' 

Istic est de sole sumptus ignis 

idem de sole — 

isque totus mentis est. 

*• ® fortasse non sunt Enniana 
412 



EPICHARMUS 
4-6 



Earth : 



Varro : Earth is Ops, because herein lies all ' opus,' and 
there is ' opus ' (need) of this in order to live; and Ops is 
named ' mother ' because earth is ' mother.' For she it is 
who — 

gave birth to all races on earth and takes them 
back again ; 

who — 

bestows food-stores, 

as Ennius says ; .who is also — 

Ceres, because she gets us crops ; 

for among the archaic writers c was put for what is now g. 



Soul : 

Priscianus : We find ' amentis ' nom. masc. and fem., and 
'amente' nom. sing. neut. This is not surprising, since 
Ennius in Epicharmus uses the form ' mentis ' as the nomin- 
ative, instead of ' mens,' even in the non-compound — 

Body is earth, but soul is fire 

8-9 

Varro : Epicharmus says of the human soul — 

This fire is got from the sun 
and the same writer states about the sun — 
and in this consists all soul." 

" Here again ' mentis ' is nom. slag. 

413 



ENNIUS 

10-U 

Menander, ap. Stobae., Flor., 91 : 

o fi€v 'EnL^apfios rovg deovs elvai Ae'yet 
av€fiovs v8u)p yfjv ijXiov -nvp aarepas. 

Varro, L.L., V, 65 : Idem hi dei Caelum et Terra, lupiter 
et luno, quod ut ait Ennius — 

Istic est is lupiter quern dico, quern Graeci vocant 
aerem qui ventus est et nubes, imber postea, 
atque ex imbre frigus, ventus post fit, aer denuo. 
Haecce propter lupiter sunt ista quae dico tibi, 
quando mortales atque urbes beluasque omnis iuvat. 

EUHEMERUS 

SIVE 

SACRA HISTORIA 

It is certain that Ennius translated or put together in a 
Latin form, probably in several books, the Sacred Chronicle 
of Euhemerus (a man of uncertain birthplace, but born 
c. 340 B.C.), by whom the old myths were given a rational 
explanation in a philosophic romance; herein the gods were 
explained as men of old who were heroes and conquerors. 
The two following quotations give information in addition 
to that provided by Lactantius in passages given below. 
Cicero, de Nat. Deor., I, 42, 119: 'Well, those who teach 
that brave or famous or powerful men have after death 
attained the estate of gods ; and that these are the very beings 
whom we are wont to worship and pray to and adore — are 
they not strangers to all and every religious scruple ? The 
man who went farthest in this line of thought was Euhemerus, 
of whom our Ennius was, beyond all others, a translator and 
follower ; and in Euhemerus' scheme even deaths and burials 
of gods are set forth.' Lactantius, Div. Inst., I, 11, 33: 
' The ancient author Euhemerus, whose birthplace was the 

^' haecce (haece) olim Spengel, L haec propterea 
Spengel haec Varro 

^* quando L quoniam 0. Mr. quia Laetus qua Varro 
414 



EUHEMERUS 

10-14 

Air : 

Varro : These same deities. Sky and Earth, are the same as 
Jupiter and Juno," for, according to the words of Ennius — 

That is this Jupiter of whom I speak, whom the 
Greeks call Aer, which is wind and clouds, and 
afterwards moisture ; out of wetness comes cold, 
and after that wind is formed, and air once again. 
That is why Jupiter is the name for all I have spoken 
of, since he rejuvenates * all men and cities and 
beasts. 

EUHEMERUS 

OR 

THE HOLY HISTORY 

state of Messene, collected the acts of Jupiter and of the rest 
of those who are thought to be gods, and wove a History 
out of the contents of the labels and holy inscriptions which 
were to be found in the most archaic temples and above all 
in the shrine of the Triphylian Jupiter, where the label on 
a golden pillar showed that it was put up by Jupiter himself; 
on the pillar he wrote out an account of all his acts, so that 
it might bet a monument to after-time of his achievements. 
This History Ennius both translated and followed.' 

All the fragments of Ennius' version (with one exception) 
are given in prose by Lactantius and it is certain that this work 
of Ennius was known to Lactantius in a prose version only. 
It has been believed, therefore, that Ennius likewise wrote 
his version in prose. But it has been pointed out ( V., CCXXII ff.) 
that Lactantius' quotations contain fragments if not whole 

" We may not« here that in L.L., V, 18, \"arro says that 
Ennius in Epicharmus calls the moon Proserpina. 

* We might say in English ' God is the name . . . since 
he does good to all men. . . .' The two words God and good 
are not connected in English any more than lupiter luno and 
iuvo are in Latin. 

415 



ENNIUS 

lines of septenarian rhythm, while hardly a single phrase 
occurs which could be part of a hexameter. Thus, although 
any attempted reconstruction of anj' of Ennius' verse-contexts 
would be an idle task, and although one can trace a good many 
iambic and trochaic rhythms in any Latin prose just as one 
can blank verse lines in English prose, still it is worth while 
giving such ° remains of rhythms as we can dimly see, without 
maintaining in any instance that the words stand exactly as 
Ennius wrote them." I have noted the following, which are 
numbered according to the lines of the full Latin text (given 
on pp. 418 fit.) from which these are quoted : 

1 Primus in terris imperium summum Caelus 

2 id regnum una cum fratribus suis 

12 uti de regno ne concedat fratri 

13 qui facie deterior asset quam Saturnus 

21 Turn Saturno filius qui primus natus est, 

eum necaverunt 

22 Deinde posterius nati sunt gemini, luppiter . . . 
26 dantque eum Vestae educandum, celantes 

31 Pluto Latine est Dis pater, alii Orcum vocant 

32 filiam Glaucam Saturno ostendunt 

33 filium Plutonem celant atque abscondunt. 

34 Deinde Glauca parva emoritur, Haec ut scripta 

sunt lovis . . . 

39 Deinde " Titan postquam rescivit Saturno filios 

40 procreates (atque) educatos esse clam se 

41 ducit secum filios suos 
44 eosque muro circumegit et custodiam 

his apponit 
51 parentes vinculis 

exemisse, patri regnum reddidisse 

« V. has given some— CCXXII-CCXXIV. He points out 
that the quotations show signs of Ennius apart from rhythm. 

* Particularly where an apparent septenarian allows 
— >_. — w — w — at the end instead of — ^ ^ — . 

' v., CCXXIII believes that the fr. Deinde . . . apponit 
(see Imes 39-45) represents four lines of Ennius' poetry. 
416 



EUHEMERUS 

53 Post haec deinde Saturno sortem datam 

ut caveret. 
59 cum iactatus esset (per) omnes terras persequentibus 

annatis quos (ad eum) conprehendendum vel 
necandum luppiter 

miserat 
62 vix in Italia locum. 

64 coYisedisse illi aquilam in capite 
66 Deinde Pan eum deducit in montem 

qui vocatur Caeli stela 
68 ascendit contemplatus est 

late terras. 
74 caelo nomen indidit 

idque luppiter quod aether 

78 luppiter Neptuno imperium dat maris 

79 quae secundum mare loca essent omnibus 

81 (ea tempestate luppiter) in monte Olympo maximam 
83 veniebant si quae res in controversia 

89 humanam camem solitos esitare 

91 edicto prohibuisse ne liceret 

93 Nam cum terras circiuniret 

94 reges principesve - ^ jxipulorum hospitio sibi 

111 simile quiddam in Sicilia 

fecit Aeneas cum conditae urbi Acestae hospitis 
114 inposuit ut eam post moduni 

laetus ac libens Acestes 
118 exemplum ceteris ad imitandum dedit. 

120 omnibusque amicis atque cognatis suis 

123 fecit, inmortali gloria 

memoriaque adfectus sempiterna monumenta 
128 curaverunt . . . decoraveruntque eum 

131 eius est inscriptum antiquis litteris 

Graecis ZAN KPONOY-- id est Latine luppiter 

Satiumi 

417 

VOL. I. E E 



ENNIUS 

Lactantius, Div. Inst., I, 13, 14 : Ennius quidem in 
Euhemero non primum dicit regnasse Saturnum sed Uranum 
patrem — 

Initio primus in terris imperium sum- 
mum Caelus habuit; is id regnum una 
cum fratribus suis sibi instituit atque 
paravit. 
Cp. epit., 14, 4. 

I, 11, 63 5.: ... In Sacra Historia . . . Ennius tradit 
. . . Cui ergo sacrificare luppiter potuit nisi Caelo avo ? — 

6 quem dicit Euhemerus in Oceania 
mortuum et in oppido Aulacia sepultum. 

I, 14, 1 : Nunc quoniam ab his quae rettuli aliquantum 
Sacra Historia dissentit, aperiamus ea quae veris litteris 
continentur, ne poetarum ineptias in accusandis religionibus 
sequi ac probare videamur. Haec Enni verba sunt — 

Exim Saturnus uxorem duxit Opem. 
Titan qui maior natu erat postulat ut 

10 ipse regnaret. Ibi Vesta mater eorum 
et sorores Ceres atque Ops suadent 
Saturno uti de regno ne concedat fratri. 
Ibi Titan qui facie deterior esset quam 
Saturnus, idcirco et quod videbat matrem 

15 atque sorores suas operam dare uti 
Saturnus regnaret, concessit ei ut is 
regnaret. Itaque pactus est cum Saturno 
uti si quid liberum virile secus ei natum 
esset, ne quid educaret. Id eius rei 

^ initio inquit primus Lactant. 

® aut lacia R aulatia S Huracia Nemethy Euhem., 

53, 79 coll. Diod., V, 45, 2 : 'TpaKiav . . . 'ClKeavlSa. 

" i.e. older than Saturn. 
418 



EUHEMERUS 

The rule of Caelus or Sky : 

Lactantius : Ennius indeed in Euhemerus states that the 
first to hold rule was not Saturn but Uranus his father. He 
says — 

In the beginning Sky held highest authority 
in the world; he together with his brothers 
established and formed this kingship for him- 
self. 

The death of Shy : 

In The Holy History . . . Ennius . . . relates ... to 
whom therefore can Jupiter have sacrificed if not to Sky his 
grandfather ? — 

who, according to Euhemerus, died in 
Oceania and was buried in the town Aulacia. 

Birth of Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, and Pluto ; vengeance of 
Titan. Triumph of Jupiter and flight of Saturn to Italy : 

And now since The Holy History disagrees somewhat with 
what I have related, allow me to disclose the contents of 
true records, lest in calling to task religious superstitions I 
seem to follow and approve of the foolish sayings of the poets. 
Ennius' words are these — 

After that Saturn took Ops to wife. Titan 
who was the elder in years " asked that he 
might be king. Thereupon Vesta their mother 
and Ceres and Ops their sisters advised Saturn 
not to yield to his brother in the matter of the 
kingship. Thereupon Titan, because he was 
less handsome than Saturn and saw that the 
efforts of his mother and sisters were made in 
order that Saturn might be king, yielded to 
him the right to be king. Therefore he made 
an agreement with Saturn that if any free- 
born child of the male sex should be born to 
him, he should not bring it up. This he did 



E E 2 



419 



ENNIUS 

20 causa fecit uti ad suos gnatos regnum 
rediret. Turn Saturno filius qui primus 
natus est eum necaverunt. Deinde 
posterius nati sunt gemini luppiter atque 
luno. Turn lunonem Saturno in con- 

25 spectum dedere atque lovem clam 
abscondunt dantque eum Vestae educan- 
dum celantes Saturnum. Item Neptunum 
clam Saturno Ops parit eumque clanculum 
abscondit. Ad eundum modum tertio 

30 partu Ops parit geminos Plutoneni et 
Glaucam. Pluto Latine est Dis pater, 
alii Orcum vocant. Ibi filiam Glaucam 
Saturno ostendunt at filium Plutonem 
celant atque abscondunt. Deinde Glauca 

35 parva emoritur. Haec ut scripta sunt 
lovis fratrumque eius stirps atque cog- 
natio ; in hunc modum nobis ex sacra 
scriptione traditum est. 
Item paulo post haec infert — 

Deinde Titan postquam rescivit 

40 Saturno filios procreatos atque educatos 
esse clam se, seducit secum filios suos 
qui Titani vocantur, fratremque suum 
Saturnum atque Opem conprehendit 
eosque muro circumegit et custodiam his 

45 apponit. 

. . . Reliqua Historia sic contexitur — 

lovem adultum cum audisset patrem 
atque matrem custodiis circumsaeptos 
atque in vincula coniectos, venisse cum 

^^ Pluto . . . vocant, in hunc modum . . . traditum est 
fortasse non Ennio tribuenda ; at latent ut videtur septenarii. 

420 



EUHEMERUS 

in order that the kingship might return to 
his own sons. Next they slew the first son 
born to Saturn. And then later on there were 
bom twins, Jupiter and Juno. Then they 
allowed Saturn to see Juno, but secretly 
smuggled Jupiter away, and hiding him from 
Saturn gave him to Vesta to be brought up. 
Next Ops bore a son to Saturn, Neptune, 
unknown to him, and smuggled him away 
secretly. In the same way Ops in a third 
delivery gave birth to twins.'Pluto and Glauca. 
(The Latin counterpart of Pluto is Dis Pater, 
though some call him Orcus.) Thereupon they 
presented the daughter Glauca to Saturn, 
but hid the son Pluto, and smuggled him away. 
Then Glauca died while still a little girl. Such 
according to the records are the stock and 
kin of Jupiter and his brothers ; this is the 
manner of it as handed down to us out of the 
holy writings. 

Again, a little farther on the History offers the following — 

And then Titan, after he had learnt that 
sons had been born to Saturn, and had been 
brought up without his knowledge, took away 
with him his own sons who are called Titans, 
seized his brother Saturn and also Ops, put 
them behind prison-walls, and kept them 
under guard. 

. . . The thread of what remains in the History on this 
point is as follows, that — 

WTien Jupiter was grown up he heard that 
his father and mother were beset by guards 
and cast into bonds, and came with a great host 

421 



ENNIUS 

magna Cretensium multitudine Titan- 
60 umque ac filios eius pugna vicisse, 
parentes vinculis exemisse, patri regnum 
• reddidisse atque ita in Cretam remeasse. 
Post haec deinde Saturno sortem datam 
ut caveret ne filius eum regno expelleret, 

65 ilium elevandae sortis atque effugiendi 
periculi gratia insidiatum lovi ut eiun 
necaret. lovem cognitis insidiis regnum 
sibi denuo vindicasse ac fugasse Saturnum, 
qui cum iactatus esset per omnes terras 

60 persequentibus armatis, quos ad eum 
conprehendendum vel necandum luppiter 
miserat, vix in Italia locum in quo lateret 
invenit. . . . 
Cp. epit., 13, 3. 

I, 11, 64 : Caesar quoque in Arato refert Aglaosthenen 
dicere lovem cum ex insula Naxo adversus Titanes pro- 
ficisceretur et sacrificium faceret in litore, aquilam ei in 
auspicium advolasse. . . . Sacra vero Historia etiam ante — 

consedisse illi aquilam in capite atque 

66 ei regnum portendisse 
testatur. 

I, 11, 62 (de Saturno) : Nunc dicam quo modo ubi a quo 
sit hoc factum. Non enim Saturnus hoc sed luppiter fecit. 
In Sacra Historia sic Ennius tradit — 

Deinde Pan eum deducit in montem 
qui vocatur Caeli Stela. Postquam eo 
ascendit contemplatus est late terras 

•* Pan eum cdd. (pavenium R pane deducit H) 

fortasse Panchaeum vel Panchaeam eum 

•' Stela Ciaconius stella cdd. sella Krahner coll. Diodor., 
V, 44, 5 6. 

422 



EUHEMERUS 

of Cretans and defeated Titan and his sons 
in battle, freed his parents from their bonds, 
gave back the kingship to his father, and so 
went back to Crete. And then after this 
an oracle was given to Saturn, saying that he 
must beware lest a son of his thrust him out 
of his kingship ; in order to thwart the oracle, 
and avoid the danger, he ambushed Jupiter 
to slay him; Jupiter having found out the 
ambush, claimed afresh the kingdom for 
himself, and made Saturn a fugitive. He, 
driven all over the world by armed pursuers, 
whom Jupiter had sent to seize or slay him, 
almost failed to find in Italy a place to hide 



Caesar also in Aratus records that Aglaosthenes says that 
when Jupiter was setting out from Naxos island against the 
Titans and was sacrificing on the shore, an eagle flew to him 
as an omen. . . . But even before this The Holy History bears 
witness that — 

an eagle perched on his head and foretold 
that he would win the kingship. 

How Saturn came to be called son of Sky : 

Now I will tell you how and when and by whom this was 
done ; for it was not done by Saturn but by Jupiter. In The 
Holy History Ennius relates as follows — 

Then Pan led him up to a mountain which is 
called Sky's Pillar.*' \\Tien he had climbed it 
he gazed on the world far and wide, and then 

" Or, if we accept Panchaeam (or the like) and sella, readings 
based on the parallel account of the eastern Utopia in Diodor. 
V, 44 (from Euhemerus) — ' Then he led him to Panchaea . . . 
Sky's Seat.* 

423 



ENNIUS 

ibique in eo monte aram creat Caelo, 
70 primusque in ea ara luppiter sacrificavit. 
In eo loco suspexit in caelum quod nunc 
nos nominamus, idque quod supra mundum 
erat quod aether vocabatur, de sui avi 
nomine caelo nomen indidit, idque 
75 luppiter quod aether vocatur placans 
primus caelum nominavit eamque hostiam 
quam ibi sacrificavit totam adolevit. 

I, 11, 32: Sic Neptuno maritima omnia cum insulis 
obvenerunt. Quomodo id probari potest ? Nimrrum veteres 
historiae decent. Antiquus auctor Euhemerus. . . . Histor- 
iam contexuit. . . . Hanc historiam et interpretatus est 
Ennius et secutus, cuius haec verba sunt — 

. . . ubi luppiter Neptuno imperium dat 
maris ut insulis omnibus et quae secundum 
80 mare loca essent omnibus regnaret. 

... In Olympo lovem habitasse docet eadem Historia 
quae dicit — 

Ea tempestate luppiter in monte Olympo 
maximam partem vitae colebat et eo ad 
eum in ius veniebant, si quae res in 
controversia erant. Item si quis quid 
85 novi invenerat quod ad vitam humanam . 
utile esset, eo veniebant atque lovi 
ostendebant. 

I, 13, 2 (de Satumo) : Idem sororem suam Rheam quam 
Latine Opem dicimus cum haberet uxorem, responso vetitus 

'* idque luppiter . . . nominavit seel. Mr. 
" ut edd. ut et Thilo et ut coni. Brandt et cdd. 

(hoc est ut S, H) 
80 regnare Hartel 

424 



EUHEMERUS 

on that mountain he built an altar to Sky, 
and on that altar Jupiter was the first to make 
sacrifice. Standing At that place he looked 
up at what we now name the sky ; and to that 
which was above the universe, and was called 
ether, Jupiter gave the name ' Sky ' after 
his grandfather's name ; and being the first 
to appease that which is called ether, he 
named it the sky ; and he burnt whole the 
victim which he sacrificed there. 

The powers given by Jupiter to Neptune ; Jupiter duxlls on 
Olympus : 

Thus to Neptune's share fell all the things of the sea and 
the islands in it. How can this be proved ? Why, of course 
the old histories attest it. The ancient author Euhemerus . . . 
wove a History. . . . This History Ennius both translated 
and followed; his words are these — 

. . . where Jupiter gave Neptune authority 
over the sea so as to be king over all the 
islands and all places which might be near the 
sea. 

. . . That Jupit€r dwelt on Olympus we are taught by that 
same History, which says — 

In those days Jupiter was spending the 
greater part of his life on Mount Olympus, 
and thither to him men used to come to law if 
there were any matters in dispute. Likewise 
if anA'one had discovered any new thing which 
might be useful towards the life of mankind, 
thither men used to come, and show it to 
Jupiter. 

J upiter forbids the eating of human flesh : 
And Saturn again, when he had taken for his wife his sister 
Rhea, whom we call in Latin Ops, is said to have been forbidden 

425 



ENNIUS 

esse dicitur mares liberos educate quod futurum esset ut a 
filio pelleretur; quam rem metuens natos sibi filios non 
utique devorabat ut ferunt fabulae sed necabat, quanquam 
scriptum sit in Historia Sacra — ' 

Satumum et Opem ceterosque tunc 
homines humanam carnem solitos esitare ; 
90 verum primum lovem leges hominibus 
moresque condentem edicto prohibuisse 
ne liceret eo cibo vesci. 

I, 22, 21 : Historia vero Sacra testatur ipsum lovem 
postquam rerum potitus sit in tantam venisse insolentiam 
ut ipse sibi fana in multis locis constituent — 

Nam cum terras circumiret, ut in 
quamque regionem venerat, reges prin- 

95 cipesve populorvun hospitio sibi et amicitia 
copulabat et cum a quoque digrederetur 
iubebat sibi fanum creari hospitis sui 
nomine, quasi ut posset amicitiae et 
foederis memoria conservari. Sic con- 

100 stituta sunt templa lovi Ataburio, lovi 
Labryandio, Ataburus enim et Labryandus 
hospites eius atque adiutores in bello 
fuerunt; item lovi Laprio, lovi Molioni, 
lovi Casio, et quae sunt in eundem 

105 modum. Quod ille astutissime excogit- 
avit, ut et sibi honorem divinum et hospiti- 
bus suis perpetuum nomen adquireret 
cum religione coniunctum. Gaudebant 
ergo illi et huic imperio eius libenter 

110 obsequebantur et nominis sui gratia ritus 
426 



EUHEMERUS 

by the answer of an oracle to bring up freebom male children 
on the ground that it was fated that he would be deposed by 
a son. In fear of this, it is plain that he did not, as the stories 
go, eat up sons that were bom to him, but slew them; in 
spite of what is written in The Holy History that — 

Saturn and Ops and all the rest of mankind 
were wont to feed on human flesh. But 
Jupiter, the first to lay down laws and customs 
for men, forbade by edict that men should 
be allowed to eat such food. 

The origin of the different cults of Jupiter : 

But The Holy History is a witness that Jupiter himself, 
after he had become supreme, went to such a pitch of 
haughtiness that he established, himself for himself, temples 
in many places — 

For when he was making the round of the 
world, the kings or chiefs of the peoples of 
every region, wherever he had come, bound 
themselves in hospitality and friendship vrith 
him ; and whenever he was departing from 
any place, he ordered that a shrine should 
be built in the name of his host, so that the 
memory as it were of friendship and agreement 
should be preserved. Thus were established 
the temples of Jupiter Ataburius, Jupiter 
Labryandius, for Ataburus and Labrv'andus 
were his hosts and his helpers in war ; and 
also to Jupiter Laprius, Jupiter Molio, Jupiter 
Casius, and all the other temples which are 
dedicated in the same manner. This was a 
most cunning idea of his, to get for himself 
divine honour and for his hosts a name for 
ever known and connected with religion. Thus 
they were glad, and willingly obeyed this 
authority of his and celebrated yearly rites 

427 



ENNIUS 

annuos et festa celebrabant. Simile 
quiddam in Sicilia fecit Aeneas, cum 
conditae urbi Acestae hospitis nomen 
inposuit, ut earn postmodum laetus 
115 ac libens Acestes diligeret augeret orna- 
ret. Hoc modo religionem cultus sui 
per orbem terrarum luppiter seminavit 
et exemplum ceteris ad imitandum dedit. 

Cp. epit., 19, 14. 

I, 11, 44 : Quare si lovem et ex rebus gestis et ex moribus 
hominem fuisse in terraque regnasse deprehendimus, superest 
ut mortem quoque eius investigemus. Ennius in Sacra 
Historia descriptis omnibus quae in vita sua gessit ad ultimum 
sic ait — 

Deinde luppiter postquam quinquies 

120 terras circumivit omnibusque amicis atque 

cognatis suis imperia divisit reliquitque 

hominibus leges mores frumentaque 

paravit multaque alia bona fecit, inmortali 

gloria memoriaque adfectus sempiterna 

125 monumenta suis reliquit. Aetate pessum 

acta in Creta vitam commutavit et ad 

deos abiit eumque Curetes filii sui 

curaverunt decoraveruntque eum; et 

sepulchrum eius est in Creta in oppido 

130 Gnosso et dicitur Vesta hanc urbem 

creavisse inque sepulchro eius est in- 

scriptum antiquis litteris Graecis ZAN 

KPONOY id est Latine luppiter Saturni. 

Hoc certe non poetae tradunt sed antiquarum rerum 
scriptores. 

Cp. epit., 13, 4. 
428 



EUHEMERUS 

and holidays for their name's sake. Aeneas 
achieved something like this in Sicily when 
he gave to a city at its foundation the name 
of Acestes his host, so that later on Acestes 
should cheerfully and willingly cherish increase 
and honour it. In this way did Jupiter sow the 
seeds of his own religious worship throughout 
the world and provide an example for all the 
rest of the world to imitate. 

The death of Jupiter : 

Wherefore if we grasp the fact that Jupiter, to judge both 
from his achievements and his character, was a man and a 
king on earth, there remains for us to inquire into his death 
also. In The Holy History Ennius, having described all the 
deeds done by him during his life, says near the end — 

And then Jupiter after he had gone the 
round of the world five times and had made 
division of authorities to all his friends and 
relations, and bequeathed to mortals laws and 
manners, and furnished corn and provided 
many other good things, he was honoured 
with deathless renown and remembrances 
and bequeathed everlasting monuments to his 
friends. When he was sunk in the depths of 
old age, he parted with his life in Crete, and 
went away to join the gods ; and the Curetes 
his sons tended and decked his corpse. His 
tomb exists in Crete in the town of Cnossus 
(a city which Vesta is said to have set up) 
and on his tomb is written in archaic Greek 
letters ZAN KPONOY, that is, in Latin, Jupiter 
Son of Saturn. 

This at any rate is a tradition not of the poets but of writers 
on antiquities. 

429 



ENNIUS 

I, 17, 9 : Quid loquar obscenitatem Veneris omnium 
libidinibus prostitutae. .? . . Quae ' prima,' ut in Historia 
Sacra continetur — 

artem meretriciam instituit auctorque 

135 mulieribus in Cypro fuit uti vulgo corpore 

quaestum faceret ; quod idcirco imperavit 

ne sola praeter alias mulieres inpudica et 

virorum adpetens videretur. 

Cp. epit., 9, 1. 



EX INCERTIS 
SCRIPTIS 

EX ANNALIBUS? 

1 

Cicero, Oral., 47, 157 : ' Isdem campus habet ' inquit Ennius 
et— 

in templis isdem 



Servius, ad Aen., II, 274 : (' Ei mihi qualis erat, quantum 
mutatus ab illo Hectore ') ' Ei mihi.' Ennii versus. 



Servius (auctus) ad Aen., IX, 744 : ' Versat,' librat, iactat; 
et est Ennianum — 

Versat mucronem. 

Serv., Aen., II, 274, verba qualis erat (vel etiam totua versus) 
fortasse Ennio trib. Ann. lib. I 

430 



VARIA 

Venus : 

WTiy should I speak of the lewdness of Venus prostituted to 
the lusts of all? . . . who, according to what we find contained 
in The Holy History, first — 

established the art of the courtesan and in 
Cyprus founded for women the custom of 
getting profit out of their bodies by making 
them pubUc ; this she ordained so that she 
should not be the only one among women to 
appear a hussy and a gaper after men. 



FRAGMENTS NOT ASSIGNED 
TO ANY WORK 

FROM THE ANNALS? 

1 

Cicero : ' For them too the plains hold,' says Ennius (see 
p. 52), and also — 

in those same temples " 



Servius, on Virgil's ' Ah me ! In what guise he was — how 
changed from that Hector ...!': ' Ah me.' A line ' of 
Ennius. 

2 

Servius (supplemented), on ' versat ' in Virgil : ' Versat,' 
he poises, brandishes ; it is further an Ennian term — 

Passes made he with his sword's point. 

" The text of Cicero is not quite certain. Cf. St., 129-30; 
v., 86. 

" As elsewhere, by ' versus,' Servius may not mean a whole 
verse. But if he does in this case, it may describe the dead 
body of Tarquinius Priscus (Bk. III). 

431 



ENNIUS 

3-4 

Donatus, ad Ter., Phorm., V, 9, 39 : ' sum mactatum.' 
' Sum ' pro eo quod est eum ; sic frequenter veteres. Ennius — 

. . . omnes corde patrem debent animoque benigno 
circum sum. 

5 

Paulus, ex F., 193, 7 : ' Ob ' . . . pro ad, ut Ennius ' ob 
Romam e. ?. 5. (Ann., fr. 288). Festus, 192, 21 . . .— 

Ob Troiam duxit <(exercitum) 

Cp. Paulus, 131, 11, (7): (. . . ' ob Troiam duxit 
exercitum '). 

6 

Varro, L.L., VII, 48 : Apud Ennium — 

quae cava corpore caeruleo cortina receptat 

' cava cortina ' dicta quod est inter terram et caelum ad 
similitudinem cortinae Apollinis. Cp. Lucret., II, 1001 : id 
rursum caeli rellatum templa receptant. 



Varro, VII, 32 : Dubitatur . . . utrum primum una canis 
aut canes sit appeUata. . . . Ennius ... — 

tantidem quasi feta canes sine dentibus latrat. 

3-4 Cf. v., pp. 84-5 

^ <(exercitum> suppl. ex Paul., 131 fortasse tribuend. 

Ann. lib. I 

* q. . . . r. 0. Mr. corpore caeruleo cava quae cortina 
receptat T quaeque freto cava caeruleo S <iu?<l in 
corpore causa ceruleo felo orta nare ceptat Varr. trib. Ann. 
lib. I V 

" Donatus' quotation from Ennius is defective and his 
reading of Terence wrong ; Terence wrote sit mactatus. 



VARIA 



3-4 



Donatus, on a passage in Terence : ' Sum ' for ' eum ' ; 
thus frequently the old writers. Ennius — " 

All men should love their father with all their 
hearts, and hold kind thoughts towards him. 



Paulus : ' Ob ' . . . for ' ad ' ; for example, Ennius 
'Against Rome, etc.' (fr. 288). Festus has . . , — 

Against Troy he led an army * 

6 
Varro : In a passage of Eimius ' — 

WTiich the hollow caldron takes back again within 
its embodiment of heaven's blue 

The term ' cava cortina ' is used because it lies between 
' terra ' and ' caelum,' and is likened to Apollo's caldron. 



Varro : It is a matter of doubt . . . whether the original 
term for ' canis ' in the feminine was ' canis ' or ' canes.' . . . 
Ennius ^ . . . — - 

meaning no more than the barking of a toothless 
bitch in pup. 

* Apparently a quotation from Ennius ; if it comes from the 
Annals, its place is near fr. 15 of Bk. I. 

' The restorations of the text are probably right. V. 
(CXLVIII: and p. 3) assigns the fr. to Homer's speech in 
Bk. I (cf. v., ed. I, XXIII-XXIV); the fragment seems to 
describe how (according to Empedocles) the sky or space 
' takes back ' as it were the four elements of which things are 
made, and causes them to combine into new things. 

* Perhaps in the Satires. Possibly Ennius means ' gives 
a toothless bark,' ' bark with no bite.' 

433 
VOL. I. F F 



ENNIUS 

Servius, ad Aen., VII, 804 : Ennius et Lucretius (IV, 460 
bina lucernarum florentia lumina flammis) florere dicunt omne 
quod nitidum est. 

Servius, ad Aen., XII, 605 : ' flavos Lavinia crines.' 
Antiqua lectio floros habuit, id est florulentos, pulchros, et 
est sermo Ennianus. 



8-9 

Cicero, de Oral., Ill, 42, 168 : Sunt finitima . . . cum 
intellegi volumus ... ex uno plures — 

At Romanus homo, tamen et si res bene gesta est, 
corde suo trepidat 

Servius, ad Aen., VII, 691 : Ab hoc (Messapo) Ennius dicit 
se originem ducere. 

Cp. Sil., XII, 393; Suid., s. v. "Ewios. 

Grellius, XVII, 17, 1 : Quintus Ennius tria corda habere 
sese dicebat quod loqui Graece et Osce et Latine sciret. 



10 

Cicero, de Oral., Ill, 42, 168 : Videtis profecto genus hoc 
totum . . . cum ex pluribus intellegitur unum — 

Nos sumus Romani qui fuimus ante Rudini 

Cp. Sil., XII, 393 S. 

1" fuvimus Lambinus fuimus odd. trib. Enn. Ann. lib. 
XVI Mr. XII (olim XVIII) V 

" In view of Lucretius' line, Vahlen may be right in believing 
that fr. 317 in Bk. IX of Ennius began with the words 
Florebant flammis (V., Sitz.-Ber. B. Ak., 1896, 720). 

434 



VARIA 

Servius : Ennius ' and Lucretius (' flame-flowering lights 
of two lamps ') used the term ' to flower ' of everything that 
is bright. 

Servius, on ' Lavinia her yellow hair ' in Virgil : An old 
reading had 'flowery,' that is flower-like, beautiful; it is 
further a term taken from Ennius. 

8-9 

Cicero : Closely allied to this are the following . . . when 
we wish several to be understood by one — 

But the man of Rome, though success has blest 
his trials, is fearful in his heart '' 

Servius, on Messapus in Virgil : From him Ennius says « 
he draws his descent. 

Gellius : Quintus Ennius used to say that he had three 
hearts on the ground that he knew how to speak in Greek, 
Oscan and Latin. 

10 

Cicero : Of course you see all this kind of thing . . . when 
one is understood by several — 

We who once were Rudians are now Romans •* 

' The metre and the thought suggest Ennius' Annals, 
and Cicero goes on to give another hexameter which at any 
rate refers to Ennius. 

' WTiere he says it is not known. But Vahlen (CXCVII) 
may be right in believing that mention of Ennius' descent, 
origin and grant of Roman citizenship came in Bk. XII, 
where the poet himself stated that he wrote that book when 
he was sixty-seven years old. 

•* That the author of this Une is Ennius is most probable. 
May it not belong to Bk. XVI, which included the year 
184 B.C., when Ennius was granted Roman citizenship? 
Or it might come in Bk. I ; or in either of the literary works 
(Annals, Bk. XV, or Ambracia, pp. 358 ff.) which celebrated 
Fulvius Xobilior, through whose son Ennius received the 
franchise. 

435 
FF 2 



ENNIUS 

EX SATURIS? 

11 

Cicero, de Div., II, 54, 111 : Non esse autem illud carmen 
8C. Sibyllae) furentis cum ipsum poema declarat (est enim 
magis artis et diligentiae quam incitationis et motus), turn 
vero quae aKpoanxis dicitur, cum deinceps ex primis versus 
litteris aliquid conectitur, ut in quibusdam Ennianis — 

Q. Ennius fecit 

Nonius, 448, 10 : ' Edolare ' fabrorum est verum verbum 
cum materiarum conplanatur asperitas. . . . Varro Bimarco 
' Cum Quintipor Clodius tot comoedias sine uUa fecerit Musa, 
ego unum libellum non edolem ut ait Ennius ' ? 

Cicero, ad Alt., XIII, 47, 1 : ' Postquam e. q. 5.' (Iphig., fr. 
237-8) extemplo instituta omisi, ea quae in manibus habebam 
abieci, quod iusseras edolavi. 

12-13 

Servius auctus, ad Aen., VIII, 361 : ' Carinare ' est obtrec- 
tare. Ennius — 

Contra carinantes verba aeque obscena profatus. 

alibi — 

- neque me decet hanc carinantibus edere chartis. 

^* aeque Castricomius atque cdd. c. c. | verba atra 

atque obscena olim V et contra carinans verba aeque 

Saumaise fortasse contra, carinantia verba | atque obscena 
profatus. irib. olim lib, VI V 

^* nee me rem decet hanc Ilberg sed neque me Saumaise 
fortasse neque me decet haec trib. Ann. VII ed. Lips. 

" If Cicero really means works, they would probably be 
Satires. But if he means manuscripts, he alludes to acrostics 
which we may assume were attached by later writers to works 
of Ennius like the acrostics attached to Plautus' plays. 

' Cicero's remark is not assigned by him to anyone; it 
follows a quotation from Ennius' Iphigenia (p. 306) ; it refers 

436 



VARIA 

FROM THE SATIRES? 

11 

Cicero : And that the famous song of the Sibj'l is not a 
product of raving is quite evident partly from the poem itself 
(for it is a work of art; and care rather than excitement and 
emotion) and partly because it is written in what is called an 
' acrostic,' where the first letter of each line, the lines being 
taken one after the other and joined in order, makes some sort 
of sense; for example, in some poems" of Ennius — 

Q. Ennius his work 

Nonius : ' To hew out ' is a verb used properly of joiners 
when they plane down the roughness of their material. . . . 
Varro in Bimarcus : While Boy Quintus Clodius has made so 
many comedies without taste, may I not, as Ennius has it, 
' write rough-hewn one little book ' ? 

Cicero : So soon as . . . {Iphig., fr. 237-8) gave up what 
I had begun, I put aside what I had in hand, and I wrote 
rough-hewn what you had asked for.* 

12-13 

Servius augmented, on ' carinae ' in Virgil : ' Carinare ' 
means to revile. Ennius — 

against the foul-mouthed uttering words no less 
unclean.*' 

Elsewhere — 
nor does it befit me to publish this "^ and make 
these pages foul. 

to a written work (in praise of Caesar); Varro suggests 
Ennius used ' edolavi ' of a little book. Hence I have put the 
passage from Cicero and the one from Nonius together here, 
and believe them to contain a word from Ennius' Satires. 

' This and the next fr. may belong to the A nnals ; carinare 
or carinare is as it were scarinare (cp. scortum). For contra 
cf. pp. 172-3. 

' ac.aaturam? rem?; or read Aa€c. 

437 



ENNIUS 

14 

Varro, L.L., VII, 103 : Multa ab animalium vocibus tralata 
in homines . . . Ennii a vitulo — 

tibicina maximo labore mugit. 

15 
Festus, 124, 11 : ' Moene ' singulariter dixit Ennius — 
Apud emporium in campo hostium pro moene, 

16 
Donatus, ad Ter., Andr., Ill, 2, 25 : ' Mutire.' Ennius — 
nee dice nee facie mu. 

17 

Varro, L.L. 7 : Apud Ennium . . . mussare dictum quod 
muti non amplius quam /a5 dicunt ... — 

neque ut aiunt /xC facere audent. 

Censorinus, de Die Nat., 19, 2 : Philolaus annum naturalem 
dies habere prodidit CCCLXIIII et dimidiatum ... at noster 
Ennius CCCLXVI. 

VARIA INCERTAE SEDIS 

18 

Varro, L.L. VII, 41 : Cum res maior erat, orationi lega- 
bantur potissimum qui causam commodissime orare poterant, 
Itaque Ennius ait — 

oratores doctiloqui 

1* Ennius apud Fest. Naevius apud 0. Mr. trib. Ann. B 
** mu cdd. Colonna fortasse fiv (cp. 17) 

Censorin. : scripsit fortasse E. habet trecentos sexaginta sex 
dies I annus. 

" Probably a Saturnian line. 
438 



VARIA 

14 

Varro : Many animal sounds are used figuratively of 
human beings . . . there is Ennius' usage drawn from the 
calf— 

the flute-girl moos with a very great to-do. 

15 

Festus : ' Moene,' a singular form, was used by Emiius — 
In a market on the plain before the enemy's wall," 

16 

Donatus, on ' mutire ' in Terence : 

Not a mumble do I mouth or make. 

17 

Varro : In a passage of Ennius . . . ' Mussare ' is a term 
used because mutes say no more than mu . . . 

nor do they dare to make (as we say) a mumble. 

Censorinus : Philolaus published the statement that the 
natural year has 364 J days . . . but our own writer Ennius 
says 366. 

VARIOUS FRAGMENTS 

18 

Varro : On any occasion when a case was of the more 
important kind, persons deputed for an oration were preferably 
those who could ' orate ' or plead the cause most suitably. 
Hence the expression of Eimius — 

orators of clever speech * 

* This might come from a play or from the Annals — 
probably it belongs to the Annals, and possibly came from 
Bk. VI (see p. 197) because Varro has just quot^ed a fr. (about 
an orator) which apparently came from Bk. VI and goes on 
to quote three that certainly belong to Bk. II (see pp. 42-3). 

439 



ENNIUS 

19 

Paulus, ex F., 5, 4 : ' Adgretus ' apud Ennium — 
adgretus fari 
pro eo quod est adgressus ponitur. 

20 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 385, 15 K : ' Possum ' ... (29) 
' potestur ' apud Ennium reperimus — 

nee retrahi potestur imperiis. 

21 

Cicero, de Re Publ., I, 2, 3 :— 

Urbes magnas atque imperiosas 
ut appellat Ennius, viculis et castellis praeferendas puto. 

22 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 105, 18K : ' Saga ' . . . masculini 
. . . Ennius — 

sagus caerulus 

23 

Servius, ad EcL, X, 10 : ' Indigno,' vel meretricio vel 
magno. Nam et Ennius ait — 

indignas turres 
24 

Cic, de Nat. Deor., II, 18, 49 : Epicurus . . . dum palato 
quid sit optimum iudicat — 

caeli palatum 

ut ait Ennius, non suspexit. 

Cp. Augustin., de Civ. Dei, VII, 8. 

2" nee r. v^u-o potestur | imperiis V {qui retrahi reprimive 
coni.) 

44° 



VARIA 

19 
Paulus : ' Adgretus ' in a passage of Ennius — 
having stepped forward to speak 
is put for the form ' adgressus.' 

20 
Diomedes : ' Possum.' . . . We find ' potestur ' in Ennius 

And he is not abled to be drawn back by commands. 

21 
Cicero : I think that — 

cities great and puissant 

are to be preferred to hamlets and forts. 

22 

Charisius : ' Saga ' ... of the masculine . . . Ennius — 

a cloak of colour blue 

23 

Servius : ' Indignus,' wanton, or great." For Ennius too 
thus uses indignas — 

unworthy towers 

24 

Cicero : Epicurus . . . while he was judging what is best 
for the palate, did not look up at — 

the palate of the sky 

as Ennius writes. 

" There is no need to adopt Servius' interpretation. Eimius 
probably meant ' cruel ' or ' ugly towers.' 

441 



ENNIUS 

25 

auclor, de duh. nom., ap. G.L., V, 584, 26 K : ' Nix ' generis 
feminini, ut Ennius — 

hae nives 

26 
Nonius, 190, 20 : ' Armenta ' . . . Feminine Ennius — 
ipsius ad armentas easdem. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 3, 25. 

27 

Servius, ad Aen., I, 190 : ' Turn vulgus.' Bene vulgus 
ductoribus interemptis. Servius auctus : Ennius — 

avium vulgus 

//., XV, 690-1 : opviOcov veTerjvcjv . . . . | edvos. 

28 

Nonius, 192, 11 : ' Araneae ' et feminini sunt generis. . . . 
Ennius — 

bussus araneae 
29 
Nonius, 194, 23 : ' Buxum ' generis . . . feminini Ennius — 
buxus icta taxus tonsa 

30 

Paulus, ex F., 457, 5 : ' Stipes ' fustis terrae defixus. 
Fest-us, 456, 21 . . . Ennius * * * — 8tip>ites abiegno * * * ♦ e 
stipitem ***** mit eum qua * * * rripit. 

Servius (auctus), ad Aen., II, 173 : ' Salsus sudor.' . . . 
Hoc autem Ennius de lamis dixit. 

** ipsius a. a. eosdem cdd. easdem Aid. ad armentas 
ipsius easdem S (eodem Onions) 
" Cf. V, p. 232 et Thilo ad he. 

28 bussus Quich. buxus cdd. (buxis Harl. 1 ) aranae F. 1 
2" icta Mercier vincta lun. victa cdd. 

^^ Paul. 457 : fortasse abiegno <robore> 

442 



VARIA 

25 

A grammarian : ' Nix,' feminine gender; for example, 

Ennius — 

these snowstorms 

26 
Nonius : ' Armenta.' . . . Ennius has it in the feminine — 
to those same herds of his." 

27 

Servius, on Virgil : ' Then the rabble.' ' Rabble ' is 
well-chosen, since the leaders have been slain. The augmenter 
of Servius adds : Ennius — 

a rabble of birds 

28 

Nonius : ' Araneae.' This word is osed even in the feminine 
gender. . . . Ennius — 

the gauze of the spider's web 

29 

Nonius : * Buxum ' . . . Ennius has it in the feminine — 
the box hewn,* the yew shorn 

30 

Paulus : ' Stipes,' a stock fixed tight in the earth. Festits 
. . . Ennius . . . ' stumps of fir-wood.' . . . 

Servius (supplemented) on 'Salt sweat' in Virgil.' . . . 
Ennius too uses it of marshes. 

' ipsius may be right ; or it may be corrupt or misplaced. 
* lunius' reading vincta is often accepted. But what is 
' a bound box-tree ' ? 

' Who refers to the Palladium. 

Serv. auct. Aen., II, salsas lamas trib. Enn. Ann. V (ami. 
olim de lacrimis) 

443 



ENNIUS 

31 

Priscianus, ap. G.L. VIII, 383, 6 : Ennius— 

adsectari se omnes cupiunt ; 
adsectari passive aKoKovBeiaBan. 

32 

Cicero, Tv^c. Disp., IV, 23, 52 : An est quicquam similius 
insaniae quam ira, quam bene Ennius — 

' initium insaniae ' 
dixit ? 

Schol. ad Lucan., X, 249-52 : Ennius haec de Nilo ait, 
quod per aestatem sol ab inferioribus aquam supra revocet 
et hinc eo tempore Nilus increscat. 

Servius, ad Aen., I, 741 : Ennius dicit Nilum Melonem 
vocari, Atlantem veto Telamonem. 

33 

Servius (auctus) ad Aen., X, 10 : Non est ' hos suasit ' ne 
fiat aoXoiKoeiSes, quamvis inveniatur huiusmodi figura, 
ut . . . Ennius — 

* Quis te persuasit ? 

34 

Fronto, Epp., Vol. I, p. 10 Haines : Enni sententia 
' oratorem audacem esse debere.' 

35 

Varro, L.L., VI, 61 : ' Dico ' origineih habet Graecam, quod 
Graeci f NIAIKE f. Hinc Ennius — 

dico qui hunc dicare 

Hinc iudicare quod tunc ius dicatur. 

Cp. Test., 140, 17. 

444 



VARIA 

31 

Pri3cianus : Ennius has — • 

all men long to have a following ; 

' adsectari ' in a passive sense like aKoXovdetaOai. 

32 

Cicero : Is there anything more like madness than anger, 
which Ennius well calls — 

' the beginning of madness ' ? 

A scholiast on a passage of Lucan : Ennius says this about 
the Nile; for (he states) the sun during summer-time calls 
the waters up from the regions below, and hence it is that at 
that season the Xile grows in volume. 

Servius : Ennius says that the Nile is called ' Melo,' and 
Moimt Atlas ' Telamo.' " 

33 
Servius (supplemented) on a passage in Virgil : The order 
must not be ' hos suasit,' lest the result be something like 
a solecism. Nevertheless, we do come across a construction of 
this kind ; for example . . . Ennius — 

' Who persuaded you ? ' 

34 

Fronto : An opinion of Ennius — ' an orator ought to be 
bold.' 

35 
Varro : ' Dico ' has a Greek origin. . . . Hence Ennius — 
I who say that he states,'' 

Hence ' iudicare ' to judge, because then ' ius dicitur,^ justice 
is delivered. 

" This word is clearly the same as telamo in Vitruv., Arch., 
VI, 7, 6, where it means a carved male figure (called axAoj by 
the Greeks) upholding the entablature of a temple. 

' A very doubtful fr. The quotation is perhaps corrupt 
and hunc dicare may hide iudicare; but even so the sense 
would not be clear. 

445 



ENNIUS 



36 



Isodorus Orig., XI, 1, 108 : Grenua sunt commissiones 
femorum et crurum et dicta genua eo quod in utero sint genis 
opposita. . . . Ennius — 

atque genua comprimit arta gena 



SPURIA ? 
1 

Marius Victorinus, ap. G.L., VI, 101, 24 K : Herous figuram 
trimetri accipit, velut — 

Albani muris Albam Longam cinxerunt. 

Hie enim si per dipodias percutiatur, fiet trimetrus. 



Auctor de metr., ap. G.L., VI, 612, 5 K : Hexameter 
heroicus . . . totus ex spondiis — 

Gives Romani tunc facti sunt Campani. 

Cp. 616, 9. 



Auctor de speciebus hexam. her., ap. G.L., VI, 634, 15 K : 
Genus unum est XII syllabarum ex omnibus spondeis, 
tamquam — 

Introducuntur legati Minturnenses 

Cp. Maxim. Victorin., ap. G.L., VI, 211, 22. 

446 



VARIA 



36 



Isidorus : The knees are the junctures of the thighs and the 
legs, and they are called ' genua ' on the ground that in the 
womb thej' are placed over against the ' genae,' cheeks. . . . 
Ennios — 

and the cheek compresses the knees, all close- 
packed. 



SPURIOUS FRAGMENTS? 

1 

Marius Yictorinus : A ' heroic ' line can take the shape of a 
trimeter, like — ° 

Long Alba's people ringed their town with 
enclosures. 

For this line, if it be split up into two-footed metre, will become 
a trimeter. 

2 

An author on metres : The heroic hexameter . . . one 
consisting entirely of spondees — 

Then the Campani were made of Rome burgesses.* 



An author on Forms of the heroic hexameter : There is 
one kind which consists of twelve syllables, all of the feet 
being spondees, such as — ' 

Then there were brought in the envoys of Minturnae 

" Probably an example invented by Yictorinus. 

* Invented by the grammarian ? But cf. Valmaggi, p. 46, 
v., CLXXIII-IV. The author has just quoted Virgil and 
Lucretius. 

' Another invention T 

447 



ENNIUS 

4 
Columna, p. 239 : — 

perculsi pectora Poeni 

Hoc fragmentum mihi e Cosentia Fabius Aquinas misit; 
quod a quodam suo vetustissimo Statii interprete m. s. 
excerpsit. 

Cp. Sil., VIII, 242 : instincti pectora Poeni. 



Pompeius, ap. G.L., V, 303, 19 K : Faciebant versum in 
quo versu non invenies nisi omnia nomina, ut — 

Marsa manus, Paeligna cohors, Vestina virum vis 

Cp. Charis., ap. G.L., I, 282, 6 K : Explanat. in Donat., ap. IV, 
665 K (de scematibus . . . Enni versus), etc. 

6-7 
Placidus, 79, 3 D :— 

Romam ex aquilone 
Rhaeti destringunt 

vel conlimitant vel finibus se eius adiungunt. 

8 
Priscianus, ap. G.L., III, 205, 20 K :— 
O genitor noster Saturnie, maxime divum, 

Homer., II, VIII, 31 : 

ai irarep rjfierepe KpoviSr), vnare Kpeiovrcav. 

" Where Colonna, Barth, or anyone else claims to follow 
the authority of some literary work which has otherwise not 
been known, there we are justified in rejecting the alleged 
fragment. Cf. Norden, 79. 

448 



VARIA 

4 

Colonna " : — 

The Phoenicians, stricken at heart 

This fragment was sent to me from Cosenza by Fabius of 
Aquinum; he gleaned it from the manuscript of a certain 
very old interpreter of Statius which was in his possession. 



Pompeius : They used to compose a kind of verse which 
you will not find to contain anything but nouns and names * ; 
for example — - 

Marsian troop, Paelignian company, Vestinian 
warrior-force 

6-7 
Placidus ' : — 

Rome on the North is touched on by the Rhaeti 

' Destringunt,' border on, or are joined directly to her 
boundaries. 

8 

Priscianus : — 

O son of Saturn, O our begetter, greatest of 
gods,** 

* Pompeius includes both nouns and names in nomina. 
Only one grammarian assigns this fr. to Ennius, but it mav be 
genuine— cf. Polyb., II, 24; Sil. Ital., VIII, 495-515 (battle 
of Caimae) ; there is another line in Ennius of the same type — 
see p. 112. 

' Probably quoting from a much later poet than Ennius; 
it suggests a writer of a date subsequent to the granting in 
49 B.C. of the Roman franchise everywhere in Italy up to the 
Alps. 

•* This line is quite worthy of Ennius. 

449 

VOL. I. G G 



KNNIUS 

9-10 

Serv., ad Aen., IV, 638 : Sciendum Stoicos diccre unum 
esse deum cui nomina variantur pro actibus et officiis, unde 
etiam duplicis sexus esse dicuntur. . . . lovis oratio — 

Caelicolae, mea membra, dei quos nostra potestas 
officiis divisa facit, 

11 

Varro, L.L., VII, 7 : Quaqua intuiti erant oculi a tuendo 
primo dictum templum; quocirca caelum, qua attuimur, 
dictum templum sic — 

Contremuit templum magnum lovls altitonantis. 

Homer., //., I, 354, al. : Zeiis vil/ippejjidTTjs. 

12 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 266, 15 K : ' Soloecismus ' est oratio 
inconsequens. . . . (267) — 

vosque Lares, tectum nostrum qui funditus curant, 

13 

Explaymt. in Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 565, K : Tmesis est unius 
l?artis orationis facta diruptio, alia scilicet interposita, ut est 
illud ' septcm subiecta trioni ' (Verg., G., III. 381). Tolle d« 
medio subiecta et habes septemtrioni. Emiius — 

saxo cere comminuit brum 

Cp. Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 401, 16 K : Pompei., ap. IV, 310, 
4 K : Serv., ad Aen., I, 412. 

^* trih. Enn. Koch 

^* et saxo expl. in Donat. 

" Baehrens' attribution may be right. 



VARIA 

9-10 

Servius, on ' lovi Stygio ' in Virgil : We must not© that the 
Stoics say there is but one god, to whom various names are 
given according to his activities and functions, whence we 
have names of gods belonging to both sexes ... a speech 
of Jupiter — " 

Dwellers of heaven, my own members, gods 
made by the division of my power into its duties, 

11 

Varro : ' Templum ' is a term which was first used of spaces 
wheresoever our eyes had held ' contemplation,' ' intuit i erant ' ; 
it is derived from ' tueri ' ; hence it is that the term ' templum ' 
was used of the sky also, where we see it in ' contemplation,' 
thus — 

Trembled all the mighty precinct of high-thundering 
Jupiter,'' 

12 

Charisius says : A ' solecism ' is grammar which does not 
follow the rule ... — 

And you, House-Gods, who make our home, from 
floor to roof, their care, 

13 

A commentator on Donatus : ' Tmesis ' is the splitting apart 
of one word, that is to say, by the interposition of another, 
like the familiar example septem srtbkda trioni. Take subiecta 
away from the middle and you have ' septemtrioni .^ Ennius — * 

With a stone he his crani '^ split um 

* Worthy of Ennius. But it may be a fr. of Cn. Matins or 
Ninniua Crassus, who were translators of the Iliad. 

* Some (e.g. Koch, Eierc. Crit., 2; Leo, Gesch. d. Rom. Lit., 
182 ; W. Hardie, Res Metrica, 4-5) refuse to believe that Ennius 
ever wrote such a thing, and only one soiuxe attributes it to 
him. On the other hand, such a comic idea as this might have 
foimd a place in the Satires. 

* Or ' occi split put.' 

451 

G02 



ENNIUS 

14 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 499, 12 K : ' Partipedes ' sunt qui 
in singulis pedibus singulas orationis partis adsignant, ut — 

Miscent foede flumina Candida sanguine sparse. 



15 

Nonius, 312, 30 : ' Fundere ' prostenere, iacere. Vergilius, 
^ew., lib. I . . . (192) et ^en., lib. II: fusi sine mente ac sine 
ullo sensu iacerent. 



16-17 

auctor. Bell. Hisp., 5: Hie falteriust non solum morti 
mortem exaggerabant, sed tumulos tumulis exaequabant. 

Enii versum ita restituit Woelfflin : — 

Exaequant tumulis tumulos ac mortibus mortes 

accumulant. 

18 

Explanat. in Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 563, 32 K : Per genera 
verborum fiunt soloicismi, sicut — 

- spoliantur eos et corpora nuda relinquunt. 

pro ' spoliant.' 

Cp. Donat., ap. G.L., IV, 394, 8 K ; Pompei., ap. V., 291, 25 K. 



Non., 312 Enn. lib. II fusi ed. pr. v. Linds. ad loc. 
Bell. Hisp., 5, hie ut ait Ennius Woelfflin, Arch., VIII, 597 
fortasse scribend. hie tumulos tumulis, hie mortem morti . . . 



VARIA 

14 

Diomedes : ' Partipedes ' are lines in which to each single 
foot a single complete word is assigned, for example — " 

They with 
Bloodstains filthily spattered limpid rivulets tainted. 

15 

Nonius : ' Fundere,' to hurl down, to throw. Virgil in 
the first book of the Aeneid . . . and in the second book of 
the Aeneid * : ' sprawled they lay, out of their minds, their 
senses utterly gone.' 

16-17 

The author of The Spanish War : ' Hereon they not only 
heaped death on death . , . but piled barrows level with 
barrows.' 

Woelfflin restores a Jr. of Ennius : — 

They pile barrows by barroM's ; and deaths on 
deaths they heap. 

18 

A commentator on Donatus : ' Solecisms ' come about in 
misuse of the voices of verbs, like this example — 

Them they despoil and leave the bodies bare. 

where ' spoliantur ' stands for ' spoliant.' 

" Invented by the grammarian ? 

* Clearly the second quotation from Virgil — fusi per moenia 
Teucri has been ousted by fusi sine mente ac sine ullo sensu 
iacereni (Cic, in Verr., II, 5, 28). Both these passages and also 
Lucretius, III, 113 may echo a phrase of Ennius (Pascal, 
Riv. di jil. class., XXVI, 27), but it is obvious that we cannot 
restore a real fr. of Ennius here (Ilberg, Symb. Philol., Bonn., 
438). 

453 



ENNIUS 

19 

Marius Plotius, ap. G.L., VI, 468, 6 K : Synecdoche est 
oratio plus minusve dicens quam necessaria postulat sig- 
nificatio ... — 

rex ambas ultra fossam protendere coepit. 
Subauditur enim manus. 

20 

Porphyrio, ad Hor., A.P., 403 : Per versus hexametros 
reddidit responsa ... — 

Phemonoe Burro ! Cluo purpurei Epirotae. 

21-2 

Orosius, Hist., IV, 1, 14 ; Sed Pyrrhus atrocitatem cladis 
quam hoc bello exceperat dis suis hominibusque testatus est 
adfigens titulum in tempio Tarentini lovis, in quo haec 
scripsit — 

[Qui antehac invicti fuere viri, pater optime Olympi, 
hos ego in pugna vici victusque sum ab isdem.] 

Et cum a sociis increpitaretur cur se victum diceret qui 
vicisset, respondisse fertur : ' ne ego si iterum eodem modo 
vicero sine ullo milite Epirum revertar.' 

Cp. Paul. Diac, Hist., II, 16. 

23 

Festus, 570, 26 : ' Veruta pila ' dicuntur, quod <(velut 
verua) habent praefixa. Ennius li. X — 

cursus quingentos saepe veruti 

(Lucret., IV, 409 : vix etiam cursus quingentos saepe veruti.) 

2" V. St., fp. 91, 235-6. " qui invicti ante fuere Paul. 
*^ hos et ego Paul. 

" Taken as part of the oracle given to Pyrrhus of Epirus 
(Ann., Bk. VI, Valmaggi, pp. 50-51 ; Stowasser, W. Stud., 
XIII, 325 ff.), but it is almost certainly not even poetry at 
all; cf. St., pp. 235-6. The name Phemonoe (priestess at 
Delphi) does not occur before Pliny and Lucan. 

454 



VARIA 

19 

Marius : * Synecdoche ' comes abont when an utterance 
expresses more, or less, than the minimum of meaning which 
necessity demands . . . 

The king began to stretch both across the ditch. 

Here ' hands ' is understood. 

20 

Porphyrio, on ' didae per carmina soiies ' in Horace : Answers 
were made in hexameters by . . . — 

Pheraonoe to Burrus ! I hear the Epirote in purple 
clad." 

21-2 

Orosius, on the battle of Heraclea, 280 b.c. : But as for the 
atrocity of the slaughter which Pyrrhus sustained in this 
campaign, he bore witness to it before his own gods and 
before mankind by fixing up in the temple of Jupiter of 
Tarentum a notice in which he wrote these words — ' 

Best father of Olympus, men in war 
Unbeaten, beat I them, by them was beaten. 

And when his allies angrily asked why he who had beaten 
his enemies said he was himself beaten, he is stated to have 
answered, ' Sure it is that if I beat them again in the same 
manner I shall return to Epirus without a single soldier.' 

23 
Festus : ' Pronged spears ' are so called because they are 
poLoted as it were with prongs. Ennius ' in the tenth book — 

Oftentimes five hundred castings of a pronged 
spear. 

' Orosius gives what is probably a prose translation which, 
being not far from poetry, was emended later to : Qui 
invidi antefuere viri, pater oplume Olympi hos et ego in pugna 
vici I'ictusque sum ab i»iem (Paul. Diac.) ; cf. St., pp. 23&-7. 

' But the phrase comes from Lucretius, IV, 409; all other 
phrases which Lucretius borrows from Ennius are in some way 
remarkable, but this is not. 

455 



ENNIUS 

24 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 447, 4 K : ' Parhomoeon ' fit cum 
verba similiter incipiunt, ut — 

Machina multa minax minitatur maxima muris 



25 

Nonius, 418, 3 : ' Urgere ' est premere, cogere. . . . Varro 
Antiquitate Rerum Humanarum — 

* Qua murum fieri voluit urgemur in unum.' 



26 

Glossa in cd. Adm., 472, Wim. Stud. (J. Huemer), II, 305 : 
Albus est tabula ubi scribebantur nomina illorum qui ad 
militiam recipiebantur, et si contigisset ut aliquis eorum 
fuisset interemptus, apponebatur super nomen illius theta 
littera, quae mortem significat. . . . Ennius versificatur 
optimus — 

O multum ante alias infelix littera theta! 

Cp. Isid., Ofig., I, 3, 8 (. . . de qua quidam e. q. s.) ; Schol., 
ad Pers., S., IV, 13) (. . . quidam ait e. q. s.). 



27 

Barth, ad Achill. Tat., I, 558 (' Schd: ad A.T., I, 558) 
• Carbasus ' navis, a velo, ut Ennius — 

Carbasus alta volat pandam ductura carinam. 

Cp. Vergil., G., II, 445 pandas . . . carinas. 



** minitatur V minatur cdd. 



VARIA 

24 

Diomedes : ' Parhomoeon ' comes about when words begin 
with the same letter ; for example— " 

A most mighty menacing machine menaces much 
the muniments. 

25 

Nonius : ' Urgere ' means to press, to force. . . . Varro, 
in Human Antiquities — 

Where he has willed the wall to be, therein are 
we squeezed in a mass.* 

26 

A gloss : ' Album ' means a tablet in which were written 
the names of those who were recruited for military service; 
and if it so happened that any one of them had been killed, 
the letter theta was added above his name. . . . That most 
excellent verse-writer Ennius ' has — 

O theta, you letter unluckier far than others ! 



27 

Barth professes to quote a scholiast : ' Carbasus,' a ship, 
derived from its use as a sail ; for example, Ennius — "^ 

High flits the flaxen sail, that will lead on the 
curved keel. 

" Surely invented by the grammarian. It has been referred 
to Marcellus at Syracuse — V., in Sitzungsber. B. Aknd., 1899, 
269 ff. 

* Possibly from the outburst of Remus against Romulus. 

' Possibly ; but Isidore and a scholiast on Persius attribute 
the fr. to quidam. The Greek letter (for eavaro?, ' death ') 
occurs on Roman gravestones. 

" See p. 448, n. n ; Norden, 78. 

457 



ENNIUS 

28 

Varro, L.L., VII, 33 : Ennius scribit . . . una — 

trabes remis rostrata per altum. 
Ennius (Med., 246-7). 

29 
Varro, L.L., VII, 23 :— 

Ferme aderant ratibus repentibus aequore in alto. 

Aequor mare appellatum. . . . 

30 
Varro, L.L., VII, 46 : Apud Ennium . . . cata acuta ... — 
Tunc coepit memorare simul cata dicta 
aceipienda acuta dicta. 

31 

Earth, Advers., XXVIII, 15 (' ex m. s. optima ') : Bonus et 
liberalis eo diversi sunt quod bonus est qui per naturara suara 
non nocet; liberalis qui libenter prodest. . . . Ennius in 
teof— 

quod bonus et liber populus 



32 

Bartb, Advers., XXIII, 13 {ex m.s. gloss. Vergil, ad Aen. 
XII, 19): '0 praestans animi iuvenis ' . . . est vero ex 
f seno f Enni translatum. 



" Varro's words suggest that he takes his illustrations of 
una trabes from different sources, as he does just before in 
the case of una canes. 

458 



VARIA 

28 

Varro : Ennius writes . . . (' canes ' fern. sing. ; see pp. 
432-3) ' trabes ' feminine — 

with oars through the deep a beaked bark "... 

Then follows Ennius, Med., 246-7. 

29 

Varro : — 

They were well-nigh at hand in their ships that 
came creeping over the level deep.** 
' Aequor ' is a term used of the sea . . . 

30 

Varro : In a passage of Ennius . . . ' cata ' means sharp. 
... In the line ' which runs — 

Then at the same time he began to speak poinfed 
words 
by ' cata dicta ' we are to understand ' acuta dicta.' 

31 

Barth claimed to have found a fr. of Ennius in a ' very 
good MS.' : A ' good ' and a ' free ' man differ in that a good 
man is one who through his very nature does no harm, and a 
' free ' man is one who gives benefits in a ' free ' way. . . . 
Ennius — ■* 

which a people good and free 

32 

Barth claimed to have had access to a MS. note on Virgil's 
* youth of foremost valour ':...' it is further taken from 
Ennius ' — ' 

* Or, ' high seas.' This fr. sounds like Ennius. 
' Probably from Ennius, since it comes between two frs. 
of his Annah. 
■' See p. 448, n. a. 
' Ibid. 

459 



ENNIUS 

33-6 

Ausonius, Technopaegn., XIV, 3-4 : 

Ennius ut memorat replet te — 

laetificum gau, 

livida meus hominum concretum felle coquat pus. 

Ausonius, Technopaegn., XIV, 17-19 : 

Unde Rudinus ait — 

divum domus altisonum cael 

et cuius de more quod adstruit — 

endo suam do 

et de fronde loquens cur dicit — 

populea frus 

Cp. Charis., ap. O.L., I, 278, 24 K : Diomed., ap. I, 441, 
34'K: etc. 

37 

Commentator Cruguii, ad Hor., Ep., I, 13, 10 : ' Lamas ' 
lacunas maiores continentes . . . pluviam . . . Ennius — 

Silvarum saltus latebras lamasque lutosas 

38 

Festus, 468, 29 : ' Sagaces ' appellantur multi ac soUertis 
acuminis. . . . Lucretius lib. II (840) : Nee minus haec animum 
cognoscere * * * * etiam eanem * * * — 

Invictus can<^is nare sagax et vi)>ribus fretus 

*^"* Cp. Homer., //., I, 533 : els dAa aXro PaOeiav air'' aly- 
XTJevTOS ^OXvfiwou, Zevs 8e eov npos Sajfia. II., I, 426 : Aioy 
irorl x^'^Xxo^ares 8tD al. Cp. II. VIII, 564, al. : Kpl XevKov. 
Vergil., Aen., X, 101 : deum domus. Varrc, B.R., Ill, 
17, 10 : ille endo suam domum. Cp. Vergil., Aen., V, 134 : 
populea velatur fronde. Aen., X, 190. 

° Some do not believe that Ennius wrote these phrases, 
and Ausonius alone attributes them to him. They may have 

460 



VARIA 

33-6 

Ausonius : As Ennius • says — 

happy-making joll 

fills you; let the jaundiced minds of men distil gall-clotted 
pus. And again : How is it that the man of Rudiae says — 

home of the gods, high-sounding heav. 

and after whose manner is the phrase which he adds — 

into his dom 

or again, in speaking of a leaf, why does he say — 

poplar-fol 

37 

From a scholiast referred to by Cruquius : ' Lamas,' pools 
of the bigger sort containing . . . raLa- water. . . . Ennius — 

Glades and lurking-holes and muddy pools in the 
forests 

38 

Festus : ' Sagax ' is a term applied to persons who possess 
plenty of sharp cunning . . . even a hoimd ... — 

a matchless hound, cunning of nostril, trusting 
too in his strength * 

come in the Satires, in which case we might translate ' merry- 
making gladder,' ' high-soimding hewer,' ' into his digs ' 
or the like. But ' endo suam do ' looks like a borrowing 
from Homer where words like this occur (see opposite). 
In No. 36 /rw-s is fruns (Oscan — cf. fr. 241) and is probably 
genuine, though some read fros. Any attempt at translating 
these frs. makes one inclined to associate them with the 
Satires and not with Annals. 

* This fragment has long been attributed to Ennius, but 
his name does not appear in Festus' defective text. 

461 



ENNIUS 

39 

Censorinus, ap. G.L., VI, 615, 18 K : Duodecasyllabos 
spondiazon — 

OUi crateris ex auratis hauserunt. 



40 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 447, 16 K : Homoeoptoton fit cum 
oratio excurrit in eosdem casus et similes fines, ut Ennius — 

maerentes flentes lacrumantes commiserantes 

Cp. Chans, ap. G.L., I, 282, 13 K, etc. 

41 

Auctor, ad Herenn., IV, 13, 18 : Compositio . . . con- 
servabitur ... si non utemur continenter similiter caden- 
tibus verbis hoc modo — 

flentes plorantes lacrumantes obtestantes 

42 

Columna, 498 : ex antiq. gloss, affert tanquam Enniana — 

regredi gressum 

43 

Varro, L.L., VII, 25 : Cornua a curvore dicta, quod pleraque 
curva — 

Musas quas memorant nosces nos esse <(Camenas). 

Camenarum priscum vocabulum ita natum ac scriptura est 
alibi. Carmenae ab eadem origine sunt declinatae. 

*' Musas S ac quas Varr. nosce Varr. nosces nos 
esse (Camenas) Jordan supjdoid. potius Casmenas vd 

Carmenas Musas quas memorant nos noscimus Casmenas 
coni. St. trib. Enn. S, Naev. Mr. 

462 



VARIA 

39 

Ceusorinus : A spondaic hexameter " of twelve syllablea — 
Deep they drank their draughts from gold- 
encrusted wine-bowls. 
40 

Diomedes : ' Homoeoptoton ' comes about when the words 
all finish in the same case and have a like ending ; for example, 
Ennius — * 

mourning, sobbing, weeping, pitying 

41 

The author of To Herennius : ' Good composition ' . . . 
will be preserved ... if we do not use a continuous series of 
words which end in a like sound, in this way — 

sobbing, imploring, weeping, protesting 

42 

Colonna professes to quote a fragment of Ennius from an 
ancient commentator :— 

To restep one's step 

43 

Varro : ' Comua ' is a term derived from crookedness, 
because most ' comua ' are crooked — 

You shall know that we whom men call the Muses 
are Camenae.*^ 

This is the origin of the archaic word Camenae, and we find 
it spelt elsewhere by writers. The form Carmenae is derived 
from the same original. 

" Invented by Censorinus ? 

* This fr. is probably an invention. Cf. V., p. 103. 

« This has been taken as the second line of the Annals 
(Y., p. 1 and CXLVI-CXLVII), and as the second line of 
Xaevius' Bellum Punicum. It is clear from Varro that we 
must supply Casmenaa or Carmenas and take the words as 
prose (?) of unknown authorship. St., p. 234. 

463 



ENNIUS 

44 

Donatus, ap. G.L., IV, 401, 14 : ' Tmesis ' unius conpositi 
aut simplicis verbi sectio, una dictione vel pluribus interiectia, 
ut . . .— 

Massili portabant iuvenes ad litora tanas 

hoc est . . . ' Massilitanas.' 

Cp. Pompei., ap. G.L., V, 310, 3 K. 

" Probably an invention. It follows ' cere comminuit brum ' 
of Ennius (see p. 451). I remember that when I was still a 
schoolboy I said to myself — I would have written ' Portabant 



464 



VARIA 



ii 



Donatus : ' Tmesis ' is the splitting up of one simple or 
composite word by thrusting in one or more utterances; for 
example . . . — • 

Massili- by young men were transported to the 
beach -tans " 

that is, ' Massilitans.' 

iuvenes ad litora Massilitanas.' So would Ennius the man 
unless he did it in a Satire. Pompeius says that by Massil- 
itantie, ' Is^onae ' (bottles) are meant. Perhaps the bottles 
were empty and broken. 



465 
VOL. 1. H H 



CAECILIUS STATIUS 



HH 2 



CAECILIUS STATIUS 

AETHRIO 
1 

Festus, 202, 18 : ' Orao ' extremae partes terrarum. 
Caecilius in Aethrione usus est pro initio rei cum ait — 

Oram reperire nullam qua expediar queo. 



NoniusJ 536, 8 : ' Prosumia,' navigii genus. Caecilius. . 
Aethrione — 

De nocte ad portum sum provectus prosumia. 



Festus, 602, 8 : ' Sentinare,' sat agere, dictum a sentina, 
quam multae aquae navis cum recipit periclitatur ... — 

Cum Mercuric capit consilium postquam sentinat I 

satis. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 503, 3. 



^ quaSpengel qua me Carrie quamcd. expediar W 
expediam cd. 

* a portu Quich. profectus Lu. al. provectus rell. 

468 



CAECILIUS STATIUS 

THE ETHEREAL" 
1 

Festus : ' Orae ' is a term applied to the outermost parts of 
lands. . . . Caecilius in The Ethereal used the term ' ora ' for 
the outset of a thing when he wrote — 

I can't find a shore to start from. 



Nonius : ' Prosumia,' a kind of ship. Caecilius ... in 
The Ethereal- 
ly night I was carried on my spy-boat into port. 



Festus : ' Sentinare,' to have one's hands full. It is a 
term derived from 'sentina' (bilge- water); when a ship that 
gathers * much water takes in bilge, it is in danger ... — 

After he was sick of trying ' all hands to the 
pjiimp ' "^ he took advice with Mercury. 

" Possibly a play in which Jupiter and other gods (Mercury ? 
fir. 3) were introduced as characters. Cf. Plautus' AmpMtruo. 

* multae aquae may mean ' of large tonnage,' ' low in the 
water.' 

' Paulus explains sentinare as ' sat agere, derived firom a 
ship's bilge which one strives to empty out to ease the ship of 
water.' 

469 



CAECILIUS 



Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 386, 17 K : Apud veteres reperimus 
t id quod nolumus, non vultis f ut est in Aethrione apud 
Caecilium — 

- actutum, voltis, empta est ; noltis, non empta est. 



Festus, 178, 5 : Panurgus Antonius haec ait : ' Numero ' 
nimium cito, celeriter nimium. ... — 

(A) Ei perii! (B) Quid ita? (A) Numero venit. 
(B) Fuge domum ! 



ANDRIA 

6 
Nonius,152, 18 : ' Putidum,' putre. . . . Caecilius Andria — 
Conducit navem putidam. 

ANDROGYNOS 



Festus, 548, 19 : ' Taenias ' Graecam vocem sic interpretatur 
Verrius ut dicat omamentum esse laneum capitis honorati, 
ut sit apud Caecilium in Androgyne — 

sepulchrum plenum taeniarum ita ut solet. 

Diamed. 386 id quod non vultis noltis edd. vlt. Caeci- 
lium Statium co7ii. Becker Lucilium activiim cdd. (ac- 
tutum Monac. m. 2) sedud. activiim edd. 

* peril vulg. peri cd. domum cd. modo coni. 
Kiessling 

Non. 152 Andreia Dziatsko andrea cdd. fortasse recte 

• putidam Flor. 2 (3 ?), edd. putridam cdd. 

470 



PLAYS 



Diomedes : In the works of old writers we find ' noltis ' ; 
for example, the passage in The Ethereal of the works of 
Caecilius — 

Quick, gentlemen! Will ye? — Done! She's 
bought. Nill ye ? She's not. 



Festus : Pannrgus Antonius writes as follows : ' Xumero,' 
very quickly, very swiftly . . . — 

(A) Hey ! I'm done for ! (B) ^\hy so ? (A) He has 
come so \ery quickly." (B) Run away home ! 

THE ANDRIAN* WOMAN 

6 

Nonius : ' Putidum,' the same as ' putre.' . . . Caecilius in 
The Andrian Woman — 



He hires a rotten ship. 



THE MAN-WOMAN" 

7 

Festus : ' Taeniae,' a Greek word, is explained by Verrius 
to mean a woollen adornment of an honoured head, as is the 
case in a passage of Caecilius in The Man-Woman — 

a tomb covered with headbands, as is the custom. 

" ' Numero ' here may have its other meaning of ' at this 
very moment,' ' just now.' 

* Probably from Menander's play 'AvSpi'a, but it is not certain 
whether the title is Aiidria or Andreia {' Bravery '). 

■^ From Menander's 'AvSpoywos ? 



CAECILIUS 



Festus, 460, 12: ' Stolidus,' stultus. . . . Caecilius ... in 
Androgyne — 

Sed ego stolidus ; gratulatum med oportebat prius. 



ASOTUS 

9 
Nonius, 517, 10 : ' Desubito.' . . . Caecilius Asoto — 

Nam ego duabus vigiliis transactis duco desubito 
domum 

10 

Nonius, 258, 11:' Callet ' etiara dictum a callositate. ... — 

Tu iam callebis, ille festus desidet. 

11 

Nonius, 471, 11 : ' Populat.' Est et passivum popu- 

latur. ... — 

iamdudum depopulat macellum 

12-13 
Nonius, 474, 2 : ' Mutuet,' mutuum suraat. ... — 

(A) Ad amicos curret mutuatum. (B) Mutuet 
mea causa. 

Fest. 460 Androgyno Augustin. Andronico cd, 

* med oportebat Bothe tibi me oportebat Umpfenbach 
(oportebat Augustin.) me * ♦ * oporteat cd. 

• nam cdd. earn S duco cdd. ducor quid. ap. ed. 
Bos. 

*• tu ed. princ. tun Ribb. turn cdd, festum 

Palmer. (Spic.) fessus Bothe 

472 



PLAYS 



Festua : ' Stolidus,' silly. . . . Caecilius ... in The Man- 
Woman — 

But I'm a blockhead I I ought to have wished you 
joy before now. 

THE DEBAUCHEE" 

9 
Xonios : ' Deaubito.' . . . Caecilius in The Debauchee — 

For I took her home on a sudden when the second 
watch was done 

10 

Nonius : ' Callet.' This word also has a meaning derived 
from callosity ... — 

You will now become a hardened sinner and he 
will sink low * by his merry-making. 

11 

Nonias : ' Populat.' There is also a deponent form 
' populator.' ... — 

He has long been pillaging the butchers' shops. 

12-13 
Nonius : ' Mutuei,' let him take as a ' mutuum,' or loan. . . — 

(A) He'll run to friends to get a money-loan. (B) 
Let him get a loan for me. 

" Cp. 'AacoTos of Timostratus and 'Aaon-oi of Antiphanes 
and of Eutyches. 

* sc. in morals. Cp. desidentes mores, Livy, praef., 9. 

is-is mutuet causa mea Quich. 

473 



CAECILIUS 

14 

Nonius, 507, 5 : ' Edim ' pro edam. ... — 

Parasifus 
Nihilne nihil tibi esse quod edim ? 

15 
Nonius, 474, 35 : ' Opino ' pro opinor . . . (475, 6) . . . — 
Nil fore opino inter me atque ilium. 

16 
Nonius, 139, 18 : ' Meritissimo.' . . . — 
Meritissimo hie me eiecit ex hac decuria ! 

CHALCIA 

17 

Nonius, 464, 21 : ' Parere ' etiam viros dici posse Caecilius 
auctor est Chalciis — 

Ait hie vicinus se eas peperisse et vobis datum. 

Id prudenter mutuatum ab Homero : avrap rXavKos eTiKrev 
dfivfiova BeXXepo<f>6in-rjV (II., VI, 155), 

18 

Nonius, 491, 23 : ' Soniti ' et ' sonu ' pro sonitus et sono. 
. . . Caecilius Chalciis — 

Num quidnam fores fecere soniti ? 

Non. 464 Chalciis Spengel Calchis cdd. 

1 ' ait Grauert sat cdd. at Spengel at ait Mr. 

scit Havet se eas peperisse lun. se has Buecheler 

asses olim Ribb. peperisset Ribb. se asperisse cdd. 

(asperasse Par. 7666, Lugd., Bamb.) et cdd. id Mr. it 
coni. Linds. alii alia : cf, Ribb., Com, Fr., 38-9 

474 



PLAYS 
14 

Nonius : ' Edim ' for ' edam.' ... — 

Sponger 
What, you've got nothing, nothing for me to eat ? 

15 
Nonius : ' Opino ' for ' opinor.' ... — 
There'll be nothing doing, I think, between him 
and me. 

16 
Nonius : ' Meritissimo.' ... — 

He's chucked me out of that tithing and it serves 
me jolly well right ! 

THE COPPERSMITHS' HOLIDAY" 

17 

Nonius : ' Parere.' That this verb can be used of a man we 
have the authority of Caecilius in The Coppersmiths^ Holiday — 

This neighbour of yours says he gave birth to them, 
and the gift has been made to you.* 

This usage is skilfully borrowed from Homer : * But 
Glaucus gave birth to blameless Bellerophon.' 

18 

Nonius : * Soniti,' genitive, for ' sonitus ' and ' sonu ' for 
* sono.' . . . Caecilius in The Coppersmiths' Holiday — 

Has there been any knocking at the doors ? 

■ Cf. Menander's XoAjceia. The scene would be Athens. 
* An obscure fragment ; the readings are uncertain. 

^* num Grauert nam cdd. nam quid Bo the nam 
quid iam vel n. q. nunc Spengel 

475 



CAECILIUS 



CHRYSION 

19-21 

Gellius, VI, 17, 3 5.: Quis adeo tarn linguae Latinae ignarus 
est quin sciat eum dici ' obnoxium ' cui quid ab eo cui ease 
obnoxiusdiciturincommodariet noceripossit. . . (13) Caecilius 
... in Chrysio ... — 

[Coquus] 

. . . quamquam ego mercede hue conductus tua 
advenio, ne tibi me esse ob earn rem obnoxium 
reare ; audibis male si male dicis mihi. 



DARDANUS 

22 

Nonius, 392, 15 : * Spissum ' significat tardum. . . . 
Caeciliua Dardano — 

Nihil Spei credo : omnis res spissas facit. 



DAVOS 

23 

Festus, 284, 24 : ' Probrum,' stuprura, flagitium. . . . 
Caecilius in Davo — 

Ea tum compressa parit huic puerum, sibi probrum. 



*^ dixis ed. Gronov. {rede ?) 

** nihil ego spei credo LuG. Harl. 2 al. 
Bern. 83 al. nil re ego spe credo Mr. 
Lands. 

476 



nihil rei e. c. Gen. 
nihil spei ego credo 



PLAYS 

CHRYSION '^ 

1&-21 

Gellius : Who is so very ignorant of the Latin language 
that he does not know that ' obnoxius ' is a term applied to a 
man to whom some disadvantage or hurt can be caused by 
the man to whom he is said to be ' obnoxius.' . . . Caecilius 
in Chrysion ... — 

[Cook] 

Although your wages hired me to come here, 

Do not supfwse that puts me at your mercy. 

Call me bad names — vou'U hear bad names from 



me 



DARDANUS « 

22 

Nomas : ' Spissum ' means slow. . . . Caecilius in 
Dardanus — 

I've no belief in Hope; she befogs everything. 



DAVUS «* 

23 

Festus : ' Probrum,' disgrace, shame. . . . Caecilius in 
Davus — 

She then was forced and bore, to him a son, to 
herself disgrace. 

" A woman's name. There is no corresponding Greek title, 
but cp. XpiHTij of Antiphanes. 

* Or, ' if you give me a bad character, you'll get one too.' 

' From Menander's AdpSoj'oj. 

■' Davo may be a corruption of Dardano. 

477 



CAECILIUS 

DEMANDATl 

24 

Nonius, 123, 33 : ' Icit ' significat percutit, ab ictu. . . • 
(124, 7) Caecilius Demandatis — 

Si umquam quisquam vidit queni catapulta aut 
balista icerit, 

EPHESIO 

25-6 

Nonius, 1,2: ' Senium ' est taedium et odium. . . . 
Caecilius in Ephesione — 

Turn in senectute hoc deputo miserrimum, 
sentire ea aetate eumpse esse odiosum alteri. 

Cp. Cic, de Sencct., 8, 25. 

EPICLEROS 

27-8 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 354, 7 K : Apud antiquos hie et 
haec memoris it hoc memore profercbatur, in quo testis est 
Caper antiquitatis doctissimus inquisitor. Ostendit enim 
Caecilium in Epiclero sic protulisse — 

Itane Antipho est inventus profluvia fide .'' 
Itanest inmemoris, itanest raadida memoria ? 

Cp. Prise., ap. 235, 13 K. 

Non. 1 Ephesione tum cdd. Ephesio nae tum Spengel 
Hephaestione lun. 

^^ tum <equidem> in s. Ribb. senecta Cic. 

^* eumpse esse o. Fleckeisen ipsum esse odiosum Bothe 
eumpsum coni. Linds. eum ipsum esse o. Non. esse 

odiosum se vel sim. cdd. Cic. 

478 



PLAYS 

THE WARDS 

24 

Nonius : ' Icit ' means ' strikes,' derived fix>m ' ictus. . . 
Caecilius in The Wards — 

If anyone has ever seen a man 
Struck by a balister or catapult, 

EPHESIO « 

25-6 

Nonius : ' Senium ' means loathing and dislike. . . . 
Caecilius in Ephesio — 

And then this is what I think is the >\Tetchedest 
thing in old age — when a man feels that at that time 
of life he himself is an object of loathing to his 
neighbour. 

THE HEIRESS" 

27-8 

Priscianus : In the works of archaic writers we find ' memor ' 
usefl in the form ' memoris,' masculine and feminine singular, 
and ' memore ' neuter. In this we have a witness in Caper, 
a most learned researcher into archaic lore ; for he shows that 
Caecilius used this form in The Heiress — 

Is this true ? Is Antipho found to be a slippery 
customer? Is he really so unremembering ? Is his 
memory so sodden ? 

" From Menander's 'E^e'aior ? But the nominative Ephesio 
suggests another play. 

* Several Greek writers wrote a play having this title. 

*' est inventus Bo the inventus cdd. 354, 235 in- 
venitur Spengel ex cdd. duobua 354 

479 



CAECILIUS 

29 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 514, 15 K : Invenitur tamen etiam 
claudeo. . . . Caecilius in Epiclero — 

An ubi vos sitis, ibi consilium claudeat ? 

Cp. Thes. nov. Lat. ap. Mai, Class. And. VIII, 107, 142. 

EPISTATHMOS 

30 
Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 334 : ' Hie ' et ' haec celer ' vel 
celeris ' et 'hoc celere.' . . . Caecilius in Epistathmo — 

Si properas, escende hue meam navem ; ita celeris est. 

EPISTULA 

31-2 
Festus, 100, 3 : ' Mantare ' saepe manere. Caecilius in 
Epistola — 

(A) 
lamne adeo ? Manta ! 

(B) 
lam hoc vide ; caecus animum . . . 
. . . adventus angit. 

33 
Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 229, 10 K : ' lovis ' nominativo 
quoque casu invenitur. Caecilius in Epistula — 

nam novus quidem iam deus repertus est lovis 

*• an u. V. s. i. Prise. an ut sciatis ubi Thes. 107 vos 
nescitis ubi Thes. 142 

Prise. 334 Epistathmo Spengel episathomo vel sim. cdd. 

^* escende vel exscende Gulielmus extende cdd. 

*^ iamne cd. iamauo Bothe iam me Aid. caecu's 
coni. Ribb. 

*^-^ lacun. viginti fere litt. swpfl. Leo : incertat metus ten 
patris fortasse i. a. m. i. h. v. | c. a. a. a. 
480 



PLAYS 

29 

Priscianus : The form ' claudeo ' is found. . . . Caecilius 
in The Heiress — 

Is it really true that wherever you happen to be, 
there falters all wise counsel ? 

THE QUARTERMASTER" 

30 
Priscianus : ' Celer ' or ' celeri* ' masctdine and feminine, 
celere ' neuter. . . . Caecilius in The Quartermaster — 

If you are in a hurry, climb up here on board my 
ship, she is so fast. 

THE LETTER* 

31-2 

Festus : ' Mantare ' often means ' manere.' Caecilius in 
The Letter— 

(A) 
WTiat, so soon ? Wait ! Wait ! 

(B) 
Look at that now ! Blind in his wits. . . . His 
approach chokes him. 

33 

Priscianus : ' lovis ' is also found a« a nominative case. 
Caecilius in The Letter — 

for there was found then a new god Jove '^ 

" Or, ' The Loflger.' Cp. "ErriaTa^/ios of Poseidippus. 

* Cp. Alexis' EttiotoA^. 

* Or, ' Jove was then indeed found to be a new god.' 



" novus quidem cdd. iam add. Brugmann nobis 

equidem Ribb. (equidem Osann) nobis quidem novos re- 
pertu's lovis deus olim Ribb. 

481 
VOL. I. II 



CAECILIUS 

EXHAUTUHESTOS 

34^5 

Donatus, ad Ter., Adelph., IV, 5, 34 : ' Praesens praesenti 
eripi.' Adiuvant significationem haec ex abundant! addita 
... sic Caecilius in Exhautuhestoti — 

. . . haec caterva plane gladiatoria 
cum suum sibi alius socius socium sauciat. 

EXUL 

36 

Xonius, 75, 21 : ' Abscondit ' pro abscondidit. Caecilius 
Exule — 

nam hie in tenebris intus sese abscondit. 

37 

Nonius, 369, 29 : ' Putare,' animo disputare. . . . Caecilius 
Exule — 

- non haec putas, non haec in corde versantur tibi ? 

FALLACIA 

38-9 
Nonius, 51 1,27: ' Aliquantisper.' . . . Caecilius in Fallacia — 

Nam si illi, postquam rem paternam amiserant, 
egestate aliquantisper iactati forent, 

Ex Hautu Estos, i.e. 'E| avroC iarm (non 'Ektos av. e.) 
Spengel Donat. : Caelius vel Celius cdd. Exhautuhestoti 
Spengel Eratosthene vulg. in exatostoti Garul 

mexato scoti Dr. in hesatoshetim Lugd. 

** plane Lindenbrog plena cdd. 

Xo7i. 75 abscondidit p. abscondit Flor. 1 

482 



PLAYS 

WISE IX HIS OWN CONCEIT « 

34-5 

Donatus, on ' In person snatched from him in person ' in 
Terence : These words, added redundantly, reinforce the 
meaning ... so Caecilius in Wise in his orcn Conceit — 

This is plainly a crowd of gladiators, where each 
ally wounds his own ally. 



THE EXILE* 

36 

Nonius : ' Abscondit ' for ' abscondidit.' Caecilius in 
The Exile— 

for this fellow hid himself away inside, in the 
darkness. 

37 

Nonius : ' Putare,' to dispute in the mind . . . Caecilius in 
The Exile— 

Hayen't you a thought for all this.- Don't you 
turn it oyer and oyer in your heart } 



THE FRAUD « 

38-9 
Nonius ; ' Aliquant isper.' . . . Caecilius in Th£ Fraud — 
For if they were to be flung about for a while by 
Want after they had sqaundered their heritage, 

" This title is uncertain; but I adopt Spengel's reading. 
"E^ avTov eoTtis. This might mean The Self-made Man. 
* Cp. Alexis' Ouyds and Philemon's "AnoXis. 
' Several Greek writers composed a KarailievSofievos- 



'* abscondidit Lu. '* amisenmt coni. Ribb. 

483 

ii2 



CAECILIUS 

40-1 

Nonius, 512, 1 : ' Duriter ' pro dure. ... — 

(A) Nam quam duriter 
vos educavit atque asperiter ! 

(B) Non negat. 

42 

Nonius, 127, 22 : ' Incursim ' pro celeriter. ... — 

NuUus sum nisi meam rem iam omnem propero 
incursim perdere, 

43-4 

Nonius, 430, 10 : ' Iniuria ' a contumelia hoo distat ; iniuria 
enim levior res est ... — 

Facile aerumnam ferre possunt si inde abest inuria; 
etiam iniuriam, nisi contra constant contumeliam. 

45-6 

Nonius, 511, 27 : Aliquantisper. . . . — 

(A) Velim paulisper te opperiri. 
(B) "Quantisper ? 

(A) Non plus triduum. 

47 
Nonius, 147, 24 : ' Ossiculatim,' ut si minutatim. ... — 
Ossiculatim Parmenonem de via liceat legant. 

**~i nam. q. d. v. e. cdd. atque asperiter Bothe 

aspereque S atque aspere cdd. atque aspere vos 

educarit Grauert nam quin d. v. educarit Bothe 

" possunt cdd. possum Mr. 

484 



PLAYS 

40-1 

Nonius : ' Duriter ' for ' dure.' ... — 

(A) But how sternly and harshly he brought you 
up ! 

(B) He doesn't deny it. 

42 
Nonius : ' Incursim ' for quickly ... — 

It's all up with me, unless I make haste and 
squander all my wealth now by leaps and bounds. 

43-4 

Nonius : ' Iniuria ' differs firom ' contumelia ' in this — • 
injury is the slighter hurt ... — 

Men can easily bear hardship if there is no injury 
with it ; and they can bear even an injury, unless 
they have to face insults also. 

45-6 
Nonins : ' Aliquantisper.' ... — 

(A) I should like you to wait a while. 

(B) How long a while ? 

(A) Not more than three days. 

47 
Nonius : ' Ossieulatim,' as it were ' minutatim.' ... — 

Give them a chance to pick up Parmeno 
Bonemeal out of the road. 



*• constant LuG 2 al. Harl. 3 constat rdl. con- 

tumeliam cdd. contumelia Bothe si citra constat 
contumeliam C. Fr. Hermann 

485 



CAECILIUS 

48 
Nonius, 514, 7 : ' Pugnitus ' pro pugnis. ... — 
nisi quidem qui sese malit pugnitus pessum dari. 

GAMOS 

49 

Festus, 536, 18 : ' Toxicum ' dicitur cervari<um venenum, 
quo> quidam perungere 8agitta<8 soliti 8unt>. Caecilius 
Gamo — 

ut hom^inem . . .) toxico transegerit. 



HARPAZOMENE 

50 

Nonius, 155, 18 : ' Pulchritas ' pro pulchritudo. Caecilius 
Harpazomene — 

Di boni ! Quid illud est pulchritatis ! 



51 

Nonius, 200, 16 : ' Collus ' masculino ... — 

hunc collum Ludo praecidi iube ! 

*8 sese Guietus, Bothe se cdd. nisi quis est qui sese 
Madvig 
** hominem miserum S h. amoris Spengel 



486 



PLAYS 

48 
Nonius : ' Pugnitus ' for ' pugnis,' with fists ... — 
unless one who prefers a knock-out to perdition. 

THE MARRIAGE" 
49 

Festus : ' Toxicum ' is a term applied to a poison obtained 
from the deer- wort; with it some tribes have long been 
accustomed to smear their arrows. Caecilius in The 
Marriage — ■ 

so that he shot the fellow through with arrow- 
poison. 

THE ABDUCTED MAIDEN* 

50 

Nonius : ' Pulchritas ' for ' pulchritudo.' Caecilius in The 
Abducted Maiden — - 

Good heavens ! WTiat beauteousness is that ! 

51 

Nonius : ' Collus ' in the masculine ... — 

Order a cutlet of that neck to be carved for 
Sport ! 

" Ta/ioj was the title of plays written by Antiphanes, 
Diphilus, and Philemon. 

* From Philemon's Apwa^o/xeVij (-o/ievos). 

487 



CAECILIUS 

52-3 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 144, 19 K : ' Schema ' quasi mono- 
ptoton sit, proinde declinasse Caecilium in ' Apna^oixev^ 
denotatur — 

Utinam f tescioli t te schema sine cruribus 
videam. . , . 

pro schemate. 

54-5 

Nonius, 10, 10 : ' Inlex ' et ' exlex ' qui sine lege 
vivat ... — 

Quid narras barbare cum indomitis moribus, 
inlitterate inlex ? 

56 
Nonius, 128, 12 : ' Ineptitude ' pro ineptia ... — 
Qui, homo ineptitudinis cumulatus, cultum oblitus es ? 

57-8 

Donatus, ad Ter., Eun., IV, 4, 4 : ' Quid vestis mutatio.' 
. . . Caecilius ' Ap-rra^onevri — 

Quid tibi aucupatiost 
argumentum aut de meo amore verbificatiost patri ? 

Charts. 144: ' Ap-rra^ofievcu cd. 

^^ piseiculi Ribb. bestiolae Maehly to schema Ribb. 
te sine schema ed. pr. te servoli schema Buecheler 

utinam inquit tescioli schemata sine cd. te sciole istac 
schema olim Ribb. 

^* cum indomitis cdd. indomitis cum Ribb. 

*' inlex hist (hi sunt) Par. 7666 Lugd. Bamb. Tur. inlex 
hes Lu. 1 inlex Sisenna Hist. Mr. sequitur Sisenna lib. 

IV illex es Spengel 

** qui cdd. quid Mercier equi (ecqui) Ribb. qui 
tu Mr. cultum cdd. cultrum Bothe 

488 



PLAYS 

52-3 

Charisias : ' Schema.' Caecilius in The Abduded Maiden 
is observed to have inflected this word as though it were an 
indeclinable noun. He says — 

I wish I could see you without legs, in the shape 
of a little . . . 

where • * schema ' stands for ' schemate.' 



54-5 

Nonius : ' Inlex ' and ' exlei ' are terms applied to a man 
who lives without the law . . . — 

What's that you make such a savage tale of. you 
fellow of untamed manners, unlettered and un- 
lawed ? 

56 

Xonius : ' Ineptitudo ' for ' ineptia.' ... — 

You mound of ineptitude, how came you to forget 
good manners ? 

57-8 

Donatus, on ' What's the meaning of this change of dress ' 
in Terence: . . . Caecilius in The Abducted Maiden — 

Why should you be hawking after a proof? Why 
this wordification from your father about my love- 
affair ? 

* schema in the quotation is really ablative feminine singular. 



Donat. CeUus cdd. 

*• argumenti Par. Lugd. argumentum rdl. de meo 
amore cdd. {om. meo Gand.) 

489 



CAECILIUS 

HYMNIS 

59-60 

Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 383, 10 K : Quod vulgo ' obsepio ' 
dicimus veteres obsipio dixerunt. Caecilius in Hymnide — 

Habes 

Miletida ; ego illam huic despondebo et gnato saltum 

obsipiam. 

61 

Nonius, 135, 2 : ' Luculentitatem ' a luculento. Caecilius 
Hymnide— 

. . . Vide luculentitatem eius et magnificentiam ! 

62-3 

Nonius, 78, 30 : Blaterare. . . . Blandities ... — 

sine blanditie nihil agit 
in amore inermus. 

64 

Cicero, de Fin., II, 7, 11 : Reperiemus asotos . . . ita 
mortem non timentes ut illud in ore habeant ex Hymnide — 

Mihi sex menses satis sunt vitae ; septimum Oreo 
spondeo. 

•" Miletida Bothe mulierculam edd. vett. miletidam 
cdd. et gnato (nato vulg.) Spengel et ex nato vel tanto 
cdd. 

Non. 78 Blaterare. . . . <BIandities> nov. lemm. Onions 
non. prob. Linds. imnide sine Lu. 1 Flor. 2 Harl. 1 imnis 
desine GH2LS Hymnide Bentin. blanditie Harl. 

blanditiae rell. sine blaterare Victor sine blandirier 

Stowasser desine blanditias blaterare Osann 

490 



PLAYS 

HYMNIS « 

59-60 

Diomedes : ' Obsepio,' commonly used by us, was ' obsipio ' 
in the speech of antiquity. C'aecilius in Hymnis — 

You've got a Milesian girl. I am going to betroth 

her to this fellow and hedge my son in — he shan't 
be out of the wood.* 

61 

Nonius : ' Luculentitas ' from ' luculentus.' Caecilius in 
Hymnis — 

Look at her gorgeosity, her magnificence ! 

62-3 
Nonius : ' Blaterare ' (to blather) . . . ' Blandities ' . . . — 

A man in love, when he is all unarmed, 

Gets nothing done without some blandishment. 

64 

Cicero : We shaU find that debauchees . . . are so unafraid 
of death that they always have on the tip of their tongues that 
phrase from Hymnis — 

For me six months of life are enough ; the seventh 
I pledge to Death.*' 

" From Menander's 'T/ivij. For Lucilius on this play see 
Bergk. Phil., XIV, 390. Hymnis is a woman's name. Lines 
62-3 were probably spoken by a bawd ; 59-60, 67-9 by a 
father ; and 64-6, (69)-70 by his son. 

* This is our saying. For the Latin, cf. Plaut., Cos., V, 2, 
43 (922), uhi ilium saltum video d>saeptum. Men., V, 6, 25 
ex hoc saltu . . . ut educam. 

' Lucilius has a reminiscence of this line. See Remains, 
etc.. Vol. III. 

491 



CAECILIUS 

65 

Festus, 188, 7 : ' Nictare ' et oculorum et aliorum mem- 
brorumnisusaepealiquidconari dictum est abantiquis . . . — 

Garruli sine dentes iactent, sine nictentur perticis. 



Festus, 502, 30 : ' Senium,' a senili acerbitate et vitiis 
dictum, posuit Caecilius in Hymnide — 

Sine suam senectutem ducat usque ad senium sovbilo. 



67 

Festus, 284, 19 : ' Prodegeris,' consumpseris, perdi- 
deris ... — 

Prodigere est cum nihil habeas te inriderier. 



68-70 

Nonius, 134, 11 : ' Licitari,' congredi, pugnare ... — 

[Pater] Quae 
narrare inepti est ad scutras ferventis. 

[Filius] Quin machaera 
licitari adversum ahenum coepisti salens. 

** garruli sine dentes S garrulis medentes cd. 

'* usque Bentley utique cd. sorbilo Bentley sor- 
bito Spengel sonticum Grauert sorbitio cd. 

*' et Ribb. est cdd. te inriderier Dacier ted i. 

Nevius te inridicr cd. 

•• ad supjd. Ribb. (est ferventi scutra olim) alii alia 

cf. Bibb., Com. Fr. 46 

492 



PLAYS 

65 

Festus : ' Nictare ' (to blink) by a twitch of the eyes or some 
other part of the body, is a term often used by old writers 
for ' to try to do ' something. ... — 

Let the babblers ply their jaws, let them jerk 
along with their sticks. 



66 

Festus : ' Senium,' a term derived from the sourness and 
faults of old age, is used by Caecilius in Hymnis — 

Let him draw out his old age to dotage drop by 
drop. 



67 

Festus: ' Prodegeris,' you have wasted, squandered . . . — 

To be a spendthrift is to be laughed at 
When you have nothing left. 

68-70 

Nonius : ' Licitari,' to come to blows, to fight ... — 

[Father] It's a climisy clo\ni's game, telling all 
this to boiling dishes. [Son] Rather have you 
begun to make a bid against bronze with a sword — 
and you know it." 

" Presumably the father complains that it is useless to 
argue with his son, who replies that they are quarrelling on 
equal terms. Cp. our ' pot calling kettle black.' 

493 



CAECILIUS 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS (SUBDITROS) vel 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS CHAERESTRATUS vel 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS RASTRARIA 

Varro, R.R., II, 11, 11 : Neque non quaedam nationes 
harum (sc. caprarum) pellibus sunt vestitae . . . cuius usum 
apud antiques quoque Graecos fuisse oportet, quod in trag- 
oediis senes ab hac pelle vocantur 8i(f>6fplai, et in coraoediis 
qui in rustico opere morantur, ut apud Caecilium in Hypo- 
bolimaeo habet adulescens, apud Terentium in Hautonti- 
morumeno senex. 

Cicero, pro Rose. Atner., 16, 46 : Ecquid tandem tibi 
videtur, ut ad fabulas veniamus, senex ille Caecilianus minor- 
is facere Eutychum filium rusticum, quam ilium alteram 
Chaerestratum ? Nam ut opinor hoc nomine est. Alteram 
in urbe secum honoris causa habere, alteram rus supplicii 
causa relegasse ? 

71 

8chol. Gronov., ad loc. : Apud Caecilium comoediographum 
inducitur pater quidam qui habebat duos filios, et ilium, quern 
odio habebat, secum habebat, quem amabat, ruri dedit. 

Festus, 536, 4 : <Tugu>ria a tecto. Caecilius in 
Hypobolimaeo — 

Habita^bat * * * * tugurio pau) perculo 

'1 habitabat in tuguriolo pauperculo Ribb. tugurio sine 
operculo Ursinus t. nullo o. 0. Mr. 



" It will be seen from the following quotations that all 
these titles probably belong to one play adapted from 
Menander's 'YnopoXifiatos ^ 'AypoiKos, whereas The Changeling 
Aeschinus (see 603) was another play altogether. 

* sc, a play about country-life. 

« See note e. 

"* nom. sing. 8i<f>dfpias 

494 



PLAYS 

THE CHANGELING" or 

THE CHANGELING CHAERESTRATUS or 

THE CHANGELING, A PLAY OF THE HOE " 

Chaerestratus ' country-bred : 

Varro : There are too some nations who clothed themselves 
in the skins of goats . . . and this custom must have existed 
among the ancient Greeks also, because in tragedies old men, 
and in comedies men who pass their time in rustic tasks, are 
called ' leather-coated ' •* from the use of this kind of skin. 
In scenes of Caecilius' Changeling, for example, a young man 
wears one, and in scenes of Terence's Self-putiisher, an old man. 

The father of Chaerestratus and Eutychus : 

Cicero : Well now, to take an example from plays, do you 
really think that your old man in Caecilius thinks less highly 
of Eutychus his countrified son than his other son Chaeres- 
tratus ? That is his name, I believe.' Do you think he kept 
one of them at home with him in town as a token of favour 
and packed the other one off to the country to punish him ? 

71 

Gronovius' Scholiast on the preceding : In a play of the 
comedy- writer Caecilius there is brought on the stage a certain 
father who had two sons, and the one, whom he disliked, he 
kept at home with him and the one whom he loved he consigned 
to the country./ 

From the prologue ? 

Festus : ' Tuguria,' from ' tectum.' . . . Caecilius in The 
Changeling — 

He was dwelling in a poor little hut 

' I conclude from Festus, 186, 1 ff. and also from Quintil., 
I, 10, 18 that Cicero has interchanged the names, and that 
the country-reared son was Chaerestratus, and the town-reared 
son Eutychus. See pp. 496, 500. 

The scholiast in all probability does no more than conclude 
this from Cicero's words. Yet the scholiast's words odio 
habebat and the rest soimd rather like a septenarius. 

495 



CAECILIUS 

72 

Nonius, 147, 6 : ' Obsorduit,' obsolevit. Caecilius Hypo- 
bolimaco Rastraria — 

Obsorduit iam haec in me aerumna miseria. 



73-4 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 199, 17 K : 'Schema ' pro ' sche- 
mate.' . . . Caecilius in Hypobolimaeo — 

. . . filius ... in me incedit satis 
hilara schema. 

75 

Festus, 460, 12 : ' Stolidus,' stultus. . . . Caecilius in 
Hypobolimaeo — 

Abi hinc tu, stolide ; vis ille ut tibi sit pater. 

76 

Nonius, 178, 14 : ' Tetulit,' tulit. . . . Caecilius Hypo- 
bolimaeo — 

. . . aerumnam pariter tetulisti meam. 

Quintilianus, 1, 10, 18 : Apud Menandrum in Hypobolimaeo 
senex reposcenti filium patri velut rationem impendiorum 
quae in educationem contulerat opponens psaltris se et 
geometris multa dicit dedisse. 

''' obsorduit cdd. obsurduit (in lemm. quoque) Ribb. 

me cdd. mea Fleckeisen, recte ? iuvene Bothe 

Prise, 199 Hypobolimaeo Stephanus hippo vel sim. cdd. 

73-4 Filius meus eccum incedit in me sat vel f. m. in me 
incedit eccum s. Ribb. filius in med incedit Bothe hilari 
Bamb. Amien. hilaria Par. 7496 schema Par. 7496 

scema rdl. recte ? 

'* vis vel visne suppl. Ribb. die Buecheler ille Bothe 
iUic Augustin. illi cd. 

496 



PLAYS 

72 

Chacrestratus wants to return to his real father i" : 

Nonius : ' Obsorduit,' has worn out. Caecilius in The 
Changeling, A Play o/ The Hoe — 

By now within me has this hardship mouldered 
Through very misery. 

7a-4 

Aged peasant, guardian of the changeling Chaeresiratus : 

Priscianus : ' Schema ' for ' schemate.' . . . Caecilius in The 
Changeling — 

Here comes my son towards me in merr\- shape. 

75 
He is angry at Chaeresiratus^ desire to leave him ? : 
FestuB : ' Stolidus,' silly. . . . C&eciMu&m The Changeling — 
You get away from here, blockhead. It's he you 
want to be your father. 

76 

Chaeresiratus is not ungrateful ? : 

Nonius : ' Tetulit,' the same as ' tulit.' . . . Caecilius in 
The Changeling — 

You have borne my hardships equally with me. 

Seltlemenl between the peasant and the real father : 

Quintilian : In a scene in Menander's Changeling an old 
man " puts before a father, when he asks to have his son back, 
a kind of account of the expenses which he had incurred 
towards the boy's education, and says he has given many a 
fee to musicians and geometricians. 

" sc. not the son's father (senex ille Caecilianus in Cic. p. 494), 
but the peasant who was responsible for the upbringing of 
Chaerestratus. 

497 

VOI .1. K K 



CAECILIUS 

77 

Nonius, 40, 1 : ' Rabere ' dictum est a rabie. . . . Caecilius 
Hypobolimaeo Rastraria — 

Rabere se ait. 

78 
Nonius, 514, 31 : ' Iracunditer.' Caecilius Subditivo — 
Quaeso ne temere hanc rem agas ne iracunditer. 

79 

Nonius, 89, 14 : ' Coepere,' incipere. Caecilius Hypo- 
bolimaeo Rastraria — 

Ere, obsecro, hercle, desine, mane ; coepiam. 

80 

Nonius, 16, 14 : ' Lactare ' est inducere vel mulgere, vellere, 
decipere. . . . Caecilius Hypobolimaeo Rastraria — 

Quod prolubium, quae voluptas, quae te lactat 
largitas ? 

Cp. Ter., Adelph., V, 9, 28. 

81-2 

GeUius, XV, 9, 1 : Vere ac diserte Caecilius hoc in Sub- 
ditivo scripsit— 

Nam hi sunt inimici pessumi fronte hilaro corde 

tristi 
quos neque ut adprendas neque uti dimittas scias. 

Cp. Non., 205, 1-2. 



'* et ne cdd. et seclud. ed. princ. 

'* obsecro Spengel obscuro cdd. 

*" adprendas Non. adprehendas Gell. uti dimittas 

Spengel ut mittas Gell. (dimittas Mon.) ut vitare Flor 
3 Non. vitare rell. Non. 

498 



PLAYS 

77 

Nonius : ' Rabefe ' is a term derived from ' rabies.' . . . 
Caecilius in The Changeling, A Play of the Hoe — 

He says he's raving. 

78 

Nonius : ' Iracunditer.' Caecilius in The Changeling — 

Please don't dispatch this business heedlessly, no, 
nor angrily. 

79 ^ 

A slave is forced to speak out : 

Nonius : ' Coepere,' to begin. Caecilius in The Changeling, 
A Play of the Hoe— 

Oh, sir! Oh my! Please, stop it! Wait" — I'll 
begin. 

80 

Nonius : ' Lactare ' means to lead on or coax, fleece, cheat. 
. . . Caecilius in The Changeling, A Play of the Hoe — 

What whim, what pleasure, what openhandedness 
is it that's diddling you ? 

81-2 

Gellius : Correct and elegant is the passage of Caecilius in 
The Changeling — 

For the worst of foes are those that have bright 
faces, gloomy hearts, 

You don't know how to hold 'em and you cannot 
let 'em go.* 

"• Possibly the master's reply — ' Stay there ! I'm only 
just going to begin ! ' 

* Gellius proceeds to comment on frons used in the mas- 
culine gender, 

499 
KK 2 



CAECILIUS 

83 

Nonius, 176, 6 : ' Singulatim ' et ' singillatim ' a singulis. 
Caecilius Hypobolimaeo Rastraria — 

Hos singulatim sapere, nos minus arbitror. 



84 

Nonius, 505, 29 : ' Man tat ' pro manet. Caecilius Hypo- 
bolimaeo Rastraria — 

In voltu eodem, in eadem mantat malitia. 



85 

Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 132, 4 K : ' Hebem.' Caecilius in 
TnoPoXtfiaia) — 

subito res reddent hebem. 



86 

Festus, 376, 29: ' Ravim ' ...<... Caeciliu>8 in 
Hypo bolimaeo — 

prius <[quam * * ad ravim **>... citam feceris. 



87 

Festus, 186, 1 : ' Noxa ' peccatum aut pro peccato poena. 
. . . Caecilius in Hypobolimaeo Chaerestrato — 

Nam ista quidem noxa muliebre est magis quam viri. 

*^ nos s. s. non Bothe 

** reste reddent ed. princ. res te Bothe 

*' istaec Grauert muliebre est Bothe muliebris est 
Ursinus muliebrist 0. Air. mulierist Grauert mulie- 
brem et cd. mulieris magis quam viri est Meineke 

500 



PLAYS 

83 

Nonius : ' Singulatim ' and ' singillatim,' from * singuli.' 
Caecilius in The Changeling, A Play of the Hoe — 

Taken one by one " they are all wise, I think, but 
we are not. 



84 

Nonius: 'Mantat'for'manet.' C&ecilmava The Changeling, 
A Play of the Hoe- 
In the same look he keeps, in the same malice. 



85 
Charisius : ' Hebem.' Caecilins in The Changeling — 
The facts will promptly blunt his ardour. 

86 
Festus : ' Ravim.' . . . Caecilius in The Changeling — 
before you cause ... to hoarseness. 



87 

Festus : ' Noxa,' a sin or a penalty for sin. . . . Caecilius 
in The Changeling Chaerestratus — 

For that sort of harm is a thing more natural in a 
woman than in a man.* 

" Or, possibly ' they are singularly wise, we are not.' 
* Cp. Menand., Hyp., frs. 8 and 9. 



501 



CAEGILIUS 
AESCHINUS 

SIVE 

HYPOBOLIMAEUS AESCHINUS 

88 

Gellius, XV, 14, 5 : Sese pecunias inquit (sc. Q. Metellus 
Numidicus) maximas exactos esse. . . . Caeciliusque eadem 
figura Hypobolimaeo Aeschino usus videtur — 

Ego illud minus nihilo exigor portorium. 

Id est : nihilo minus exigitur de me portorium. 

Cp. Non., 106, 22. 

IMBRII 

89 

Nonius, 159, 5 : ' Pecua ' et ' pecuda ' ita ut pecora veteres 
dixerunt . . . (19) Caecilius Imbriis— 

et homini et pecubus omnibus 

90 

Festus, 220, 25 : ' Obstipum,' obliquum ... — 
Resupina obstipo capitulo sibi ventum facere tunicula. 

91-2 
Nonius, 188, 11 : ' Uter ' pro uterus ... — 

nunc uter 
crescit, non potest celari. 

8» pecubus vel pecudis Spengel pecudibus cdd. et 

et hominibus et pecudis Grauert 

»•• tunicula Ursinus cunicula cdd. 

502 ^ 



PLAYS 
AESCHINUS 

OR 

THE CHANGELING AESCHINUS « 



Gtellius : Quintus Metellus Xumidicus says that they had 
been exacted very large sums of money. . . . Caecilius seems 
to have used the same idiom in The Changeling Aeschinus — 

I none the less am exacted that customs-due. 

That is, ' none the less the customs-due is exacted from me.' * 



THE IMBRL\NS^ 

89 
Xonius : ' Pecua ' and ' pecuda ' are terms used by old 
writers in the same ways as ' pecora.' . . . Caecilius in The 
Imbrians — 

To man and all cattle 

90 
Festus : ' Obstipum,' slanting. ... — 
Lying on her back, her little head aslant, she fans 
herself with her little tunic. 

91-2 
Nonius : ' Uter ' for ' uterus.' . . . — 
Now her womb swells. It can't be hidden. 

» Clearly not the same play as the preceding. It is natural 
to suppose that if Caecilius wrote several plays on the subject 
of changeling children, he distinguished them in their titles. 

* Compare our ' He was given a book by me ' for ' a book 
was given him by me.' 

' Cp. Menander's 'l/ijSpiot, which was a play about two 
poor men of Imbros who married twin sisters (Oxyr. Pap., 
1235). 



CAECILIUS 

93 
Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 231, 13 K : ' Hie puerus ' . . . — 

Age age i puere, due me ad patrios fines decoratum 
opipare ! 

Cp. Thes. Nov. Lat. ap. Mai, CI. Auct., VIII, 390, 407. 

94-6 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 512, 24 K : ' Expergiscor ' exper- 
rectum facit ... — 

Surdo mihi 
suadet ut earn quisquam dormitum ? Et si ego 

obdormivero, 
tute idem ubi eris experrectus ? 

97 

Nonius, 194, 7 : ' Balneae ' generis feminini. . . . Caecilius 
in Imbris — 

Quid ? Mihi non sunt balneae ? 

98 

Nonius, 524, 18 : ' Turbam ' et ' turbas.' . . . Nos . . . 
invenimus . . . indiscrete positum et pro turbis turbam. . . . 
(525, 3) Caecilius in Imbriis — 

Mirum adeo nisi frater domi ebriatus turbam aliquam 
dedit. 

•3 age age i puere Carolir., Lugd. Bat. Orut., Sang., Vind. 
Prise. om. i rdl. Thes. 390, 407 age age puer Thes. 390 
puere puere 407 due Spengel ex uno cd. duce rell. 
Prise. deduc Thes. 390, 407 

**~* surdo mihi Fleckeisen mihi surdo vel dum sorbilo eoni. 
Ribb. sobrio Buecheler sordi vel sordo edd. pier. 

sordido ed. Ven. 1 sordida Lips. 1 dormitum suadet ut 
earn quisquam et s i ego obdormivero vel sim. edd. dormitum 
ut e. q. suadet Ribb. 



PLAYS 

93 

Priscianus : ' Puerus,' nominative masculine ... — 

Come come , boy , get along ! Escort me , smartened 
up" gorgeously, to the bounds of my father's estate! 

94-6 

Priscianus : ' Expergiscor ' . . . makes its perfect ' exper- 
rectus ' . . . — 

Is anyone coaxing me (I turn a deaf ear) to retire 
to sleep ? And in case I do fall asleep, when will 
yoti wake up, you ? 

97 

Nonius: ' Balneae,' of the feminine -gender. . . . Caecilius 
in The Imbrians — * 

WTiat's that ? Haven't I got baths ? 

98 

Nonius : ' Ttirba ' and ' turbae ' . . . We have found . . . 
the terms used without distinction and ' turba ' put for 
' turbae.' . , . Caecilius in The Imbrians — 

It will be just wonderful if my brother in a drunken 
frolic has not raised a riot at home. 

" Or, ' so that I can smarten up ' . . . 
* Or possibly we should accept the correction in the 
Florentine MS. which attributes their, to Sy^nephebi (p. 537). 



Non. 194 infoebis (= Synephebis) Flor. 3 Harl. 1 inimbris 
rdl. 

** ebriatus Buecheler ebrius cdd. alii alia 



OAEGILIUS 

99 

Nonius, 463, 1 : ' Grundire ' . . . etiam homiaum esse 
grunditum Caecilius Imbriis designavit — 

cruento ita ore grundibat miser. 

Cp. Diomed., ap. Q.L., I, 387, 22 K. 

KARINE 

100-1 

Festus, 388, 28 : ' Reluere,' resolvere, repignerare. Cae- 
cilius in Carine — 

. . . ut aurum et vestem, quod matris fuit, 
reluat, quod viva ipsi opposivit pignori. 

102-3 

Festus, 460, 8 : ' Stalagmium ' genus inaurium videtur 
significare Caecilius in Karine cum ait — 

turn ex aure eius stalagmium 
domi habeo. 

Cp. Paul., ex F., 461, 2. 

KRATINUS ? 

104-5 

Priscianus, ap. G.L., II, 282, UK: ' Concors, concordis.' 
Antiquissimi tamen solebant genetivo similem proferre 
nominati\Tim. Caecilius in Cratino — 

Modo fit obsequens hilarus comis 

communis concordis, dum id quod petit potitur. 

^•^ ipsa Augustin. opposivit S opposuit cd. 
Prise. 282 Carine Meineke Carino Bothe crastino 
Amien., Sang. cratino rell. 

506 



PLAYS 



99 



Nonius : ' Grundire.'. . . . Caecilius in The Imbrians has 
indicated that grunting can be used even of men — 

so loudly was the poor wretch grunting with his 
mouth all bloody. 



THE KEENER" 

100-1 

Festus : ' Reluere,' to release, to redeem from pledge. 
Caecilius in The Keener — ■ 

that he may redeem the gold and clothing which 
belonged to her mother and which, before she died, 
she deposited with me, no other, as a pledge. 

102-3 

Festus : ' Stalagmium.' By this word Caecilius in The 
Keener seems to mean a kind of ear-rings when he writes — 

and again I have at home an ear-drop from her ear. 

CRATINUS ? 

104-5 

Priscianus : ' Concors,' gen. 'concordis.' But the most 
archaic wTiters, in such compounds as these, used to employ 
the same form for the nominative as for the genitive. 
Caecilius in Cratinus'^ — 

Sometimes, when he is getting what he wants. 
He's cheery, kind, compliant, sociable. 
Agreeable. 

• ' The Carian Woman.^ From Menander's or from Anti- 
phanes' Kaplvrj. The name was used particularly of a woman 
hired to sing funeral songs called KapiKo. fifXt}. 

' Meinecke reads Carine, and this may be right. 



CAECILIUS 

MERETRIX 

106 

Nonius, 536, 68 : ' Prosumia,' navigii genus. Caecilius 
Meretrice— 

Cypro gubernator propere vertit prosumiam. 

107 
Nonius, 202, 12 : ' Candelabrum ' . . . masculini ... — 
. , . memini ibi candelabrum ligneum ardentem. 

NAUCLERUS 

108 

Nonius, 505, 35 : ' Audibo ' pro audiam. . . . Caecilius 
Nauclero — 

Nunc abeo ; audibis praeterea si dicis * filia redeat.' 

109 
Nonius, 126, 27 : ' Infelicent ' . . . — 
Ut te di omnes infelicent cum male monita memoria ! 

110 

Nonius, 12, 21 : ' Suppilare ' est involare vel rapere, a 
piloruniraptu, undeetfurtumpassi conpilatidicuntur. . . . — 

. . . subpilat vestem atque ornamenta omnia. 

^''* Cupro Buecheler cum ultro Ribb. cui pro cdd. 
(om. pro Par. 7665, Montepess., Ox.) 

^"^ ibi <fuisse> Ribb. (vel. <videre>) illic Grauert 

^"^ ab eo Buecheler dicis cdd. ditis Ribb. dices 
Buecheler si eius redeat filia olim Ribb. sed vin redeat 
filia ? Grauert 

Non. 126 ^infelicent Guietus infelicitent cdd. molita 

Par. 7665-6, Montepess., Ox., Lugd., Turic., Bamh. monita 
rell, infelicent male moenita Spengel 

508 



PLAYS 

THE HARLOT 

106 
Nonius : ' Prosumia,' a kind of ship. Caecilios in The 
Harlot — 

The helmsman hurriedly put about the spy-boat 
from Cyprus. 

107 

Nonius : ' Candelabrum ' ... of the masculine gender ... — 
I remember a M*ooden chandelier burning there. 

THE SHIPMASTER* 

108 

Nonius : ' Audibo ' for ' audiam.' . . . Caecilius in The 
Shipmaster — 

Now I'm going. You'll hear later on if you say 
' let the daughter come back.' * 

109 
Nonius : ' Infelicent ' . . . — 

Well, may all the gods unbless you, ill-informed 
memorj' and all I 

110 
Nonius : ' Suppilare ' means to make seizure of or snatch ; 
derived from the idea of pulling out ' pili ' (hairs). Whence 
to those who have sufiFered a theft the term ' conpilati ' 
(plucked, fleeced) is applied ... — 

The clothes and all the ornaments he plucks away. 

" From Menander's NaufcAijpos ? 

* The metre is anapaestic, apparently; but the words si 
dicis are doubtful. 

11" subpilat vestem vel s. v. aurum Onions suppilatum 
est aurum coni. Bothe suppilatum est aurum argentum 

atque Maehly (vestis atque coni. Ribb.) subpilatum est 

eum atque cdd. 



CAEGILIUS 

NOTHUS NICASIO 
111 

Nonius, 97, 25 : ' Decollare,' ex coUo deponere. Caecilius 
Notho Nicasione — 

Habes, vide ; tibi tradidi ; in tuo collo est. Decolles 
cave. 

112 
Nonius, 324, 34 : ' Iiico,'significatstatim, mox . . . — 
Ilico ante ostium hie erimus. 

113 
Nonius, 325, 6 : ' Ilico,' in eo loco ... — 
manete ilico ! 

OBOLOSTATES vel 
FAENERATOR 

lU 

Nonius, 508, 7 : ' Reperibitur ' pro reperietur. . . . Cae- 
cilius Obolostate — 

Nunc enimvero est cum meae morti remedium 
reperibit nemo. 

115-16 
Nonius, 279, 24 : ' Deponere ' est desperare ... — 

depositus modo 
sum anima, vita sepultus sum. 

1^^ vide <em> vel viden coni. Ribb. habes quidem Mr. 
Non. 508 Obolostate Mercier obolo cdd. 
11* animo coni Ribb. vita cdd. vivos Mr. sum 
scclud. Ribb. alii alia 



PLAYS 

THE BASTARD NICASIO « 

111 

Nonius : ' DecoUare,' to put down from the neck or 
' collum.' Caecilius in The Bastard Nkasio — 

It's yours, look! I've given it up to you; it's 
on your neck. Mind you don't unneck it. 

112 
Xonius : ' Ilieo ' means at once, soon ... — 
Straightway we'll be in front of the door, here . 

113 
Nonius : ' Ilico,' the same as ' in eo loco.' ... — 
Stay all of you on that very spot I 

THE MONEY-LENDER* 

114 

Nonius : ' Reperibitur ' for ' reperietur.' . . . Caecilius in 
The Money-Lender — 

Now is the time indeed when none shall find 
A remedy against my death. 

115-16 
Nonius : ' Deponere ' means to despair of . . . — 
Lately, though breathing, I have been laid out,'' 
Though living, have been buried. 

" Possibly from Philemon's Nd^oj. The title suggests that 
Caecilius wrote another play entitled simply ' The Bastard.'' 

* The two frs. assigned to The Hunter ? (pp. 544-7) ought 
perhaps to be included in this play. 

*■ *c. for burial. This is what Caecilius means, in spite of 
Nonius' interpretation. 

5" 



CAECILIUS 

117-18 

Nonius, 149, 27 : ' Peniculamentum ' a veteribus pars 
vestis dicitur. . . . Caecilius Feneratore — 

Volat exsanguis, simul anhelat 
peniculamentum ex pallio datur. 

119 

Nonius, 543, 20 : ' Pelvis,' sinus aquarius in quo varia 
pelluuntur ... — 

Pelvim sibi poposcit. 

120 

Festus, 416, 18 : <' Silicemium ' dicitur cena fu>nebris, 
quam <Graeci . . . TreplSeiTrvov vo>cant. . . . <Caecilius 
Ob>olostate — 

Credidi silicernium eius me esse esurum 
Cp. Paul., ex F., 417, 6. 

121-3 

Nonius, 277, 28 : ' Delica ' est aperi et explana. . . . 
Caecilius Obolostate — 

? 

Si linguas decern 
habeam, vix habeam satis te qui laudem, Lache. 

Laches 
Immo vero haec ante solitus sum. 

lies delicat. 
Cp. Non., 98, 7. 

'^' exsanguis Bothe sanguis cdd. 

1^* ex Linds. e Buecheler et pallio datur cdd. et 

palliolatur lun. tenet | palliolatim Ribb. c/. Com. Fr., 

corollar. XXIV-XXV 

Fest., 416 sujypl. ex Paid. 

^21 decern Bentin. dete cdd. 

512 



PLAYS 

117-18 

Nonius : ' Peniculamentum ' is a term used by old writers 
for part of a garment. . . . Caecilius in The Monty-Lender — 

Pale as a corpse he flies and puffing too ; 
A cloth trails out behind his cloak. 

119 

Nonius : ' Pelvis,' a water-bowl in which varions things 
are washed, or ' pelluuntur,' " hence its name ... — 

She demands a wash-basin for her use. 

120 

Festus : ' Silicemium ' is a term used of a funeral supper, 
which the Greeks . . . call irfpiS^nrvov .... Caecilius in 
TAe Money-Lender — 

I was sure I was going to eat his funeral-feast 

121-3 

Nonius : ' Delica ' means make clear and explain. . . . 
Caecilius in The Money-Lender — 



Even if I had ten tongues, I would hardly have 
enough to praise you with, Laches. 

Laches 
Not at all, surely. I've often done the same before. 

That's clear from the facts. 

" Of course this derivation is wrong. 
^** Lache Mercier ache cdd. ^*' res add. ex 98 

VOL. I. L L 



CAECILIUS 

124-5 
Nonius, 154, 10 : ' Populatim.' Caecilius Obolostate — 
Ego perdidi te, qui omnes perdo servolos 
populatim. Quaeso, ne ad malum hoc addas malum. 



PAUSIMACHUS 

126 
Nonius, 515, 24 : ' Rarenter.' Caecilius Pausimacho — 
Edepol voluntas homini rarenter venit. 

127 

Nonius, 548, 16 : ' Molochinum,' a Graeco, color flori similis 
malvae ... — 

carbasina molochina ampelina 

128-9 
Nonius, 127, 13 : ' lamdiu ' pro olim ... — 

[Meretrix] 
libera essem iam diu 
si istoc habuissem ingenio amatores mihi. 

130-1 
Nonius, 334, 2 : ' Limare ' etiam dicitur conixmgere ... — 

[Pater] 

Hoc a te postulo, 
ne cum meo gnato posthac limassis caput. 

^** perduo Bothe T)erdito coni. Ribb. perdo servolos 
Mr. 

^^* voluptas Palmer. ((Sptc.) ^** libera lun. liher cdd. 

*" s. i. h. i. Onions (si isto Mercier) si ston habuissem 
ingenio Flor. 3 om. h. i. Lu. h. i. siston G.Harl. 2 

Lu. 3 h. i. si sto L si stoc Roth si isto Mercier 



PLAYS 

124-5 
Nonius : ' Populatim.' Caecilius in The Money-Lender — 
I've ruined you, as I ruin all my little slaves 

in tribes. Please don't add this trouble also to my 

troubles. 

MAKEPEACE « 

126 

From the prologue ? : 

Nonius : ' Rarenter.' Caecilius in Makepeace — 
By heaven it is rarely that >villingness comes to a 
man. 

127 
Dress of a courtesan : 

Nonius : ' MolocLinum,' from a Greek word; a colour like 
the mallow-flower. ... — 

dresses of flax, mauve and vine-hued 

128-9 
She speaks to a father about his son : 
Nonius : ' lamdiu ' for once upon a time ... — 

[Courtezan] 
Free woman would I long ago have been 
If such had been the nature of my lovers. 

130-1 
The father addresses her : 
Nonius : ' Limare ' is also used for to join ... — 

[Father] 
This I demand of you — do not from now on rub 
heads with my son. 

Probably a proper name {' Stop-the-fight '), but poasibly 
m epithet. 

LL 2 



CAECILIUS 

PHILUMENA 

132 

Nonius, 197, 24 : ' Corbes.' ' Corbulas ' Varro de Re 
Rustica lib. I . . . Caecilius Philumena — 

qui panis solidi corbulam 

133 

Nonius, 304, 24 : ' Factio ' iterum significat opulentiam 
abundantiam et nobilitatem. . . . Caecilius Philumena — 

. . . ita eorum famam occultabat factio. 



PLOCIUM 

This play was based on Menander's nAo'/ctov, The Little 
Necklace, and appears to have had roughly the following plot : 
The daughter of a poor peasant was outraged one night by a 
kinsman ; neither recognised the other, and the girl kept her 
secret. The youth became betrothed to the girl whom he had 
outraged. Near the beginning of the play the guilty youth's 
father complains about Crobyle, his rich but ugly wife, to a 
neighbour. By her orders he had been forced to sell a pretty 
handmaiden whom his wife suspected of being his mistress. 
Meanwhile the daughter, who was with child secretly, was 
attacked by birth-pangs on the eve of her wedding with her 
betrayer. Parmeno, a good slave of her father's, heard her 
cries and wondered because it was now ten months since his 
master had moved in from the country and it was thought she 
had known no man since the move. He discussed the mystery 
with a friend. Inevitably the secret was revealed (though the 
author of the girl's shame remained unknown), and her 
father took Parmeno into his confidence. The youth, not 



"2 quid y coni. Mr, solidi Ribb. soli cdd. (recte ? 
gen.) 

Non. 304 Philumena ita eorum Grauert lata lun, 
altam Bothe filium in alta eorum cdd. (filumina ita Bern 

83) fortasse Caecilius Philumena * * * * idem Plocio 



PLAYS 

THE FIANCEE 

132 

Nonius : * Corbes.' Varro has ' corbulae ' in the first book 
on Farming. . . . Caecilius in The Fiancee — 

who brought a little basket of hard bread 

133 

Nonius : ' Factio ' again means opulence, abundance and 
nobility. . . . Caecilius in 7'he Fiancee — 

so well did their set " hide their bad report. 

THE LITTLE NECKLACE 

knowing that his betrothed was the girl he had himself ruined 
and that the baby was his, decided to repudiate her, and the 
wedding was stopped, but the girl's father decided to bring the 
matter into court. Then came the denouement — through a 
necklace the girl and the youth recognised each other as the 
parents of the baby; the betrothal was renewed, and Parmeno 
was made free. 

In the fragments of Caecilius we can distinguish the follow 
ing characters : 

(A) the guilty youth's father, husband of Crobyle. (B) an 
elderly neighbour of (A). (C) a friend of the slave Parmeno ? 
(see below). (D) a poor peasant, father of the betrayed girl. 
Parmeno, slave of (D). Crobvle, wife of (A). (Of. Allinaon, 
Menander, p. 432, 407 K.) 



" This quotation might be an inaccurate reproduction of a 
line from another play — The Little Necklace (see below). The 
quotation from The Fiancee illustrating a usage of factio 
may have' dropped out together with the title The Little 
Necklace presumably prefixed to the quotation given here in 
Nonius' t«xt. It is possible, however, that The Fiancee is 
the same play as The Little Necklace, into which the first fr. 
of The Fiancee could fit. 



CAECILIUS 

134-5 

Nonius, 468, 20 : ' Auspicavi ' pro auspicatus sum. . . 
Caecilius Plocio — 

Insanuni auspicium ! Aliter histrionium est 
atque ut magistratus publice cum auspicant. 

Gellius, II, 23, 4 : Libitum et Menandri quoque Plocium 
legere, a quo istam comoediam verterat. Quantum stupere 
atque frigere quantumque mutare a Menandro Caecilius visus 
est ! . . . Accesserat dehinc lectio ad eum locum in quo 
niaritus senex super uxore divite atque deformi querebatur 
quod ancillam suam, non inscito puellam ministerio et facie 
haut inliberali, coactus erat venundare suspectam uxori quasi 
paelicem. . . . Menander sic : 

(A) Itt' afjuftorepa vvv rj ^itIkXt/joos i? KaXrj 

fieXXei KaOevS'jaeiv. KareipyaaraL fieya 

Koi Tiepi^OTfov epyov ix rfjs oiKias 

e^€j9aAe rrjv Xvnovaav ijv i^ovXero, 

iv' airo^Xenwai ■navTf.s fiy to Kpco^vXrfS 

npocrcoTTOv ^ t' evyvcDoros ova' ip.r] yvvrj 

Se'airoii'a* Kal rfjv otpiv rjv €KrrjawTO 

ovos iv ttlOt^kois tovto 8y] to Xeyofievov 

eoTiv. aLcondv ^ovXofiai rr^v vvKra rrjv 

TToXXd>v KaKojv ap^rjyov. o'noi KpoijSuArjv 

Xa^etv €fi' exKaiSeKa TaXavra npolKa koi 

TTiv ptv' e^ovaav tttjx^o};. elr' earl to 

<{>pvayp,a ttojs viroaraTov ; /ta rov Ai'a 

rov 'OXvfXTTiov Kol Tr}v 'AOrjvdv, ovSap-cos- 

TraihiGKapiov OepanfimKov 8e Bel Xoyov 

rdxiov dndyeadai. f . . . (Allinson, Men., p. 428) 

Caecilius autem sic — 

"* auspicium <num> aliter coni. Linds. <haud> 

aliter Spengel histrionium Quietus istrionum cdd. 

^*' aeque Mr. publice cum cdd. p. quoque Spengel 
quando Bothe publicitus cum Maehly publicae rei 

cum Ribb. auspicant cum publice Mr. 

» So I take it. Compare some of Plautus' and Terence's 
prologues. 

5t8 



PLAYS 

134-5 

From the prologue ; Caecilius " to his audience ? : 
Nonius : * Auspicavi ' for ' auspicatus som.' . . . Caeciliu* 
in The Little NecHace — 

It's an unhealthy augury ; quite different is the 
actors* augury from that of a magistrate when he 
takes the auspices for the state. 

The father of the guilty youth, after a soliloquy, converses vrilh 
a neighbour about troublesome wives : 

Gellius : We had a fancy to read also The Little NecLlace 
of Menander, which Caecilius had adapted for his comedy. 
. . . How dull and stiff was Caecilius revealed right from the 
beginning ! ^^^lat great alterations he made in Menander's 
material! . . . Our reading in due course had reached the 
passage in which an old husband was making a great to-do 
about his wife, who was rich and ugly, complaining that he 
had been forced to put up for sale a handmaid who rendered 
skilled service and was verj' good-looking; his wife suspected 
her of being his mistress. . . . Menander writes thus : 

(A) So now my lovely heiress *" can go to sleep on both 
cheeks. She has done a doughty deed which will make a big 
noise everywhere ; she has cast out of the house the girl she 
wanted to, one who provoked her, so that the whole neighbour- 
hood may gaze on the face of, why — Crobyle, and that she, 
my illustrious wife, may be a tjTant over me. As for the 
looks which she got herself, well, she's an ass amongst apes, 
as the saying is. I'd rather say nothing about the night which 
was the prime cause of many troubles. Oh ! Damn it ! 
That I should have chosen to marry Crobyle with a dowry of 
sixteen talents and a nose a yard long ! And besides, is her 
snortiness by any means to be put up with ? Xo ! By Zeus 
in heaven and by Athena, not at all ! And the little serving 
girl must be led away before you can say a word. 

But Caecilius writes thus' — 

* sc. his rich wife Crobyle. 

* The following verses have been variously arranged. 
The first four are anapaestic. Cf. Ribbeck, Com. Fr., 58-62, 
and corollar., XXV-XXIX. 



CAECILIUS 

136-50 

(A) 

Is demum miser est qui aerumnam suam nesciat 

occultare 
foris ; ita me uxor forma et factis facit, si taceam, 

tamen indicium, 
quae nisi dotem omnia quae nolis habet. Qui sapiet 

de me discet, 
qui quasi f ad hostis f captus liber servio salva urbe 

atque arce. 
Quae mihi quidquid. placet eo privatum it me ser- 
vatam velim ? 140 

Dum ego eius mortem inhio, egomet inter vivos 

vivo mortuus. 
Ea me clam se cum mea ancilla ait consuetum ; id 

me arguit, 
ita plorando orando instando atque obiurgando me 
optudit 
cam uti venderem. Nunc credo inter suas 
aequalis cognatas sermonem serit : 145 

' Quis vostrarum fuit integra aetatula 

quae hoc idem a viro 
impetrarit suo, quod ego anus modo 
efFeci, paelice ut meum privarem virum ? ' 
Haec erunt concilia hocedie ; difFerar sermone 
mis ere. 150 

Cp. Non., 502, 12 (147). 



isft-150 c/. Bibb. Com. Fr. 58 s. corollar., XXV s. 
^^* nesciat Ribb. non potis Fleckeisen nescit Thysius 
nesquit Bum. nequit rell. 

^*' foris Ribb. efiferre Spengel fere edd. ferre cdd. 
1*0-1 iranspos. Ribb. 

530 



PLAYS 

136-150 
(A) 
A poor wretch is he surely who doesn't know how 
he can hide his troubles out of doors. You see, 
my wife, even if I say nothing, gives the shoM* away 
by her looks and by her acts — she who has every 
thing you wouldn't Mant her to have except a doA\Ty. 
He who'll be a wise man will learn a lesson from me 
■ — I'm free but still a slave to the will of enemies, 
though yet my to^\Ti and stronghold are safe. What, 
am I to wish long life to the woman who is always 
going to rob me of whatever gives me joy } While I 
gape for her death, I am a living corpse among the 
living. She says that unknown to her there is 
intimacy between me and my handmaid. That's 
what she accuses me of; and so by ruoaning and 
groaning and bothering and pothering she thumped 
me into selling her. And now I believe she's sowing 
this sort of gossip among her cronies and kinsfolk : 
' Of all you women who is there, who, in the tender 
flower of her age, got out of her husband what I, 
an old woman, have lately accomplished — robbed my 
husband of his wench ? ' That's the sort of mothers' 
meetings there'll be these days. I shall be damnably 
torn to pieces by gossip. 

^*'> quae cdd. quaen Ribb. privatum it me servatam 
Ribb. (p. i. m. servatum Thysius) alii alia privatu vim 
me servatum vel privatum in me servat vel sim. cdd. 

^*^ d. e. e. Non. am. ego cdd. Gell. inibo cdd. Non. 

inter vivos vivo mortuus Ribb. vivo m. i. vivos cdd. 

"^ aequalis atque vel et cdd. aequalis cognatas Ribb. 

^** nostrarum cdd. nonnulli 

1^ convitia ilaehlj- hocedie Bergk hodie cdd. 

dififerar Ribb. differor cdd. misere Ribb. miser cdd. 
alii alia 

521 



CAECILIUS 

151-5 

Gellius, II* 23, 1 1 : Praeter venustatem autem rerum atque 
verborum in duobus libris nequaquam parem in hoc equidem 
soleo animum attendere, quod quae Menander praeelare et 
apposite et facete scripsit, ea Caecilius ne qua potuit quidem 
conatus est enarrare, sed quasi minime probanda praeter- 
misit et alia neacio quae mimica inculcavit et illud Menandri 
de vita hominum media sumptum simplex et verum et 
delectabile neseio quo pacto omisit. Idem enim ille maritus 
senex cum altero seno vicino coUoquens et uxoris locupletis 
superbiam deprecans haec ait : 

(A) 'Ex<^ S' aTTiKXrjpov Adfuav ovk f'prjKO. aot, 
tovt', elr dp' ov^i- ; Kvpiav rijg oi/cia? 
Kal Tcov aypojv kul rtov aTTavrtov dvrtKpvs 
e;^o/i6v, ' AttoXXov , (Ls x'^AeTrcDi' )(€XeTTunaTov, 
dnaai 6' dpyaXea 'crriv ovk efiol fiovw, 

vlu), TToXv fidXXov dvyarpi. 

(B) npdyii dfiaxov Xeyeig. 
(A) €v ol8a. (Allinson, Men., pp. 428, 430.) 

Caecilius vero hoc in loco ridiculus magis quam personae 
isti quam tractabat aptus atque conveniens videri raaluit. 
Sic enim haec corrupit — 

(B) Sed tua morosane uxor quaeso est ? (A) Va ! 

Rogas ? 
(B) Qui tandem ? (A) Taedet mentionis quae mihi 
ubi domum adveni, adsedi, extemplo savium 
dat ieiuna anima. (B) Nil peccat de savio ; 
ut devomas vult quod foris potaveris. 

Cp. Non., 233, 12 (152-4). 

an 

1*^ Va ! Rogas? Ribb, (coni. quam, rogas?) q Bolt. 

quam erogas Eeg. q. errogas Vat, quam erogaa 

coni. Spengel 

^" qui Ribb. qui quia Reg. quas qui Rott. 

" So I take it. (A) uses the phrase in the sense of ' breath that 
makes you want to vomit,' ' nauseous breath,' and means 

522 



PLAYS 

151-5 

Gellius goes on : Quite apart from charm of ideas and 
diction, which is by no means the same in the two works, 
I am generally impressed by the fact that where Menander 
wrote brilliantly and wittily and to the point, Caecilius has 
not tried to reproduce even where he might have, but has 
passed them over as not in the least worthy of approbation, 
and has crammed in some farcical tricks, and in some way or 
other has altogether missed that simple and delightful effect 
of Menander's, which is so true to nature and is taken from 
the very heart of human life. For that same old husband, in 
conversation with a second person, another old man, calls 
down curses on the haughtiness of his wealthy wife in these 
words: 

(A) I've got an heiress-witch. Haven't I told you this? 
Haven't I really then ? Well, as the mistress of the house and 
fields and absolutely everything, we have, by Apollo, a thing 
most tiresome of the tiresome. She's a nuisance to everyone, 
not only to me, but her son too and much more to her daughter. 

(B) There's no fighting with that kind of thing. 
(A) Don't I know it well ! 

But Caecilius in this passage preferred to act the buffoon 
rather than fit and accommodate himself to the character he 
was dealing with. For this is the way in which he has spoiled 
all that passage — 

(B) But tell me, please, is your wife moody? (A) 
Wow ! What a question ! 

(B) Well, how about it ? (A) I don't like to talk 
about it. Whenever I have come home and 
sat down beside her, first thing she gives me 
a kiss with fasting breath." (B) She makes 
no mistake about that kiss ; she wants you to 
belch up what you have been drinking out of 
doors. 

his wife's. But (B) thinks of the phrase in the meaning of 
' with a starved soul.' The wife wants to smell (A's) breath. 
Nonius gives most of this paasage to illustrate aninui in the 
sense of alitus oris et odor. 

523 



CAECILIUS 

156 
Nonius, 314, 21 : Et graviter multum inteUegitur. ... — 

(B) 

Placere occepit graviter, postquam emortuast. 

Gellius, II, 23, 14 : Quid de illo quoque loco in utraque 
comoedia posito existimari debeat manifestum est, cuius 
loci haec ferme sententia. Filia hominis pauperis in per- 
vigilio vitiata est. Ea res clam patrem fuit. Et habebatur 
pro virgine. Ex eo vitio gravida mensibus exactis parturit. 
Servus bonae frugi, cum pro foribus domus staret et propin- 
quare partum erili filiae atque omnino vitium esse oblatum 
ignoraret, gemitum et ploratum audit puellae in puerperio 
enitentis; timet irascitur suspicatur miseretur dolet. Hi 
omnes motus eius affectionesque animi in Graeca quidem 
comoedia mirabiliter acres et illustres, apud Caecilium autem 
pigra istaec omnia et a rerum dignitate atque gratia vacua 
aunt. 

157-8 

Gellius, III, 16, 3 : Hoc idem tradit etiam Menander poeta 
vetustior, humanarum opinionum vel peritissimus. Versus 
eius super ea re de fabula Plocio posui : 

yvvT) Kvet SeKa fjLrjvas * * * * ged noster Caecilius cum 
faceret eodem nomine et eiusdem argumenti comoediam ac 
pleraque a Menandro sumeret, in mensibus tamen genitalibus 
nominandis non praeterraisit octavum, quem praeterierat 
Menander. Caecilii versus hice sunt — 

Parmeno 
Soletne mulier decimo mense parere ? 

^** emortuast Ribb. emortuas Lu. 1, Gen., Bern,. 83 
emortua Harl. 1 est mortua rell. ^*' vide p. 526 

" The rest of Menander's lines have dropped out. 



PLAYS 

156 
The neighbour on his tmje : 
Nonius : By ' graviter ' also is understood ' much ' . . . — 

(B) 
She began to please me mightily after she was 
dead and gone. 

Parmeno is puzzled at the girl's childbirth : 

Gellius : It is quite clear what opinion we ought to hold on 
that scene also — it occurs in both comedies — of which the 
following is more or less the purport. The daughter of a 
poor man was outraged during a sacred vigil. The occurrence 
was kept secret from her father, and she was still taken for a 
virgin. Made big with child by that outrage she gave birth 
when the sum of months was past. A slave of good character, 
while he was standing before the doors of the house, not 
knowing that his master's daughter was approaching delivery, 
and being quite unaware that she had suffered outrage, heard 
the cries and entreaties of the girl in the throes of childbirth. 
He is frightened, angry, suspicious, full of pity, and sad. 
All these emotions and feelings of his mind are, at any rate in 
the Greek comedy, wonderfully vivid and clear. But in 
Caecilius' play all this is dull and void of all the dignity and 
grace of expression which the occasion demands. 

157 S 
Gellius again : The same thing is recorded by the older poet 
Menander, a man very well informed about the general 
opinion. I have added here some lines on that subject 
from the play The Little Necklace. ' A woman is with child 
for ten months.' ..." But our poet Caecilius, though he 
wrote a comedy having the same title and the same plot and 
took most of his material from Menander, did not, in stating 
the months of pregnancy, leave out the eighth, which 
Menander had passed over. Caecilius' lines are as follows — 

Parmeno 
Does a woman usually give birth in the tenth 
month ? 

525 



CAECILIUS 

(C)? 

Pol nono quoque 
etiam septimo atque octavo. 

159-60 
Nonius, 209, 13 : ' Insomnium . . . feminini. ... — 
(D) Consequitur comes insomnia ; 
ea porro insaniam afFert. 

161 

Nonius, 153, 12 : ' Properatim,' id est properanter. 
Caecilius — 

(A) Properatim in tenebris istuc confectum est opus. 

Cp. Non., 155, 4 (. , . Caecilius Plocio). 

162 
Noiiius, 84, 3 : ' Comraemoramentum ' . . . — ■ 

Parmeno 
Pudebat credo commemoramentum strupri. 

163-6 

Gellius, II, 23, 20 : Post ubi idem servus percontando quod 
acciderat repperit, has apud Menandrum voces facit : 

nAPM. tS rpls KaKo8aifiwv oaris ojv vevqs ya/iet 
jcai TraiSoTTOici. cos aAoyiordy eW a.vqp, 
OS fJ,i]Te <f>vXaKrjv raiv dvay/cai'cov exei, 
fjLrjT av drvx^aas eij ra Koiva roD ^lov 
ina^jL^Uaai, SuVotTO rovro -j^prj fiaaiv , 
d/\A' eV aKoXvTTTco Koi TaXanrdtpa) /Sioj 
Xeifxa^ofievos Kv> ■''">'' M^*' aviapaiv l^'"*' 
TO fifpos a-ndvTOiv, rGiv S' dyaQoiv ovhkv fiepos' 
VTrep yap ivos dXyojv aTravras vovdtrw. 

(AUinson, Men., p. 430.) 

^*' soletne olim Hertz iiisuetne Bothe insoletne cdd, 
526 



PLAYS 

(C)? 
'Gad, yes ; or the ninth or even the seventh or 
eighth. 

159-60 
The girl has confessed to her father, who takes Parmtno into 
his confidence ; the half-drunken youth : 

Nonius: ' Insomnium ' . . . ofthe feminine gender . . . — 
(D) There followed a companion to it "—sleep- 
lessness ; and this further brought on madness. 

161 

How he outraged the girl : 

Nonius : ' Properatim,' that is, the same as ' properanter.' 
Caecilius — 

(A) Hastily, in the dark — that's how yonder 
business was done. 

162 

The girVs secrecy : 

Nonius : ' Commemoramentum ' • . . — 

Parmeiio 

I expect she was ashamed to make any mentioning 
of her disgrace. 

16a-6 

Parmeno's comments : 

Gellius : Afterwards when the same slave by inquiring 
had found out what had happened, in Menander he makes 
the following speech : 

Parmeno. Oh ! Thrice unhappy is he who though poor 
yet marries and gets children. How improvident is the man 
who keeps no watch over his necessities, and, when he has 
been unlucky in the common run of life, could not wrap it up 
in a cloak of money, but lives a storm-tossed, unprotected 
and unhappy life, and gets a share of all the grievous mis- 
fortunes, but no share of the blessings. Of course, when I 
grieve like this for one, I'm warning all men. 

» sc. too much drinking. 

5*7 



CAECILIUS 

Ad horum sinceritatem viritatemque verborum an aspiraverit 
Caecilius consideremus. Versus sunt hi Caecili trunca 
quaedam ex Menandro dicentis et consarcinantis verba tragici 
tumoris — 

Parmeno 

Is demum infortunatust homo 
pauper qui educit in egestatem liberos, 
cui fortuna et res nuda est continuo patet ; 
nam opulento famam facile occultat factio. 

Cp. Non., 304, 36 ? 

167-9 

Cicero, de SenecL. 8, 25 : Melius Caecilius de sens alteri 
saeculo prospiciente quam illud idem— 

(D) 
Edepol, senectus, si nihil quicquam aliud viti 
adportes tecum, cum advenis, unum id sat est 
quod diu vivendo multa quae non volt videt. 
Cp. Non., 247, 4 (Caecilius Plocio). 

170 
Nonius, 97, 13 : ' Danunt,' dant ... — 
Patiere quod dant, quando optata non danunt. 

171 
Donatus, ad Ter., Andr., IV, 5, 10 : ' Quando ut volumus 
non licet ' . . . — 

Vivas ut possis quando nee quis ut velis. 

"* infortunatust Spengel infortunatus est edd. vett. 

e. i. cdd. 

168 nuda (ut ut oZim) Ribb. ut cdd. res est ut Spengel 

1" si Cic. ut si Non. etsi Bothe ut Onions 

1*8 quod diu cdd. diu quis Manutius 

i'" potire ohm Ribb. potiere Bothe (vel patere quod di 
dant) 

528 



PLAYS 

Now let us consider whether Caecilius bad enough inspira- 
tion to attain the sincerity and truth of these words. Here 
are Caecilius' lines ; he reproduces some tatters from Menander 
and patches them up with words swelling with tragic 
bombast — 

Parmeno 

He's surely an unlucky fellow who is poor yet 
brings up children to neediness. WTien a man's 
fortune and estate are bare, he is exposed at once ; 
but with a wealthy man his set keeps hid his bad report 
with ease. 

167-9 

Comments of the father ? : 

Cicero : A better effect is produced by Caecilius when he 
speaks about the old man whose mind is looking forward to 
another age (see line, 200) than he does with the following — 

(D) 
Ah ! By heaven, Old Age, if there's no other 
mischief which you bring with you when you come — 
well — this one's quite enough — that a man by living 
long sees many things he doesn't want. 

170 
Parnuno to the father ? : 

Nonius : ' Danunt,' the same as ' dant.' ... — 
You will put up with what the gods grant, since 
they do not grant all you long for. 

171 
Donatus on ' since we can't as we'd like ' in Terence : . . . — 
Live as you may, since you can't as you'd like. 



^'^ ne quis Ribb. non quis Fabric. nequit ed. Med, 
nequitur Spengel nequis cdd. 



MM 



GAEGILIUS 

172 
Noniu8, 297, 35 : ' Extollere,' differrc ... — 

(D) 
Abi intro atque istaec aufer; tamen liodie extollat 
nuptias. 

173 
Nonius, 484, 24 : ' Sumpti ' pro sumptus ... — 

Quid hoc futurum obsonio est ubi tantura sumpti 
factum ? . 

174 
Nonius, 164, 21 : ' Rarenter ' pro rare ... — 

Crobyla ? 

Tu nurum non vis odiosam tibi esse quam rarenter 
videas ? 

Cp. Men. (Allinson, p. 430 (929 K)) : KpufivXri rjj (iTjTpl 
neidov Kai yci/uet ttjv avyyevrj. 

175 
Nonius, 513, 1 : ' Publicitus ' pro publico ... — 

(D) 
Ibo domum ; ad plebem pergitur ; publicitus defen- 
dendum est. 

^'* aufer viilgo aufert ccld. auferto Bothe {rede ?) 

aufer si Ribb. adfer tamen ut hodie Mr. extollet ami. 

Ribb. 

^^' est Bothe et cdd. 

^'* ibo domum cdd. domum ibo Grauert ibi demum 
Bothe pergitur cdd. peragetur coni. Ribb. peragitur 
vel peragitor Mr. pergitor Spengel 

530 



PLAYS 

172 

The wedding will not take place : 

Nonius : ' Extollere,' to postpone ... — 

(D) 
Away with you inside and clear off those dishes; 
let him put off the wedding to-day in spite of all. 

173 

The wedding fare : 

Nonius : ' Sumpti ' for ' sumptus.' ... — 

What's to be done with this meat after all that 
expense on it ? 

174 

Effort to persuade the youth to relent : 
Nonius : ' Rarenter ' for * rare.' ... — 

Crobyle ? « 

Surely you don't want the young lady, whom 
you see so rarely, to become a thing of hate to you ? 

175 
The girVa father decides to go to law about his jilted daughter : 
Nonius : ' Publicitus ' for ' publice.' ... — 

(D) 
I'll go home ; the case will go before the com- 
moners ; it must be defended publicly. 

" Probably. Or the words may be spoken to Crobyle, not 
by her. Cf. the fr. of Menander quoted opposite. 

531 

M M 2 



CAECILIUS 

176 
Nonius, 220, 4 : ' Paupertas ' . . . neutri . . . -— 

(D) 
Ibo ad forum et pauperii tutelam geram. 

177-8 
Nonius, 146, 11 : ' Opulentitas ' pro opulentia . . . — 

Crobyla ? 

opulentitate nostra sibi iniuriam 
fact am. 

179 
Nonius, 124, 24 : ' Inibi ' pro sic et mox ... — 

(C) 
Liberne es ? 

Parmeno 
Non sum liber, verum inibi est quasi. 



POLUMENI 

180 
Nonius, 114, 15 : ' Floces,' faex vini. Caecilius — 
At pel ego neque florem neque floces volo mihi ; 
vinum volo. 
Cp. Gell. XI, 67, 6 (floces . . . aput Caecilium in Polumenis). 

^'* pauperii Ribb. pauperio Spengel pauperie Bo the 
pauperi cdd. 

^"~* sibi <esse> i. Ribb. s. <eam> i. Mr. alii 
alia factam Mercier faciam cdd. 



PLAYS 

176 
Nonius : ' Paupertas ' ... of the neuter " gender ... — 

(D) 
I'll go to court and champion mv cause — it's 
Poverty's brief. 

177-8 
The whole truth has come to light : 
Nonius : ' Opulentitas ' for ' opulentia ' . . . — 

Crohyle ? 
that it was through our wealthiness that the out- 
rage was committed against her. 

179 
Parmeno is freed from slavery : 
Nonius : ' Inibi ' for ' thus ' and ' soon.' ... — 

. (C) 
Are you a free man .■' 

Parmeno 

No, I'm not free, but I'm there or thereabouts, as 
you might say. 

MEN FOR SALE" 

180 
Nonius : ' Floces,' lees of wine. Caeciliua — 

But by god I want neither leaves nor lees, please ; 
what I want is wine. 

" pauperii is really old genitive oi pauperies. 
* Cp. Menander's TlcoXovfievot. 

^''* liber Flor. 3 om. cdd. quasi Flor. 3 om. cdd. 

533 



CAECILIUS 

PORTITOR 

181 

Nonius, 118, 23 : * Gerrae,' nugae, ineptiae. . . . Caecilius 
Portitore — 

Cur depopulator ? Gerrae ! 



PROGAMOS 

182 

Nonius, 346, 13 : * Moliri,' retinere, morari ac repigrare. 
Caecilius Progamo — 

Ita quod laetitia me mobilitat, maeror molitur metu. 



PUGIL 

183-4 

Festus, 188, 7 : Quidam ' nictationem,' quidam ' nictum,' 
ut Caecilius in Pugile — 

Turn inter laudandum hunc timidum tremulis 

palpebris 
percutere nietu ; hie gaudere et mirarier. 

SYMBOLUM 

185 

Nonius, 279, 43 : ' Destitui ' rursum statui. . . . Caecilius 
in Symbolo — 

Destituit omnes servos ad mensam ante se. 

1*1 fur d. — gerrae ! Kiessling f. d. gerro Rest 
1*2 laetitia Palmer (Spic.) letale Grauert letiale cdd. 
1" luctandum Ribb. ludendum Fruter. laudandum cd. 
Non. 279 Symbolo Mercier sembono vel embono cdd. 

534 



PLAYS 

THE CARRIER 

181 

Nonius : * G^errae,' nonsense, ineptitudes. . . . Caecilins 
in The Carrier — 

Why a pillager ? Bosh ! 

WEDDING-PRELIMINARIES « 

182 

Nonius : ' Moliri,' to keep back, delay and slacken. 
Caecilius in Wedding-Preliminaries — 

Yes, because gladness sets me all agog, and sorrow 
sets me all aclogged with dread. 

THE BOXER 6 

183-4 

Festus : Some writ* ' nictatio,' some * nictus,' for example 
Caecilius in The Boxer — 

Then in the midst of his complimenting, while that 
fellow's eye-lids quiver in mortal funk, he knocks 
him out with a wink. He's pleased and surprised. 

THE TOKEN 

185 

Nonius : ' Destitui ' means also the same as ' statni.' . . . 
Caecilius in The Token — 

He set down all the slaves in front of him at table. 

• Probably from Menander's Tlpoya/ioi or Upoyafiia, a sacri- 
fice before a wedding. 

* Cp. TlvKTtjs by Timotheus and another by Timoclea. 

535 



CAECILIUS 

186 
Nonius, 246, 9 : ' Auscultare ' est obsequi. ... — 
Audire ignoti quom imperant soleo non auscultare. 



SYNARISTOSAE 

187-8 

Gellius, XV, 15 : Veteres dixerunt ' expassum,' non 
' expansum.' Caecilius in Synaristosis — 

heri vero prospexisse eum se ex tegulis, 
haec nuntiasse et flammeum expassum domi. 
Cp. Non., 370, 17. 

SYNEPHEBI 

189-99 

Cicero, de Nat. Deor., Ill, 29, 72 : lUe vero in Synephebis 
Academicorum more contra communem opinionem non 
dubitat pugnare ratione, qui — 

In amore suave est summo summaque inopia 
parentem habere avarum inlepidum, in liberos 
difficilem, qui te nee amet nee studeat tui. 
Atque huic incredibili sententiae ratiunculas suggerit — 
Aut tu ilium fructu fallas aut per litteras 
advertas aliquod nomen aut per servolum 

^** quom Ribb. quae Bo the quod cdd. 

^** haec nuntiasset cdd. h. nuntiasse vulg. eenunti- 
asse et Hertz et nuntiasse Bergk 

^** i. a. s. e. 8. s. i. | p. Bothe in amore summo sum- 
maque inopia suave esse dicit parentem Cic. 

*•* fructu cdd. furto Buecheler 

" From Menander's SwapiaTwaai. 



PLAYS 

186 
Nonius : ' Auscultare ' means to comply with ... — 
When persons I don't know give commands, I 
am accustomed to hear, not to heed. 

LADIES AT LUNCH" 

187-8 

Gellius : The old ^Titers used the form ' expassum,' not 
' expansum.' Caecilius in Ladies at Lunch — 

but that yesterday he looked in at him from the 
roof-tiles ; he brought news of this and then the 
bridal veil was spread out at home. 

COMRADES IN YOUTH* 

189-99 

Cicero : But the well-known character in Comrades in Youth, 
after the manner of the Academics, does not hesitate to fight 
against the general opinion with the weapon of reason. He 
says — 

When one is deep in love and deep in poverty, it is 
a nice thing to have a father who is stingy and dis- 
agreeable and troublesome towards his children, 
who neither loves you nor takes interest in you. 

And he brings a poor sort of reasons to support this incredible 
opinion — 

You must either diddle him out of some profit or 
misappropriate some item of debt by a forged docu- 
ment or by '^ help of a slave-boy strike terror into 

" From Menander's Iwit^-q^oi ? We ought perhaps to 
add to this play fr. 97 of The Imbrians (pp. ^4-5). 
' He means bv sending him a slave with bad news. 

537 



CAECILIUS 

percutias pavidum ; postremo a parco patre 

quod sumas quanto dissipes libentius I 195 

Idemque facilem et liberalem patrem incommodum esse 
amanti filio disputat — 

Quern neque quo pacto fallam nee quid inde auferam 
nee quern dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar 
scio quicquam ; ita omnes meos dolos fallacias 
praestrigias praestrinxit commoditas patris. 

200 

Cicero, de Senecf, 7, 24 : Nemo est tam senex qui se annum 
non putet posse vivere; sed idem in eis elaborant, quae 
sciunt nihil omnino ad se pertinere — 

Serit arbores quae saeclo prosint alteri, 

ut ait Statins noster in Synephebis. Nee vero dubitat agri- 
cola, quamvis sit senex, quaerenti cui serat respondere. . . . 

Cf. Cic., Tusc Disp., I, 14, 31. 

201-4 

Cicero, de Nat. Deor., I, 6, 13: Convocandi omnes videntur j 
qui quae sit earum {sc. sententiarum) vera indicent. ... 
Itaque mihi libet exclamare, ut est in Synephebis — 

Pro deum popularium omnium omnium adulescentium i 
clamo postulo obsecro oro ploro atque inploro fidem ; , 

1** nee quid inde Schoemann neque qui inde Heindorf j 
neque quid Bothe nequid inde vel neque ut inde vel sim, 

(neque aliquid Glog.) cdd. 

^^^ praestrigias Buecheler praestigias (infra quoque 
praestigiae praet. Vindoh.) cdd. (rede ?) 

2"" saeclo prosint alteri Spengel serit | a. q. a. saeculo 
prosient Hermann (prosint Bergk) a. saeculo prosint cdd. . 

538 



PLAYS 

him. My last word is — how much more fun it is to 
squander what vou have screwed out of a stingj' 
father ! 

And that same person argues that an easy-going and generous 
father is a disadvantage to a son in love — 

... A man whom I know not in the least in what 
way I can cheat or rob ; nor do I know any artful 
dodge or contrivance which I can bring to bear upon 
him. So utterly has the generosity of my father 
trumped " all my tricks and dodges and juggleries. 

200 

Cicero : No one is so old that he does not believe he can live 
for a year. But these same men spend all their labour on 
things which they know have no application to them — 

He sows the seed of trees that they may be a profit 
to another age, 

as our Statius says in Comrades in Youth. Nor too does 
the husbandman, even though he be an old man, hesitate 
to answer the person who inquires for whose sake he is 
sowing. . . . 

201^ 

Cicero : It seems to me that I must invite all mankind to 
judge which of these opinions is the true one . . . and so I 
should like to exclaim, as we read in Comrades in Youth — 

Oh ! I shout, wail and bewail, I beg, treat and 
entreat for the help of the gods and all my countr}Tnen, 
all our youths ; 

" ' taken the edge oflF.' 

*°* omnium omnium Manutius omnium cdd. pier. 

539 



CAECILIUS 

non levissima de re, ut queritur ille — 

... in civitate fiunt facinora capitalia, 
nam ab amico amante argentum accipere meretrix 
noenu volt. 

205 

Nonius, 200, 16 : ' Collus ' masculino. . . . Caecilius. . . . 
Synephebis — 

(A) Ad restim res redit. (B) Immo collus, non 
res, nam ille argentum habet. 



SYRACUSII 

20G 

Nonius, 176, 29 : ' Similitas,' similitudo. Caecilius 
Syracusiis — 

Vide Demea, hominis quid fert morum similitas ? 

207 
Nonius, 96, 27 : ' Dulcitas,' ' dulcitudo ' pro dulcedo. ... — 
tanta hinc invasit in cor Davi dulcitas. 

208 
Nonius, 391, 28 : ' Stare ' iterum horrere significat. ... — 
Hie amet, familiae fame pereant, ager autem stet 
sentibus. 

'"'^ fieri Cic. fieri in civitate Orelli 

'"* nam suppl. Ribb. noenu volt Bergk (nunc nevolt 
olim, nevolt Wolf) non vult cdd. (nuult Leid. 63) abs 
amico amante meretrix accipere argentum nevolt coni, olim 
Mayor 

**" fert edd. feret cdd. 

*"' tanta Flor. 3 Harl. 1 tantam rell. tantan Mercier 
hinc Victor liuic cdd. in cor Davi Mercier i. c. 



PLAYS 

on a matter of very weighty import, according to his 
complaint — 

Capital crimes are being committed in this State ; 
for there's a whore who doesn't want to take money 
from a love-sick sweetheart. 

205 

Noniua : ' C!oIlus ' in the masculine. . . . Caecilius , . . 
in Comrades in Youth — 

(A) This business comes to the gallows. (B) A 
neck rather, not the business. For he has got the 
money. 

THE SYRACUSANS" 

206 

Xooias : ' Similitas,' the same as similitude. Caecilius in 
The Syjocusans — 

Look, Demea, what's the import of the similarity 
in this fellow's conduct ? 

207 
Nonius : ' Dulcitas ' and ' dulcitudo ' for ' dulcedo.' ... — 

So much sweetness has entered Davus' heart 

because of this. 

208 
Nonius : ' Stare ' again means to bristle ... — 
Let him love, let his households perish with hunger 

and his fields stand thick with thornbushes. 

" Alexis wrote a play called IvpaKoaios. 

dandi Buecheler in corollam Ribb. in corda in cdd. 
forta-sse tanta invasit huic in corda indulcitas in cor 

damni dulcitas Bothe 

**•* fame familiae Mr. alii alia 

541 



GAECILIUS 

TIITHE 

209-10 

Nonius, 258, 37 : ' Contendere ' significat conpararc. . . . 
Caecilius Titthe — 

Egon vitam meam 
Atticam contendam cum istac rusticana Syra ? 

211 
Nonius, 196, 5 : ' Compita ' . . . masculine ... — 
adiacentem compitum 

212-13 

Nonius, 183, '2'3: • Utrasque' pro utrimquc vel utro- 
bique. ... — 

. . . atque hercle utrasque te cum ad nos venis 
subfarcinatam vidi. 

214-15 
Nonius, 118, 9 : ' Gravidavit,' implevit . . . — 

Per mysteria 
hie inhoneste . . . gravidavit probro. 

216 
Nonius, 483, 1 : ' Lacte ' nominativo casu ... — 
Praesertim quae non peperit lacte non habet. 

2^" atticam cdd. asticam Bergli rusticana tua Syra 
Bergk, Quich. rustica dura (vel vana) Spengel rustica 
Syra C. F. W. Mr. 

*^^ ubi adicientem cdd. seclud. ubi Ribb. (natum ex 
initio praeced. ex Varr. citationis videtur) adiacentem quid, 
ap. Steph. ubi adi ad adiacentem Spengel 

212-13 te Mercier et cdd. subfarcinatam Mercier 

subfraginatam cdd. 

542 



PLAYS 

THE W^T-NURSE « 

209-10 

Nonius : ' CJontendere ' means to compare. . . . Caecilius 
in The Wd-Nurse— 

What, am I to compare my Attic ^ life with that 
countrified Syrian life of yours ? 

211 
Nonius : ' Compita ' ... in the masculine ... — 
The roadsmeet that lay near. 

212-13 
Nonius : ' Utrasque ' for ' utrimque ' or ' utrobique ' . . . — 
and by God when you came to our house I could 
see you were stuffed out both times. 

214-15 
Nonius : ' Gravidavit,' has filled ... — ■ 
During the Mysteries this man dishonourably got 
her heavy by lewdness. 

216 
Nonius : ' Lacte,' a form in the nominative case ... — 
She especially who has not given birth does not 
have milk. 

" Several Greek writers wrote a play on this theme. 
^ Perhaps, however, we should read asticam and take SjTa 
as the name of a slave, in the vocative case. 



*i* inhoneste <inceste> ilr. inhoneste <honestam> 
Bothe 

543 



CAECILIUS 

217 

Nonius, 270, 5 : ' Concedere,' recedere vel cedere. . . . 
Caecilius Titthe — 

. . . Hie dum abit, hue eoncessero. 

TRIUMPHUS 

218 

Gellius, VI, 7, 9 : ' Adprobus ' tamen, quod significat valde 
probus non infitias eo quin prima syllaba acui debeat. Cae- 
cilius in comoedia quae inscribitur Triumphus vocabulo isto 
utitnr — 

Hierocles hospes est mi adulescens adprobus. 

219-20 
Festus, 442, 25 : ' Succenturiare ' est explendae centuriae 
gratia supplere, subicere. . . . Caecilius in Triumpho — - 

Nunc meae militiae Astutia 
opus est. Subcenturia ! 
Cp. Paul, ex. F., 443, 8. 

VENATOR ? 

221-2 
Nonius, 483, 18: ' Quaesti ' vel ' quaestuis ' dictum pro 
quaestus. . . . CaecUius Venatorc — 

(A) Satine huic ordini 
etsi nihil ego egi, quaesti ? (B) Quaesti ? (A) Quia 
sunt aemuli. 

219-20 malitiae Paul. militiae Fest. astutiam 0. Mr. 
astutiae Kiessling subcenturia Fest. succenturia 

Paul. subcenturiare 0. Mr. subcenturiari Bergk 

subcenturiata Buecheler est succenturiata opus Bothe 

Non. 483, 18 Venatore cdd. Feneratore Spengel 

^^^ huic Bothe hue cdd. 

^^^ ego egi Ribb. (egisti olim) egi cdd. (ego Escorial. 
1, Par. 7667) quaesti quaesti Par. 7666 Lugd. Bamb. 
quaesti rell. sunt aemulae Aid. sunemuli cdd. 

544 



PLAYS 

217 

Nonius : ' Concedere,' the same as ' recedere ' or ' cedere.' 
. . . Caecilius in The Wet Nurse — 

WTiile he withdraws, I'll step aside just here, 

THE TRIUMPH 

218 

Gellins : In the word ' adprobus,' however, which means 
very ' probus,' I do not deny that it ought to be accented on 
the first syllable. Caecilius uses this word in the comedy 
which is called The Triumph — 

My guest Hierocles is a most honourable young 
man. 

219-20 

Festus : ' Succenturiare ' means to supply or submit for 
the purpose of filling up a ' century.' . . . CaecUius in The 
Triumph — 

Now mv warfare has need of Dame Cunning. 
Enlist her"! <» 

THE HUNTER"? 

221-2 

Nonius : ' Quaesti ' or ' qnaestuis,' genitive ; used for 
' quaestus.' . . . Caecilius in The Hunter — 

(A) Although I have done nothing, has this 
society made enough profit ? (B) Profit ? (A) 
The fact is, they're niggards. 

" I retain the readings of the ilS. of Festus, but possibly 
malilia of the MSS. of Paulus should be accepted. 

* The >ISS. of Nonius point definitely to a play called 
Venator, but it is usual to correct them to Faeneratore (se« 
pp. 510-5). The first fragment given here supports such a 
correction. 

545 

VOL. I. N N 



CAECILIUS 

223 

Nonius, 42, 19 : ' Vemiliter ' pro adulatorie, a vernis quibus 
haec Vivendi ars est. Caecilius Venatore — 

Credo, nimis tandem hoc fit vemiliter. 



EX INCERTIS FABULIS 

224-35 

Cicero, pro Caelio, 16, 37 : Redeo nunc ad te, Caeli, vicissim, 
ac mihi auctoritatem patriam severitatemque suscipio. Sed 
dubito quern patrem potissimum sumam. Caeciliumne 
aliquem vehementem atque durum ? — 

Nunc enim demum mi animus ardet, nunc meum cor 

cumulatur ira ; 
aut ilium — 

O infelix, o sceleste ! 
Ferrei sunt isti patres ! — 
Egone quid dicam ? Egon quid velim r Quae tu 

omnia 
tuis foedis factis facis ut nequiquam velim. 
Vix ferenda diceret talis pater ! — 
Cur in vicinitatem istam meretriciam 
te contulisti ? Cur illecebris cognitis 
non efFugisti ? . . . 230 

. . . cur alienam ullam mulierem 

nosti dide ac disiice 

per me licebit . . . 

Non. 42 Venatore (-i) cdd. Feneratore Spengel 

223 hoc <hercle> Ribb. hocce vel tamen istuc fit Bothe 

tandem hoc fiet (vel fuit) Spengel tamen hoce olim Ribb. 
22« egone quid velim cdd. am. quid velim Brux. sedtid. 

egone Spengel quae cdd. qui Spengel fortasse nae 

546 



PLAYS 

223 
Nonius : ' Veniilit€r ' for flatteringly ; derived from 
' vemaer' to whom flattery is a trick of their trade. Caecilius 
n The Hunter — 

My belief is there's too much slavishness about 
this business by now. 

FRAGMENTS NOT ASSIGNED TO ANY PLAY 

224-35 
Cicero : I come back to you, Caelius; now it is your turn. 
And I take upon myself a father's authority and severity. 
I am in doubt, however, as to what kind of father I ought to 
choose as the best example. Shall it be some father " in 
Caecilius, hot-tempered and stem ? — 

For now at length my soul burns and my heart is a 
mountain of anger ; 
ar this famous example — 

You unhappy boy ! You rascal ! 
Made of iron, those fathers ! — 

What avi I to say, you ask } What are my wishes .'' 
Why, things which you, by your dirty doings, make 
me wish for in vain now. 

Such a father as this would say things hardly to be borne — 
\\Tiy did you betake yourself to that whorish 

neighbourhood? Why didn't you run right away 

when you learnt of the allurements there .''... 

Why did you get to know any strange woman.'' 

. . . Scatter and squander your money for all I 
<• Cp. Quintil., XI, 1, 39. 



''*"• c. i. V. i. m. I t. c. Spengel cur t. in i. v. m. con- 
mlisti odd. (civitatem Brux.) istam i. v. t. m. cur c. Ribb. 
''*'* effugisti Spengel refugisti cdd. 
^'* cognosti Spengel 

547 

N N 2 



CAECILIUS 

... si egebis, tibi dolebit, mihi sat est 
qui aetatis quod reliquom est oblectem meae. 235 
Cp. Cic, de Fin., II, 4, 14. 

236-7 
Cicero, de Amicit., 26, 99 : Quid turpius quam inludi ? 
Quod ut ne accidat magis cavendum est — 

Ut me hodie ante omnes comicos stultos senes 
versaris atque inluseris lautissime. 

Cp. Cic, de SenecL, 12, 36 (quos ait Caecilius comicos stultos 
senes. . . .). 

238-42 
Cicero, Tusc. Disp., IV, 32, 68 : Totus . . . iste qui volgo 
appellatur amor . . . tantae levitatis est ut nihil videam 
quod putem conferendum. Quern Caecilius — 

deum qui non summum putet 
aut stultum aut rerum esse inperitum existumem. 
Cui in manu sit, quern esse dementem velit, 
quern sapere, quern insanire, quern in morbum inici 



quern contra amari, quern expeti, quern arcessier. 

Cp. Eur., Auge, 269 N. 

243-4 

Isidorus, Orig., XIX, 4, 5 : ' Scaphon ' funis in prora 
positus ; de quo Caecilius — 

Venerio cursu veni, prolate pede 
usque ad scaphonem. 

''* si egebes seclud. Spengel 

*'* quod mi est reliquom coni. Ribb. 

^'* ut cdd. tu Halm 

*" illuseris Augustin. elusseris Halm ut lusserii 

Buecheler emunxeris Bentley iusseris vel ut iusserii 

cdd. (Iusseris P unxeris Pal. 1) 

238 <ego vero Araorem> deum coni. Bentley 



PLAYS 

care I ... If you fall into want, iVs your funeral; 

/'ve got enough to keep me content for the rest of 

mv life. 

236-7 

Cicero : What is more humiliating than to be made sport 
of? We must be all the more careful to see that this does 
not happen — 

So that to-day you have most gorgeously muddled 
me and poked fun at me more than all the stupid 
old fools to be found in comedies. 

238-42 
Cicero : AH of him who is commonly called love ... is 
of such paltriness that I see nothing which could, in my belief, 
be compared with him. Caecilius speaks of him thus — 

The man who does not believe that Love is the 
greatest of gods, I should think he's either a fool 
or else untried in worldly affairs. It is in his power 
to make mad whom he will, to make him wise or 
crazed, or cast him straight into disease . . . and 
on the other hand to make him, whom he will, loved, 
sought out and in demand. 

243-4 
Isidorus : ' Scaphon,' a rope fixed on a ship's prow. Cae- 
cilius on this writes — 

I came running on Love's course, with mv sail- 
sheet hauled right to the forestay. 



"* rerum cdd. venerum coni. Meineke existumet 

Gud. Pith. Reg. existumem reU. existumo Bentley 

existimat vulg. 

**• cui cdd. cuii Ribb. cuius Emesti 

-*' insanire cdd. (sanari cdd. Ox. Jan rectel) sanire 
Usener post 241 lac. un. vers. stat. Bentley 

*** arcessier Bern. arcessiri rell. (accersiri aut accessiri 
Pith.) **• fortasse corsa Venerio 

549 



CAECILIUS 

245 
Charisius, ap. O.L., I, 122, 11 : ' Amantum ' Caecilius . . . 

quantum amantum in Attica est. 

246 
Nonius, 101, 23 : ' Deintegrare,' deminuere. . . . Caecilius — 
nomen virginis, nisi mirum est, deintegravit. 

247 

Nonius, 197, 28 : ' Quia ' et generi feminino attribui posse 
veterum auctoritas voluit. . . . Caecilius — 

Quaeso igitur, quisquis es mea mulier . . . 

248 

Nonius, 119, 14: ' Gramiae,' pituitae oculonim. Cae- 
cilius — 

grammonsis oculis ipsa atratis dentibus. 

249 
Paulus, ex F., 559, 13 (21): Truo avis onocrotalus. Cae- 
cilius irridens magnitudinem nasi — 

Pro di inmortales ! Unde prorepsit truo ? 

250 
Gellius, V, 6, 12 : ' Civica corona ' . . . fuit ex iUice, . 
sicut scriptum est in quadam comoedia Caecilii — 

Advehitur cum iligna corona et chlamyde. Di 
vostram fidem ! 

2*^ Attica Ribb. natica cd. riatica ed. princ. 

Non. 119 gramae Buecheler 

"** gramiosis Mercier graminosis Spengel dentibus 
Flor. 1 gentibus cdd. 

*^'' advehitur Bo the advehuntur vd adeuntur cdd. 
advehunt | eum C. F. W. Mr. iligna Fleckeisen ilignea 
cdd. 



PLAYS 

245 
Charisius : ' Amantum,' genitive plural, is the form used 
by Caecilius ... — 

As many lovers as there are in Attica. 

246 
Nonius : ' Deintegrare,' to diminish. . . . Caecilius — 
I should not wonder if he has impaired the girl's 
fair name. 

247 
Nonius : ' Quis.' The authority of the old writers sanc- 
tions the attribution of this form to the feminine gender as 
well as to the masculine. . . . Caecilius — 

I pray you then, whoever you are, my dear 
woman . . . 

248 
Nonius : ' Gramiae,' phlegm in the eyes. Caecilius " has 
' grammonsus ' — 

herself has phlegmy eyes and blackened teeth. 

249 

Paulus : ' Truo,' a bird — the oVox-poraAo?. Caecilius,* 
making fun of a big nose — 

By the gods in heaven, from where has the pelican 
crept uj)on us ? 

250 

Gellius : The civic crown . . . was at one time made of 
the leaves of the holm, . . . as we find in a certain comedy * 
of Caecilius — 

He is dri\ing up all decked with crown of holm 
and cloak of state. Heaven help us ! 

<• Possibly in The Little Necklace (pp. 516 ff.); the old man 
describing his wife Crobyle. 

* Cf. preceding note and Menander quoted on pp. 51 8-9. 
' The Triiim^ ? (pp. 544-7). 

55' 



CAECILIUS 

251-3 

Cicero, de Oral., II, 64, 257 : Saepe etiara versus facete inter- 
ponitur vel ut est vel paululum mutatus, aut aliqua pars 
versus, ut Statii a Scauro stomachante — 

St ! Tacete ! Quid hoc clamoris ? Quibus nee 

mater nee pater 
tanta eonfidentia estis ? Istam enim superbiam 
auferte ! 

254 
Cicero, ad Fam., II, 9 : Repente ... — 
Incessi omnibus laetitiis laetus. 

Cp. Cic, de Fin., II, 4, 13 (. , . ille Caecilianus . . .). 

255 

Cicero, Tusc. Disp., Ill, 23, 56 : Hie Socrates commemo- 
ratur, hie Diogenes, hie Caecilianum illud — 

Saepe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapientia. 

Apuleius, Apolog., 5 : Statium Caecilium in suis poematibus 
scripsisse dicunt innocentiam eloquentiam esse. 

256 

Isidorus, Orig., X, 40 : ' Confidens,' quod sit in cunctia 
fiducia plenus ; unde et Caecilius — 

Si eonfidentiam adhibes, confide omnia. 

257 
Symmachus, Epist., IX, 114 : Recte Caecilius comicus — 
Homo homini deus est si suum offieium sciat. 

*^i sed vel si cdd. mater nee pater vel p. n. m. cdd. 

n. p. n. m. est Leo 

*'* estis cdd. seclud. Schiitz istam e. s. | a. W 

a. i. e. s. vel sim. cdd. estis ? aufertin superbiam ? Leo 

auferte nunc i. s. ed. Bom. 

552 



PLAYS 

251-3 

Cicero : Often too a line is wittily inserted, either as it 
stands or slightly altered : or else some part of a line like the 
example from Statins quoted by Scaurus in a rage ... — 

Sh ! Quiet, all I What's all this shouting r Are 
you so bumptious — you that can't boast of mother or 
father ? Why, away ^^"ith such haughtiness ! 

254 
Cicero : Suddenly — 

I came strutting along as merry as merry could be." 

255 

Cicero : Now Socrates is quoted, now Diogenes, now that 
famous saying of Caecilius — 

There's often wisdom even underneath 
A shabby little cloak. 

Apuleius : They say Statins Caecilius wrote in his poems 
that innocence and outspokenness are the same. 

256 

Isidonis : ' Confidens.' When a man is so called it is on 
the ground that he is full of ' fiducia ' in everything. Whence, 
for example, Caecilius — 

If you bring Confidence with you, confide every- 
thing to her. 

257 

Symmachus : Rightly does Caecilius, a writer of comedies, 
say- 
Man to man is a god if he knows his job. 

• I take it that Cicero quotes Caecilius' own words. 

»** o. 1. 1. incedo Ribb. 
*^' homo inquit Symm. 

553 



CAECILIUS 

258 
lulius Rufinianus, ap. Q.L., 19, 43 : ' \iTo<j>iLvqiLa, sententia 
reaponsiva, ut apud Caecilium — 

Fac velis : perficies. 

259 

Varro, L.L., VII, 103 : Multa ab animalium vocibus 
tralata in homines. . . . Caecilius — 

tantam rem dibalare ut pro nilo habuerit. 

260 
Festus, 340, 12 : ' Quisquiliae ' dici putantur quidquid ex 
arboribus minutis surculorum foliorumque cadit velut ' quid- 
quidcadiae.' Caecilius — 

(A) Quisquilias volantis venti spolia memorant. 

(B) I modo ! 
261 
Cicero, ad Alt., VII, 3, 10 : Venioad Piraeea. . . . Nostrum 
si est peccatum, in eo est quod non ut de oppido locutus sum 
sed ut de loco, secutusque sum non dico Caecilium — 

Mane ut ex portu in Piraeum . . . 

— mains enim auctor Latinitatis est — sed Terentium. 

262-4 
Charisius, ap. G.L., I, 201, 10 : 'In mundo ' pro palam et 
in expedito, ac cito. Plautus . . . Caecilius quoque, ut 
Annaeus Comutus ... — 

profertoque nobis in mundo futurum 

lectum. 

item idem — 

namque malum in mundost, ere. 

**• tantam S tantum cdd. ^*'' memoras S 

*** profertoque Ribb. profecto qui cd. 

*** namque cd. namque <mihi> Ribb. nam cui coni. 
Buecheler num qui Lindemann nam quia coni. KeiJ 
in mundost ere Buecheler in mundo is ire cd, i. m. 

esse sciret coni. Keil 

554 



PLAYS 

258 
Julius Rufinianus : 'AncxfxLvrifjia, an aphorism that contains 
a reply ; for example, in a play of CaeciHus — 

Make yourself want to : you'll make good." 

259 
Varro : There are many sounds proper to animals which have 
been used figuratively of men. . . . Caecilius — 

to bleat abroad so great a secret, that he surely 
held it as nothing. 

260 

Festus : ' Quisquiliae ' is believed to be a term * applied to 
any little twigs and leaves which fall from very small trees, 
' quidquidcadiae,' ' whateverfalls,' as it were. Caecilius — 

(A) Floating what-d'ye-call 'ems, mere spoils of 
the wind^ — that's what all their talk means. (B) 
Get along now I 

261 

Cicero : I come ' ad Piraeea.' ... If I am at fault, it 
lies in the fact that I spoke of Piraeus as though I were 
speaking not of a town but of a region, and I followed good 
authority, I do not say Caecilius — 

in the morning as from the port into Piraeus . . . 

— for he is a bad authority on Latinity — but Terence. 

262-4 
Charisius : ' In mundo ' for openly and without hindrance ; 
also quickly. Plautus . . . Caecilius also, according to 
Annaeus Comutus ... — 

and bring you out a bed that is to be in readiness 
for us. 
The same writer likewise — 

for there's hell all ready, master. 

" Cp. our ' Where there's a will, there's a way.' 
* The word is probably derived from quisque. 

555 



CAECILIUS 

265 

Diomedes, ap. Q.L., I, 345, 4 : ' Hiare ' et ' hietare ' veteres 
dixerunt. . . . Caecilius — 

(A) Sequere me. (B) Peril hercle ! (A) Tu quid mi 
oscitans hietansque restas ? 

266 

Servius auctus, ad Verg., Georg., I, 74 : ' Quassante,' quae 
aonet cum quassatur. Caecilius — 

si quassante capite tristes incedunt. 

267 

Paulus, ex F., 25, 5 : ' Bardus,' stultus, a tarditate ingenii 
appellatur. Caecilius — 

. . . nimis audacem nimisque bardum barbarum 

Comment. Cruqui ad Horat. Art. Poet., 236-239 : Pythias 
persona comica in comoedia CaecUii quae induoitur per 
astutias accipere argentum a Simone domino suo in dotem 
filiae. 

Cp. Pseudoacro cul loc. 

268 

Rufinus, ap. C.O.L., VI., 556, 7 K : Non nunquam ab his 
initium fit ut apud Caecilium — 

Di boni ! Quid hoc ? 

269 

Fronto, Epist., I, p. 142, Haines : Igitur paene me opicura 
animantem ad Graecam scripturam perpulerunt homines, ut 
Caecilius ait — 

incolumi inscientia 

2*^ praei hercle Putschius periercle Par. 7494 pehercle 
Par. 7498 quid Ribb. qui cdd. mi Spengel enim 

(vel nam) Ribb. raihi cdd, 

*** sic coni. Ribb. 

Comment. Criiq. : Caecilii Orelli Lucilii comment. 

556 



PLAYS 

265 

Diomedes : ' Hiare ' and ' hietare.' Both forms were used 
by old writers. . . . Caecilius — 

(A) Follow me. (B) O Lord, I'm done for ! 
(A) Here you ! Bless me, why stand still and keep 
yawning and gaping ? 

266 

Servius (supplemented) on ' quassante ' in Virgil : ' Quas- 
sante,' which makes a noise when ' quassatur.' Caecilius — 

if they mournfully march on with wobbling heads. 

267 

Paulus : ' Bardus,' applied to a man who is silly, is derived 
from the slowness (^paSur^j) of his wits. Caecilius — 

a very bold and block-headed barbarian 

A commentator on a passage in Horace : Pythias is a comic 
character in a comedy of Caecilius ; she is brought on to the 
stage as a person who gets, by a crafty trick, some money « 
from her master Simo for her daughter's dowry. 

268 

Rufinus : Sometimes it is a b^inning that is made with 
' clausula© ' ; for example, in a play of Caecilius — 

Good heavens I What's this ? 

269 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto : And so I (who am, as one 
might almost say, a living barbarian) have been forced to 
write in Greek by men — 

of unimpaired ignorance 

as Caecilius has it. 

" A talent, says Psendo-Acro on this same passage; he 
adds that she was a whore. 

557 



CAECILIUS 

Macrobius, S., Ill, 15, 9 : Sed quis neget indomitam apud 
illos et, ut ait Caecilius, vallatam gulam fuisse ? 

270 

Cicero, de Oral., II, 10, 40 : Hestemo sermone, ut ait 
Caecilius — 

operis unius cuiusdam remigem aliquem aut baiulum, 

nobis oratorem descripseras, inopem quendam humanitatis 
atque inurbanum. 

271 
Donatus, in Ter., Eun., IV, 7, 45 : ' Domi ' et ' foci ' gene- 
tivi sunt. Caecilius — 

Decora domi 

272 
Nonius, 229, 5 : ' Tapete ' generis neutri. . . . Caecilius — 
glabrum tapete 

273 
Diomedes, ap. G.L., I, 385, 22 : Caecilius praeterea — 
si non sarciri quitur 

274 
Festus, 286, 25 : ' Profesti dies.' . . . Caecilius in f — 
. . . <^dies profe)>sti tantundem 

SPURIA ? 

275 
Festus, 684, 19 : ' Taenias ' Graecam vocem sic interpretatur 
Verrius ut dicat omamentum esse laneum capitis honorati, ut 
sit apud Caecilium in Androgyno . . , et alias — 

dum taeniam qui volnus vinciret petit. 

2'" operis unius cuiusdam coniicio u. c. o. ut ait C. r. a. 
a. b. Cic. 

Non. 229 Turpilius et Caecilius Non. seclud. et Cae- 
cilius Mr. 

^" sarcire edd. vett. 



PLAYS 

Macrobius : But who would deny that among those men 
gluttony was unconquerable, and, as Caecilius writes, 
* intrenched ' ? 

270 

Cicero : In the way you talked yesterday you had described 
to us an orator who was in the words of Caecilius — 

some galley-slave or porter doing one mechanical 
task, 

someone who was unendowed with human kindness and 
unmannerly. 

271 
Donatus : ' Domi ' and ' foci ' are genitives. Caecilius — 
fineries of the house 

272 
Nonius : ' Tapete,' of the neuter gender. . . . Caecilius — 
a smooth carpet 

273 
Diomedes : Caecilius further writes ' quitur ' — 
if it carmot be patched 

274 
Festus : ' Profesti dies.' . . . Caecilius — 
non-festive days just as much 

SPURIOUS FRAGMENTS ? 

275 
Festus : ' Taeniae,' a Greek word, is explained by Verrius 
to mean a wooUen adornment of the head of a person of rank, 
as is the case in a passage of Caecilius in The Man- Woman 
. . . and in another passage — " 

while he begged for a headband to tie up the 
wound. 

• This might imply ' in another author,' and the quotation 
suggests a tragedy; it might, however, come from a comedy 
Vich as Naevius' Aconlizomenos. 

559 



CAECILIUS 

276 

Seneca, Epist., CXIII, 26 : Hacc disputamus adtractis 
superciliis, fronte rugosa ? Non possum hoc loco dicere 
illud Caecilianum — 

o tristes ineptias ! 

Bidiculae sunt. 

277-8 

Nonius, 80, 32 : ' Bellosum,' bellicosum. Caecilius — 

Tantum bellum suscitare conari adversaries 
contra bellosum genus ! 

279 

Servius, ad Aen., II, 777 : ' Sine numine divum,' sine fati 
necessitate. Ut enim Statins dicit — 

Fata sunt quae divi fantur. 

vel quae indubitanter eveniunt. 

280 

Gloss. Terent. ap. Barth. Advers., 38, 14 : Aliquid monstri 
plus est quam aliquid monstrum . . . ut Caecilius — 

Quid hominis uxorem habes ? 

Senecn, Ep. CXIII cicilianum vel celanum vel caeciliani vel 
celiani odd. (caelianum Bamb. ?) 

Non. 80 cecilius G. Harl. 2 Lugd. 3 caelius rcll. irib. 
Cad. Antipat. edd. 

"* divi Bothe 

^^° uxoremne Ribb, 



S6o 



PLAYS 

276 

Seneca : Is this the sort of things we discuss with knitted 
brows and wrinkled forehead ? I cannot at this point bring 
myself to quote that famous passage in Caecihus " — 

Oh I what dismal fooleries ! 

Ridiculous — ^that's what they are. 

277-8 

Nonius : ' Bellosum,' bellicose. Caecilius * — 

The idea that they should try to stir up so big a 
war, as foes against a breed so warrish ! 

279 

Servius, on ' without the will of the gods ' in Virgil : With- 
out the necessity caused by fate. As Statius ' says — 

Dooms are what the gods doom. 

or they are events which infallibly come to pass. 

280 

A gloss quoted by Barth ** : ' Aliquid monstri ' is something 
more than ' aliquid monatnim ' ... as Caecilius has — 

What sort of a human being have yAu for a wife ? 

" Probably. But the MSS. do not make it certain. 

* Here again the MSS. leave us in doubt, and the quotation, 
in spite of its septenarian metre, suggests the prose of Caelius 
Antipater the annalist. 

' Possibl}' Papinius Statius or some other grammarian. 

'' who is not to be trusted. 



S6i 

GO 



WORDS FROM ENNIUS AND CAECILIUS 
NOT INCLUDED IN THE TEXT OR 
THE NOTES OF THIS VOLUME 

Ennius 

Annah, Book XVI : ' hebes,' ace. ' hebem ' instead of 
' hebetem ' (blunt). Charisius, 0. L., I, 132, 6. 

Annals, Incerta : ' Anio,' ace. ' Anionem ' instead of 
' Anienem ' (River Anio). Serv., ad Aen., VII, 683. 

' haec abnueram ' ( ?) (I had refused this.) Schol. 
Veron., ad Aen., X, 8. 

Tragedies'!, ' Telamon ' .• ' abnuebunt ' (they will deny). 
Diomedes, G. L., I, 382, 11. 

Holy History : ' gluma ' (husk). Varro, R. R., I, 48, 1. 

Not assigned to any work 

' consiluere ' (they fell silent). Paul., ex F., 41, 5. 

' Cretenses '. for ' Cretes ' (Cretans). Charis., G. L., 
I, 124, 12. 

' ambaetus ' (vassal ; a Celtic word). Fest., 4, 2 ; 
Gloss. Lat. Grace, C. G. L,, II, 16, 3. 

' <philo>logam ' (learned). Fest., 310, 27. 

' sancti ' (hallowed) applied to poets. Cic, pro Arch., 
8, 18. 

' longij' epithet of epic verses. Cic, de Leg., II, 27, 68. 

' daedala ' (skilful), epithet of Minerva. Paul., ex F., 
48, 7. ' domina, hera ' (Lady, mistress), applied to 
Minerva. Achilles Tat., ad Cat., I, 9. 

562 



WORDS NOT INCLUDED IN THE TEXT 

' Vesper ' (evening star). Censoriaus, de die nat., 
24, 4. 

' sospes ' in the sense of saviour. Fast., 430, 15; Paul., 
431, 3. 

' erebrisuro ' (stockade). Paul., ex F., 41, 23 (' a 
rampart fortified by " crebri suri," crowded stocks '). 

' aplustre ' (stern-streamer of a ship). Gloss. Lat. 
Graec, C. G. L., II, 48, 33. 

' corpulentus ' (corpulent). Paul., ex F., 44, 2. 

' bona ' (goodly) for magna. Porphyrio, ad Hor., S., 
I, 1, 61. 

' repostos ' (stored — Virg., Aen., VI, 655) and ' porgite ' 
(hold ye out — Aen., VIII, 274), examples of syncope. 
Serv., ad Aen., I, 26. 

' \-iden ' (do you see ?). Serv., ad Aen., VI, 779 (780). 

' solui ' instead of ' solitus sum ' (I was wont). Varro, 
L. L., IX, 107. 

' insexit ' (from ' inseco,' go on to t«ll) for ' dixerit.' 
Paul., ex F., 79, 29. 

' remorbescat ' (should relapse into sickness). 
Fest., 382, 22 ; Paul., 383, 9. 

' redinunt ' (they return). Fest., 400, 12; Paul., 
401, 1. 

' inter ponendum ' (in the midst of placing). Serv. 
auct., ad Verg., Ed. IX, 23. 

' insomnia ' (sleeplessness). Serv., ad Aen., IV, 9. 

' torrus ' (firebrand). Serv., ad Aen., XII, 298. 

' festra ' (small window in a shrine). Macrob., S., Ill, 
12,8. 

' tapetae ' (nom. pi. masc; carpets). Fest., 528, 5. 

' cicur ' (mild, tame), used of men. Hieronym., Apol. 
adv. Rufin., II, 11. 

' locum ' (nom. sing, neuter; place). Fr. Bob., G. L., 
VII, 542, 9. 

563 
o o 2 



WORDS NOT INCLUDED IN THE TEXT 

* vita vitalis ' (life worth living). Cic, de Amic, 6. 
22. 

' bombus pedum ' (rumble of feet). Augustin., de 
Dialect., 9. 

' pede (?) ruit ' (rushes on foot). Fest., 312, II. 

' fidus ' for ' foedus ' (treaty). Varro, L. L., V, 86 
(from Ennius the grammarian, not the poet?). 

' acanthus ' (thorn-tree). Sciiol. Bern., ad Verg., G., II, 
119, on the authority of M. Antonius Gnipho in a commentary 
on ' the tenth book of the Annals.'' 

' erumna ' (for ' aerumna '; hardship). Charis., G. L., 
I, 98, 12. 

Amials? ServiuB, on Aen., XI, 608 ff. says that this 
passage is based on Ennius. 

Caecilius 

' Hy mills ' ; ' nudius tertius ' (three days ago). 
Charis., (r'. L., I, 207, 20. ' 

' Pamimachm ' ; ' velitatio ' (petty quarrelling). 
Nonius, 3, 3. 

' Plocium ' ; ' catellae ' (small chains). Nonius, 199, 7. 

' Progamos ' ; ' audibo ' for ' audiam.' Nonius, 505, 36. 

Incerla : ' facilioreis * and ' sanctioreis ' for facilioris, 
sanctioris. Charis., G. L., I, 130, 4. 

' gnoscit ' for ' noscit ' (come to know). Diomedes, 
G. L., 383, 18. 

' Leontium ' as a woman's name. Charis., G. L., I, 
104, 2. 



564 



CONCORDANCES 



I GIVE here two concordances of Ennius and two of 
Caecilius. In the case of both authors, Concordance 
I is designed to help those who, using a copy of a 
standard Latin text, wish to find information about 
any fragment in this volume ; while Concordance II 
is designed to help those who, using this volume, 
■«ish to refer to a standard Latin text about any frag- 
ment. In these concordances, V^ indicates the 
numeration of lines in ^'ahlen's third edition of 
Ennius : Ribb.2-3 the second and third editions of 
Ribbeck's Comicorum Romanorum Fragmenia (Caecilius 
Statius) ; W the numeration in this volume ; n. means 
that the fragment is, in this volume, only referred to 
in a note ; and catal. means that the fragment will 
be found in the catalogue or list of single words which 
precedes these concordances. 





ENNIUS 






Concordance J 




\^ 


W 


YZ 


W 


A nnalejt 


Annah 


9 


Ex inc. scr. 6 


1 


1 


10-12 


Ann. 7-10 


2 


Spur. ? 43 


13-14 


11-12 


3-4 


Ann. 2-3 


15 


13 


5 


4 


16 


14 


6 


5 1 


17 


15 


7 


vide p. 430 \ 


18-19 


18-19 


8 


Ann. 6 I 


20 


22-23 



565 





ENNIUS 


V3 


W 


V3 


21 


20 


107-108 


22 


21 


109 


23 


24 


110-114 


24 


25 


115-116 


25 


26 


117 


26-27 


27-28 


118 


28 


29 


119 


29 


59 


120-121 


30-31 


16-17 


122-124 


32 


78 


125 


33 


31 


126 


34 


30 


127 


35-51 


32-48 


128 


52-53 


49-50 


129 


54 


51 


130 


55 


52 


131 


56-57 


53-54 


132 


58 


56 


133 


59 


55 


134 


60 


57 


135 


61 


58 


136 


62-63 


60-61 


137 


64 


62 


138-139 


65-66 


63-64 


140 


67 


67-69 


141 


68 


71 


142 


69 


65 


143 


70-72 


72-74 


144-145 


73-74 


75-76 


146 


75 


77 


147-148 


76 


104 


149 


77-96 


88-100 


150 


97 


101 


151 


98 


105 


152 


99-100 


102-103 


153-154 


101 


107 


155 


102 


79 


156 


103 


Sjnir. ? 40 


157 


104 


Ann. Ill 


158 


105 


109 


159 


106 


110 


160 



566 



CONCORDANCE I 



V3 

161 
162 
163 

164-165 

166 

167 

168 

169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 
175-176 

177 

178 
179-181 

182 
183-185 

186 
187-191 
192-193 
194-201 
202-203 

204 
205-206 

207 
208-210 

211 

212 
213-217 
218-219 

220 

221 

222 

223 

224 

225 

226 
227-229 
230-231 



w 

164 

165 

166 
251-252 

167 

170 

506 
Spur. ? 2 
Ann. 474 

169 

168 

171 

173 
207-208 

178 

172 
174-176 

179 
526-528 

180 

181-185 

Spur. ? 21-22 

Ann. 186-193 

194-195 

196 
198-199 

197 
200-202 

205 

206 
231-235 
229-230 

236 

237 

271 

238 

204 

248 

177 
297-299 
245-246 



V3 



w 



232-233 


256-257 


234-251 


210-227 


252 


247 


253 


250 


254-255 


242-243 


256 


244 


257 


254 


258 


253 


259 


228 


260 


255 


261 


241 


262-263 


239-240 


264 


70 


265 


316 


266-267 


258-259 


268-273 


262-268 


274-275 


272-273 


276 


Spur. ? 5 


277 


Ann. 283 


278 


274 


279 


275 


280-281 


276-277 


282 


279 . 


283 


278 


284 


281 


285 


280 


286 


282 


287-289 


284-286 


290 


269 


291 


293 


292-293 


294 


294 


295 


295 


287 


296 


289 


297 


288 


298 


290 


299 


291 


300 


307 


301 


296 


302 


646 


303-308 


300-305 



567 





ENNIUS 




V3 


W 


V3 


w 


309 


540 


367-369 


363-365 


310 


306 


370-372 


360-362 


311 


Spur. ? 4 


373 


209 


312-313 


Ann. 313-314 


374-375 


388-389 


314 


315 


376 


vide p. 434 


315 


308 


377 


Ez inc. ecr. 10 


316 


312 


378 


Ann. 369 


317-318 


320-321 


379 


551 


319-320 


318-319 


380 


370 


321-322 


310-311 


381-383 


366-368 


323 


317 


384r-385 


372-373 


324 


309 


386 


374 


325 


270 


387-388 


375-376 


326-327 


322-323 


389 


377 


328 


324 


390 


n. p. 141 


329 


325 


391-392 


Ann. 378-379 


330 


catal. 


393 


380 


331 


Ann. 326 


394-395 


381-382 


332-333 


337-338 


396 


383 


334 


331 


397 


384 


335-337 


327-329 


398-399 


385-386 


338 


330 


400 


491 


339 


332 


401-408 


409-416 


340-342 


339-341 


409 


387 


343-345 


333-335 


410 


390 


346-347 


336 


411-412 


393-394 


348 


345 


413 


392 


349-350 


343-344 


414 


423 


351 


342 


415 


417 


362 


352 


416-417 


425-426 


353 


Spur. ? 23 


418 


424 


354 


n. p. 7 


419 


371 


355 


Ann. 346 


420 


398 


356-357 


347-348 


421 


397 


358-359 


349-350 


422 


422 


360^361 


354-355 


423 


396 


362 


353 


424 


395 


363 


366 


425 


391 


364 


357 


426 


catal. 


365 


351 


427 


Ann. 405 


366 


359 


428 


408 



568 



CONCORDANCE I 



V3 

429 

430 

431 

432 

433 
434-435 
436-437 

438 

439 

440 

441 

442 
443-445 
446-447 
448-449 
450-452 

453 

454 

455 

456 
457-458 

459 

460 
461-462 

463 

464 
465-466 
467-468 

469 
470-471 
472-473 

474 
475-476 

477 

478 

479 

480 

481 

482 

483 
484-485 



w 

407 

406 

399 

418 

400 
401-402 
403-4^04 

203 

429 

427 

428 

433 
430^32 
434-435 
514-515 
436-438 

439 

440 

555 

Spur. ? 8 

Ann. 450-451 

487 

455 
419-420 

462 

463 
471-472 
458-459 

480 
Ex inc. scr. 3-4 
J/irt. 501-502 

513 

calal. 

Ann. 148 

442 

447 

441 

446 

537 

538 
443-444 



■\p 



w 



486 


445 


487 


531 


488 


542 


489 


564 


490 


565 


491 


292 


492 


533 


493 


485 


494 


486 


495 


524 


496 


543 


497-498 


534-535 


499 


539 


500 


467 


501-502 


468^69 


503 


358 


504 


249 


505 


490 


506 


492 


507 


493 


508 


483 


509 


Ex inc. acr. 22 


510 


Ann. 498 


511 


552 


512 


460 


513 


550 


514-518 


517-5?1 


519-520 


499-500 


521-522 


260-261 


523 


— 


524 


544 


525 


484 


526 


Plays 395-396 


527 


Ann. 454 


528 


Ex inc. scr. 7 


529 


Spur. ? 30 


530 


Ann. 488 


531 


421 


532 


479 


533 


Spur. ? 38 


534 


Ann. 530 



569 





ENNIUS 




V3 


W 


V8 


w 


536 


554 


587 


509 


536 


553 


588 


Ex inc. scr. 19 


537 


529 


589 


Ann. 497 


538-539 


481-482 


590 


catal. 


540 


457 


591-592 


Ann. 522 


541 


Spur. ? 11 


593 


656 


542-543 


Ann. 452-453 


594 


561 


544 


494 


595 


662 


545 


657 


596 


636 


546 


470 


597 


623 


547-548 


Ex inc. scr. 8-9 


598 


Ex inc. scr. 26 


549 


Ann. 478 


599 


Ann. 473 


550 


489 


600 


560 


551-552 


504-505 


601 


496 


553 


516 


602 


catal. 


554 


510 


603 


calal. 


555 


456 


604 


catal. 


556 


563 


605 


catal. 


557 


559 


606 


vide pp. 442-3 


558 


558 


607 


Ann. 512 


559 


476 


608 


503 


560 


549 


609 


Spur. ? 13 


561^562 


547-548 


610 


Spur. ? 44 


563-564 


Ex inc. scr. 12- 


611-612 


Ex inc. scr. 20 




13 


613 


Ann. 153 


565 


Ann. 477 


614-615 


— 


566 


532 


616 


S'pur. ? 28 


567 


545 


617 


Spur. ? 25 


668 


Spur. ? 37 


618 


Spur. ? 19 


569 


Ann. 541 


619 


Spur. ? 18 


570 


495 


620 


Spur. ? 12 


571 


511 


621 


Spur. ? 24 


572 


507-508 


622 


— 


573 


Spur. ? 27 


623 


Spur. ? 3 


574-577 


Spur. ? 33-36 


624 


Spur. ? 39 


578 


Ann. 461 


625 


Spur. ? 26 


579 


Ex inc. scr. 21 


626 


Spur. ? 31 


580 


Ann. 449 


627 


— 


581 


448 


628 


Ex inc. scr. 15 


582-583 


Ex inc. scr. 18 






584-586 


Ann. 464-466 







570 



CONCORDANCE I 



Scenica 

1-3 

4 



10-11 

12 
13-14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 
22-26 
27-33 

34 
35-^6 
47-48 

49 

50 

61 

52 

53 
54-68 
69-71 
72-75 
7fr-77 

78 

79 
80-81 

82 

83-84 

85-91 

92-99 

100-101 

102 

103 

104 



w 

Plays 

1-3 

4-5 

13 

6 
10-12 
16-17 

7-9 
14-15 

18 

19 

20 

22 

21 

23 

24 
26-29 
30-36 

37 
38-^9 
50-51 

53 

52 

54 

55 

56 
57-72 
73-75 
76-79 
80-81 

82 

85 
83-84 

93 

88-89 

94-100 

101-108 

91-92 

90 

110 
86-«7 



V3 


w 


105 


109 


106 


112 


107-110 


113-116 


111 


111 


112-113 


117-118 


114 


121 


115 


120 


116 


122 


117 


119 


118-119 


123-124 


120 


126 


121 


127 


122 


125 


123-127 


128-132 


128 


133 


129 


136 


130 


139 


131-132 


134-135 


133 


137 


134 


138 


135-136 


140-141 


137-138 


142-143 


139 


144 


140 


145-146 


141-144 


150-153 


145-146 


147-148 


147 


149 


148 


154 


149 


155 


150 


156 


151-155 


157-161 


156 


162 


157 


163 


158-159 


164-165 


160 


166 


161-172 


169-181 


173 


167 


174 


168 


175 


182 


176 


183 


177 


187-188 



571 





ENNIUS 


V3 


W 


V3 


178 


192 


257-258 


179 


191 


259-261 


180 


193 


262-263 


181 


196 


264-265 


182-183 


194-195 


266-272 


184 


189 


273 


185 


197 


274-275 


186 


198 


276-277 


187 


199 


278 


188-189 


200-201 


279 


190-192 


184-186 


280 


193 


190 


281 


194 


(ante 202) 


282-283 


195 


202 


284-286 


196 


203 


287-288 


197-198 


204-205 


289-290 


199-201 


206-208 


291 


202 


209 


292 


203-204 


210-211 


293 


205 


212 


294 


206 


213 


295 


207 


214 


296 


208 


215 


297 


209 


219 


298 


210 


216 


299 


211-212 


217-218 


300-303 


213-214 


220-221 


304-305 


215-218 


222-225 


306 


219-221 


226-228 


307 


222-223 


229-230 


308 


224 


231 


309 


225-227 


232-234 


310 


228-229 


235-236 


311 


230-231 


237-238 


312-314 


232 


239 


315 


233 


240 


316-317 


234-241 


241-248 


318 


242-244 


249-251 


319-323 


245 


252 


324 


246-254 


253-261 


325-326 


255-256 


262-263 


327 



572 



CONCORDANCE I 



V3 

328 

329 

330 

331 

332 

333 
334-335 

336 
337-338 

339 

340 

341 
342-343 

344 

345 
346-347 

348 
349-351 

352 

353 
354-356 
357-358 

369 

360 

361 
362-365 

366 

367 

368 

369 
370-371 

372 

373 

374 

375 

376 

377 

378 

379 

380 

381 



w 

338 
catal. 

339 

340 

343 

342 
347-348 

344 
345-346 

341 

349 

354 
371-372 

373 

351 

350 

355 
358-360 

361 

362 

363-365 

356-357 

vide p. 352 

Plays 352 

353 
366-370 

376 

374 
377-378 

375 
379-380 

381 

382 

383 

384 

400 
(post ^00) 

404 

401 

386 

387 



V3 

382 

383 
384-385 
386-387 
388-389 
390-391 
392-393 

394 

395 

396 

397 
398-400 

401 

402 

403 
404-405 

406 

407 

408 

409 

410 

411 
412-413 

414 

415 

416 
417-418 

419 

420 

421 

422 

423 

424 

425 

426 

427 

428 

429 

430 



w 

398 

397 

423 

418 
424-425 
392-393 
408-409 

331 

407 

394 

415 
412-414 

388 

410 

389 
402-403 
390-391 

411 

417 

416 

419 

421 
405-406 

385 

426 

420 

399 

431 

433 

429 

432 

428 

430 

434 

436 

435 

437 

427 

422 



573 



ENNIUS 



V3 

Saturae 
1 

2 

3-4 

5 

6-7 

8-9 
10-11 
12-13 
14-19 

20 
21-58 
59-62 

63 

64 

65 

66 
67-68 

69 

70 
Varia, Scipio 

1-2 

3 

4-5 

6-8 

9-12 

13 

14 

Varia, Epi- 

grammata 

15-16 

17-18 

19-20 

21-22 

23-24 

Varia, Sota 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 



w 

Satires 

1 

2 

3-4 

5 

6-7 

8-9 

10-11 

12-13 

14-19 

post 31 

vide pp. 388-9 

Sat. 28-31 

22 

21 

20 

24 

25-26 

23 

27 

Scipio 

10-11 

7 

8-9 

12-14 

1^ 

5 

6 

Epigrams 
7-8 
9-10 
5-6 
1-2 
3-^ 
Solas 

2 

1 

3 

4 

5 



V3 

Vatia, 

Protrepticiis 

30 

31-33 

Varia, 

Hedyphagetica 

34-44 

Varia, 

Epicharmiis 

45 

46 

47 

48-50 

• 51 

52-53 

54-58 

59 
Varia, 
Euhemerus 
60-61 
62-63 
64-82 
83-86 
87-97 

98 
99-106 
107-108 
109-112 
113-115 
116-131 
132-141 
142-145 

146 
Incerta 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Ex inc. scr. 1 
catal. 

Ex inc. scr. 2 
Ex inc. scr. 33 
Ex inc. scr. o 
Ex inc. scr. 23 
Ex inc. scr. 14 



574 



ENNIUS 



yz 



W 



V3 



w 



8 


Ex inc. scr. 31 


33 


n. p. 331 


9 


Ex inc. scr. 16 


34 


catal. 


10 


Ex inc. scr. 17 


35 


catal. 


11 


Ex inc. scr. 25 


36 


catal. 


12 


Ex inc. scr. 28 


37 


catal. 


13 


Ex inc. scr. 29 


38 


caicU. 


14 


Ex inc. scr. 36 


39 


Ex inc. scr. 35 


15 


Ex inc. scr. 27 


40 


Ex inc. scr. 30 


16 


Ex inc. scr. 24 


41 


catal. 


17 


catal. 


42 


catal. 


18 


Ex inc. scr. 32 


43 


post ex inc. scr. 


19 


catal. 




32 


20 


catal. 


44 


post ex inc. scr. 


21 


Ex inc. scr. 34 




11 


22 


catal. 


45 


— 


23 


catal. 


46 


catal. 


24 


vide p. 434 


47 


Spur. ? 32 


25 


catal. 


48 


catal. 


26 


catal. 


49 


catal. 


27 


ctUal. 


50 


ratal. 


28 


caiai. 


51 


catal. 


29 


catal. 


52 


Spur, i 42 


30 


— 


53 


Ex inc. set. 11 


31 


catal. 






32 


post ear inc. scr. 
17 i 








EN> 
Concorc 


flUS 
atice II 




W 


V3 


W 


V3 


Annals 


Annalts 


11-12 


13-14 


1 


1 


13 


15 


2-3 


3-i 


14 


16 


4 


5 


15 


17 


5 


6 


16-17 


30-31 


6 


8 


18-19 


18-19 


7-10 


10-12 ' 


20 


21 



575 





ENNIUS 


w 


V3 


W 


21 


22 


110 


22-23 


20 


111 


24 


23 


112-113 


25 


24 


114-115 


26 


25 


116 


27-28 


26^7 


117-121 


29 


28 


122 


30 


34 


123 


31 


33 


124 


32-48 


35-51 


125-126 


49-50 


52-53 


127-129 


51 


54 


130 


52 


55 


131 


53-54 


56-57 


132 


55 


59 


133 


66 


58 


134 


57 


60 


135 


58 


61 


136 


59 


29 


137 


60-61 


62-63 


138 


62 


64 


139 


63-64 


65-66 


140 


65 


69 


141-142 


06-67 


M67] 


143 


67-69 


67 


144 


70 


264 


145 


71 


68 


146-147 


72-74 


70-72 


148 


75-76 


73-74 


149 


77 


75 


150 


78 


32 


151-152 


79 


102 


153 


88-100 


77-96 


154 


101 


97 


156 


102-103 


99-100 


156 


104 


76 


157 


105 


98 


158 


106 


vide v., p. 16 


159 


107 


Ann. 101 


160-161 


108 


109 


162 


109 


105 


163 



576 



CONCORDANCE II 



W 



V» 



w 



V3 



164 


161 


248 


225 


165 


162 


249 


504 


166 


163 


250 


253 


167 


166 


251-252 


164-165 


168 


172 


253 


258 


169 


171 


254 


257 


170 


167 


255 


260 


171 


173 


256-257 


232-233 


172 


178 


258-259 


266-267 


173 


174 


260-261 


521-522 


174-176 


179-181 


262-268 i 


268-273 


177 


226 


269 


290 


178 


177 


270 


325 


179 


182 


271 


222 


180 


186 


272-273 


274-275 


181-185 


187-191 


274 


278 


186-193 


194-201 


275 


279 


194-195 


202-203 


276-277 


280-281 


196 


204 


278 


283 


197 


207 


279 


282 


198-199 


205-206 


280 


285 


200-202 


208-210 


281 


284 


203 


438 


282 


286 


204 


224 


283 


277 


205 


211 


284-286 


287-289 


206 


-212 


287 


295 


207-208 


175-176 


: 288 


297 


209 


373 


289 


296 


210-227 


234-251 


290 


298 


228 


259 


291 


299 


229-230 


218-219 


292 


491 


231-235 


213-217 


293 


291 


236 


220 


294 


292 


237 


221 


295 


294 


238 


223 


296 


301 


239-240 


262-263 


297-299 


227-229 


241 


261 


300-305 


303-308 


242-243 


254-255 


306 


310 


244 


256 


307 


300 


245-246 


230-231 


,1 308 


315 


247 


i 252 


1^ 309 


324 



577 





ENNIUS 


w 


V3 


w 


310-311 


• 321-322 


375-376 


312 


316 


377 


313-314 


312-313 


378-379 


315 


314 


380 


316 


265 


381-382 


317 


323 


383 


318-319 


319-320 


384 


320-321 


317-318 


385-386 


322-323 


326-327 


387 


324 


328 


388-389 


325 


329 


390 


326 


331 


391 


327-329 


335-337 


392 


330-331 


338, 334 


393-394 


332 


339 


395 


333-335 


343-345 


396 


336 


346-347 


397 


337-338 


332-333 


398 


339-341 


340-342 


399 


342 


351 


400 


343-344 


349-350 


401-402 


345 


348 


403-404 


346 


355 


405 


347-348 


35&-357 


406 


349-350 


358-359 


407 


351 


365 


408* 


352 


352 


409^16 


353 


362 


417 


354-355 


360-361 


418 


356 


363 


419-420 


357 


364 


421 


358 


603 


422 


359 


366 


423 


360-362 


370-372 


424 


363-365 


367-369 


425-426 


366-368 


381-383 


427 


369 


378 


428 


370 


380 


429 


371 


419 


430-432 


372-373 


384r-385 


433 


374 


386 


434-435 



578 



CONCORDANCE II 



W 

436-^38 

439 

440 

441 

442 
443-444 

445 

446 

447 

448 

449 
450-451 
452-453 

454 

455 

456 

457 
458^59 

460 

461 

462 

463 
464-466 

467 
468-469 

470 
471^72 

473 

474 

475 

476 

477 

478 

479 

480 
481^82 

483 

484 

485 

486 

487 



V3 

450-452 

453 

454 

480 

478 
484-485 

486 

481 

479 

581 

580 
457-458 
542-543 

527 

460 

555 

540 
467^68 

512 

578 

463 

464 
584-586 

500 
501-502 

546 
465-466 

599 

170 

160 

559 

565 

549 

532 

469 
538-539 

508 

525 

493 

494 

459 



W 

488 

489 

490 

491 

492 

493 

494 

495 

496 

497 

498 
499-500 
501-502 

503 
504-505 

506 
507-508 

509 

510 

511 

512 

513 
514-515 

516 
517-521 

522 

523 

524 

525 
526-528 

529 

530 

531 

532 

533 
534-535 

536 

537 

538 

539 

540 



V3 

530 

550 

505 

490 

506 

507 

544 

570 

601 

589 

510 
519-520 
472-473 

608 
551-552 

168 

572 

687 

554 

571 

607 

474 

448-449 

553 

514-518 

591-592 

597 

495 

127 

183-185 

537 

534 

487 

566 

492 

497-498 

596 

482 

483 

499 

309 



579 



P P li 





ENNIUS 


w 


V3 


w 


541 


569 


20 


542 


488 


21 


543 


496 


22 


544 


524 


23 


545 


567 


24 


546 


302 


25-29 


547-548 


561-562 


30-36 


549 


560 


37 


550 


513 


38^9 


551 


379 


50-51 


552 


511 


52 


553 


536 


53 


554 


535 


54 


555 


455 


55 


556 


593 


56 


557 


545 


57-72 


558 


558 


73-75 


559 


557 


76-79 


560 


600 


80-81 


561 


594 


82 


562 


595 


83-84 


563 


556 


85 


564 


489 


86-87 


565 


490 


88-89 

90 
91-92 

93 

94-100 

101-108 

109 


Plays 


Scenica 


110 


1-3 


1-3 


111 


4-5 


4 


112 


6 


6 


113-116 


7-9 


12 


117-118 


10-12 


7-9 


119 


13 


5 


120 


14-15 


13-14 


121 


16-17 


10-11 


122 


18 


15 


123-124 


19 


16 


125 



580 



CONCORDANCE II 



w 

126 


V3 

120 


127 


121 


128-132 


123-127 


133 


128 


134-135 


131-132 


136 


129 


137 


133 


138 


134 


139 


130 


140-141 


135-136 


142-143 


137-138 


144 


139 


145-146 


140 


147-148 


145-146 


149 


147 


150-153 


141-144 


154 


148 


166 


149 


166 


150 


157-161 


151-155 


162 


156 


163 


157 


164-165 


158-159 


166 


160 


167 


173 


168 


174 


169-181 


161-172 


182 


175 


183 


176 


184-186 


190-192 


187-188 


177 


189 


184 


190 


193 


191 


179 


192 


178 


193 


180 


194-195 


182-183 


196 


181 


197 


185 


198 


186 


199 


187 



w 



V3 



200-201 


188-189 


202 


195 


203 


196 


204^205 


197-198 


206-208 


199-201 


209 


202 


210-211 


203-204 


212 


205 


213 


206 


214 


207 


215 


208 


216 


210 


217-218 


211-212 


219 


209 


220-221 


213-214 


222-225 


216-218 


226-228 


219-221 


229-230 


222-223 


231 


224 


232-234 


225-227 


235-236 


228-229 


237-238 


230-231 


239 


232 


240 


233 


241-248 


234-241 


249-251 


242-244 


252 


245 


253-261 


246-254 


262-263 


255-256 


264-265 


257-258 


266-268 


259-261 


269-270 


262-263 


271 


273 


272-273 


264-265 


274-280 


266-272 


281 


279 


282-283 


274-275 


284-285 


276-277 


286 


278 


287 


280 


288 


281 



581 





ENNIUS 


w 


Y^ 


w 


289-290 


282-283 


351 


291-293 


284-286 


352 


294-295 


287-288 


353 


296-297 


289-290 


354 


298 


291 


355 


299-300 


295 


356-360 


301 


292 




302 


294 


361 


303 


293 


362 


304 


296 


363-365 


305 


297 


366-370 


306 


298 


371-372 


307 


299 


373 


308-311 


300-303 


374 


312-313 


304-305 


375 


314 


308 


376 


315 


307 


377-378 


316 


306 


379-380 


317 


309 


381 


318 


310 


382 


319-322 


312-314 


383 


323 


311 


384 


324 


315 


385 


325-326 


325-326 


386 


327 


324 


387 


328-329 


316-317 


388 


330 


318 


389 


331 


394 


390-391 


332-336 


319-323 


392-393 


337 


327 


394 


338 


328 


395-396 


339 


330 


397 


340 


331 


398 


341 


339 


399 


342 


333 


400 


343 


332 


401 


344 


336 


402-403 


345-346 


337-338 


404 


347-348 


334-335 


405-406 


349 


340 


407 


350 


346-347 


408-409 



58= 



CONCORDANCE II 



W 



V3 



w 



V3 



410 


402 


20 


65 


411 


407 1 


21 


64 


412-414 


39^^00 ! 


22 


63 


415 


397 ! 


23 


69 


416 


409 


24 


66 


417 


408 


25-26 


67-68 


418 


386-387 


27 


70 


419 


410 


28-31 


59-62 


420 


416 


Scipio 


Varia ; Scipio 


421 


411 


1^ 


9-12 


422 


430 


5 


13 


423 


384-385 


6 


14 


424-425 


388-389 1 


7 


3 


426 


415 


8-9 


4-5 


427 


429 


10-11 


1-2 


428 


423 


12-14 


6-8 


429 


421 


Epigrams 


Varia ; 


430 


424 




Epigrammala 


431 


419 


1-2 


21-22 


432 


422 


3-4 


2^-24 


433 


420 


5-6 


19-20 


434 


425 


7-10 


15-18 


435 


427 


Sotag 


Varia ; Soia 


436 


426 


1 


26 


437 


428 


2 


25 






3 


27 






4 


28 






5 


29 






ExhortaHon 


Varia ; 
Protrepticus 






1-3 


31-33 


Satires 


Saturae 


Ddikateaaen 


Varia ; 


1 


1 




Hedyphagetica 


2 


2 


1 1-11 


34-44 


3-t 


3-4 


Efncharmus 


Varia ; 


5 


5 




Epicharmus 


6-7 


6-7 


1 


45 • 


8-9 


8-9 


2 


46 


10-11 


10-11 


3 


47 


12-13 


12-13 


i 4-6 


48-50 


14-19 


14-19 


I 7 


51 



583 





ENNIUS 






w 


V3 


w 


V3 


8-9 


52-53 


26 


Ann., 598 


10-14 


54-58 


27 




15 


Euhemetiis 


Varia ; 


28 




12 




Euhemerus 


29 




13 


1-4 


60-61 


30 


1 


40 


5-7 


62-63 


31 


8 


8-38 


64-82 


32 




18 


39-^5 


83-86 


33 




4 


46-63 


87-97 


34 




21 


64-65 


98 


35 




39 


66-77 


99-106 


36 




14 


78-80 


107-108 


Spur. ? 




81-87 


109-112 


1 


— 


88-92 


113-115 


2 


Ann. 169 


93-118 


116-131 


3 


Ann., 623 


119-133 


132-141 


4 


Ann., 311 


134-138 


142-145 


5 


Ann., 276 


Ex incertis 




6-7 





scriptis 




8 


Ann., 456 


1 


Incerta, 1 


9-10 





2 


Incerta, 3 


11 


Ann., 541 


3-4 


Ann., 470-471 


12 


Ann., 620 


5 


Incerta, 5 


13 


Ann., 609 


6 


Ann., 9 


14 





7 


Ann., 528 


15 





8-9 


Ann., 547-548 


16-17 


— 


10 


Ann., 377 


18 


Ann., 619 


11 


Incerta, 53 


19 


Ann., 618 


12-13 


Ann., 563-564 


20 


vide v., p. 33 


14 


Incerta, 7 


21-22 


Ann., 192-193 


15 


Ann., 628 


23 


Ann., 353 


16 


Incerta, 9 


24 


Ann., 621 


17 


Incerta, 10 


25 


Ann., 617 


18 


Ann., 582-583 


26 


Ann., 625 


19 


Ann., 588 


27 


Ann., 573 


20 


Ann., 611-612 


28 


Ann., 616 


' 21 


Ann., 579 


29 





22 


Ann., 509 


30 


Ann., 529 


23 


Incerta, 6 


31 


Ann., 626 


24 


Incerta, 16 


32 


Incerta, 47 


25 


Incerta, 11 


33-36 


Ann., 


574-577 



584 



CONCORDANCE II 



w 


V3 


W 


V3 


37 


Ann., 568 


41 


vide v., p. 16 


38 


Ann., 533 


42 


Incerta, 52 


39 


Ann., 624 


43 


Ann., 2 


40 


Ann., 103 


44 


Ann.,Q\0 




CAECILIUS 






Concordance I 




RiBB. 2-3 


W 


RiBB. 2-3 


w 


1 


2 


41 


37 


2 


5 


42-43 


40-41 


3 


1 


44-45 


38-39 


4 


3 


46 


42 


5 


4 


47-48 


43-44 


6 


6 


49 


48 


7 


7 


50 


47 


8 


8 


51-52 


45-46 


9-10 


9 


53 


49 


11-12 


12-13 


54—55 


50 


13 


11 


56 


51 


14 


10 


57-58 


52-53 


15 


16 


59-60 


54-55 


16 


14 


61 


56 


17 


15 


62-63 (64) 


57-58 


18-19 


17 


(64>-65 


59-60 


20-21 


18 


6ft-67 


62-*3 


22-24 


19-21 


6»-69 


68-70 


26 


22 


70 


64 


26 


23 


71 


61 


27 


24 


72 


65 


28-29 


25-26 


73 


66 


30-31 


27-28 


74 


67 


32 


29 


75 


76 


33 


30 


76 


73-74 


34-35 


31-32 


77 


75 


36 


33 


78 


78 


37-38 (39) 


34-35 , 


79-80 


81-82 


40 


36 1 


81 


85 



585 





CAECILIUS 


RiBB. 2-3 


W • 1 


RiBB. 2-a 


82 


71 


139-140 


83(-84) 


86 


141 


85 


87 


1411 


86 


72 


142-157 


87 


84 


158-162 


88 


83 


163 


89 


77 


164-165 


90 


79 


166 


91 


80 


167 


92 


88 


168 


93 


89 


169-172 


94-95 


91-92 


173-175 


96(95)-97 


94-96 


176 


98 


97 


177 


99 


90 


178-179 


100 


93 


180 


101-102 


98 


181-182 


103 


99 


183 


104-105 


100-101 


184 


106-107 


102-103 


185 


108-109 


104-105 


186-187 


110 


106 


188 


111-112 


107 


189 


113 


108 


190 


114 


109 


191 


115 


110 


192 


116 


111 


193-194 


117 


112 


195 


118 


113 


196 


119-120 


114 


197-198 


121 


115-116 


199-209 


122-123 


120 


210 


124-125 


124-125 


211-214 


126-128 


121-123 


215 


129-130 


221-222 


216 


131 


223" 


217 


132-133 


117-118 


218-219 


134 


119 


220 


135 


126 


221-222 


136-137 


128-129 


223 


138 


127 


224-225 



586 



CONCORDANCE I 



RiBB. 2-3 

226 

227 

228 

229 
230-242 
24^244 
245-246 

247 

248 

249 

250 

251 

252 

253 
254-255 
256-257 

258 
259-263 

264 

265 ed. 

266 

267 



w 

211 

217 

218 
219-220 
224-235 
236-237 
251-253 

256 
post 255 

259 

267 

260 

254 

245 

246 
243-244 

261 
238-242 

257 

279 

255 

247 



RiBB. 2-3 

268 

269 

270 
271-272 
273-274 

2741 

275 
276-278 

279 

280 

281 

282 

283 

284 

285 

286 

287 

288 

289 ed.« 
290-291 

291 1 
292-293 ed.' 



w 

248 
250 
249 

266 
265 

270 

275 
262-264 

273 

268 

276 

269 
post 269 

271 

272 
catal. 
catal. 
catal. 

280 

258 

274 
277-278 



w 



3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



CAECILIUS 
Concordance II 



RiBB. 2-3 

3 
1 
4 
5 
2 
6 
7 
8 
9-10 
14 
13 



W 

12-13 
14 

15 

16 

17 

18 
19-21 

22 

23 

24 
25-26 



RiBB. 2-3 
11-12 

16 

17 

15 
18-19 
20-21 
22-24 

25 

26 

27 
28-29 



587 





CAECILIUS 


w 


RiBB. 2-3 


w 


27-28 


30-31 


84 


29 


32 


85 


30 


33 


86 


31-32 


34-35 


87 


33 


36 


88 


34-35 


37-38 (39) 


89 


36 


40 


90 


37 


41 


91-92 


38-39 


44-45 


93 


40-41 


42-43 


94-96 


42 


46 


97 


43-44 


47-48 


98 


45^6 


51-52 


99 


47 


50 


100-101 


48 


49 


102-103 


49 


53 


104-105 


50 


54-55 


106 


51 


56 


107 


52-53 


57-58 


108 


54-55 


59-60 


109 


56 


61 


110 


57-58 


62-63 (64) 


111 


59-60 


(64)-65 


112 


61 


71 


113 


62-63 


66-67 


114 


64 


70 


115-116 


65 


72 


117-118 


66 


73 


119 


67 


74 


120 


68-70 


68-69 


121-123 


71 


82 


124-125 


72 


86 


126 


73-74 


76 


127 


75 


77 


128-129 


76 


75 


130-131 


77 


89 


132 


78 


78 


133 


79 


90 


134-135 


80 


91 


136-150 


81-82 


79-80 


151-155 


83 


88 


156 



588 



CONCORDANCE II 



W - 

157-158 
159-160 

161 

162 
163-166 
167-169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 
177-178 

179 

180 

181 

182 
183-184 

185 

186 
187-188 
189-199 

200 
201-204 

205 

206 

207 

208 
209-210 

211 
212-213 
214-215 

216 

217 

218 
219-220 



RlBB. 2^ 

164-165 

168 

167 

166 
169-172 
173-175 

176 

177 
178-179 

180 

183 

185 

184 
186-187 

188 

190 

191 

192 
193-194 

195 

196 
197-198 
199-209 

210 
211-214 

215 

216 

217 
218-219 
221-222 

226 
224r-225 

223 

220 

227 

228 

229 



w 



RiBB. 2-3 



221-222 


129-130 


223 


131 


224-235 


230-242 


236-237 


243-244 


238-242 


259-263 


243-244 


256-257 


245 


253 


246 


254-255 


247 


267 


248 


268 


249 


270 


250 


269 


251-253 


245-246 


254 


252 


255 


266 


256 


247 


257 


264 


258 


290-291 


259 


249 


260 


251 


261 


258 


262-264 


276-278 


265 


273-274 


266 


271-272 


267 


250 


268 


280 


269 


282 


270 


274 1 


271 


284 


272 


285 


273 


279 


274 


291 1 


275 


275 


276 


281 


277-278 


292-293 ed.» 


279 


26oed.« 


280 


289 ed.» 



589 



INDEX 



(The numbers refer to pages) 



ftbnueo 102, 563 

ibscondit 482 

A.bTdus 41)8-9 

acanthus 564 

icamae 408 

^cbaeans 227, 249 

A.cheru8ia, Acheron 254-5, 310-1 

ichiUes 218 ff., 253, 272-7, 283-7, 

29I>-1, 307, 309, 341-2 
ichivi 226, 282-3, 292-3 
»cri3 (nom. masc.) 132 
Bkdgretua 440 
iditavere 380 
i.drastua 228-9, 328 
Adriatic 359 
A.eacus67, lol, 338-9 
iegeus 323 
ieeisthus 357 

Aelius (C.) Teucrus 144, 146-7, 153-7 
Aelius (Seitus) I'aetus I2i>-1 
Aelius (T.) PaHtusl47 
AeniUius (L.) Barbula 69 
A.emiliu3 (L.) Paollus 95, 101 ff. 
&.eniilias Lepidns 149 
Aemilius Eegillus 139 
ieneas, 8 ff., 28, 287, 428-9 
ienus 408-9 
A.eolu3 326-9 
A.esculapiu8 278-9 
Aesopus 280-1 
Aetolia(n8) xx, 143, 358-9 
Africa 114-5, 386-7, 394-5, 409 
Agamemno(n) 218, 221, 274-5, 284-5, 

98 ff., 3iX» ff., 344-5, 347, 437 
agea 200-1 
Aias see Ajas 
Ajax 221, 223, 226 fl., 276-7, 287, 

337 ff. 
Alba, Albani 9, 28, 45, 50-1, 44ft-7; 

Albai LoDgai 31 



Alcmeo, Alcmaeon 228 ff. 

AJeiander (Paris) 234 ff., 279 

aliquantisper 482 

Alphesiboea 232 

altivolantum 30 

amantom 550 

ambactiis 562 

Ambivius Turpio xxvii-viii 

Ambracia n, 143-4, 358-9, 408-9 

Ambracia (poem), xx, xxy, 358-61 

Amphjaraos 228-9 

Amuliua 19, 33 

Amyntor 330 ff. 

Anchises 8-11 (Anchisen 8) 

Ancus Marchis 50-1, 54-5 

Andromacha, Andromache 244 ff., 291 

Andromeda 254 H 

aiiguivilloai(?) 376 

Anienem 562 

Annals xxv, 2 ff., 430 fl. 

ansatae 58, 62 

AntUochus 284-5 

Antiochus III 127, 134-7, 209 

anuis 292 

Anx iir 61 

aplustre 563 

ApoUo 23, 67, 229, 232-5, 240-1, 

269-71, 342-3, 350-1 
Appius see Claudius 
apricuium 408 
araneae 442 
Arcadia 229, 231 
arcessier 548 
Archestratus 406-7 
Areopagitae 272 ; Arcopagns 272 
Ares 272 
Aigeos 42 

Argives, ArgiTi 275, 281, 312-3, 334-5 
Argo 312-3 
Argos 259, 307, 343 
argutaner 333 
Arimaspi 393 

591 



INDEX 



Aristarchus 218-9 

armentas 442 

Arsinoe 232-3 

Asia 137, 139, 193 

Assaracus 8, 9 

Astyanas 247-9 

Athamas 260-1 

Athena 226-7, 268 ; see Minerva 

Athens 204-5, 311, 323-5 

Atlas 21 

Atlas, Mt. 444-5 

Atreus 346 ff. 

Attic, Attica 542-3, 550 

aucupant 322 

audibia 362 ; audibo 564 

augificat 252 

auguro 326 

Aulacia 418-9 

AureUus Cotta 120-1 

Ausculum 75, 77 

auspicant 518 

Automedon 283 

Aventine xviji-ix, 29-31 

axim 118 

Azov 401 



B 



Bacchus 260-1, 377 

balneae 504 

bardum 550 

bellicrepa 34 

bellipotentes 00 

bellosum 560 

Beneventum 77, 94 

bipatentibus 20 

blanditie 490 

bombus 564 

bovantes 174 

brabium (?) 348-9 

Brachyllaa 129 

bradys 148 

Bromius 260 

Brages 282 

Bmgio, Bragian 276-7, 283 

Brundlsium xviii, xxili, 202, 408-9 

Bnittace 202 

Brattian 203 

Burrus 64, 100-1, 454-5; see Pyrrhus 

buxum 86 

buxos 442 



Caecilius Statius, life xxiii, xxvii fl. ; 
works 467 ff. 



Caecilius (or Caelius) Teucras see Aelius 

Teucrus 
cael (for caelum) 460-1 
Caelus 12, 418-9, 422-4 
caementae 368 
Calchas 309, 339 
Callinicus 159, 161 
calvaria 408 
Camenas 462 
CamiUus 177 
Campani, 446-7 
Campi Magni 398-9 
canes (Jem. sing.) 432 
Cannae 78, 10(1-5 
Canusium 105 
capessere 16 
Capua 107, 109 
Capys 8, 9 

carinantes, carlnantibus 436-7 
Carthage 65, 78 £E., 159; New 0. 164 
casci 12 

Cassandra 234-5, 240 ff. 
Cassiepeia, Cassiope 254 
cassita 388 
cata 182, 458 
Cato see Porcius 
Caupuncula 360-1 
celere (adv.) 384; cele is (nom. sing. 

fern.) 480 
celerissimus 170, 194 
Cepheus 254 
Cerberus 377 

cere comminuit brum 450-1 
Ceres 324-5, 412-3, 418-9 
cette 322 
Charopus 121-3 
Cineas 73, 75 
Cisseis 29tJ-l 
Cisseus 234-5, 291 
claudeat 480 
Claudius (Appius) Caecua 72-3, 75; 

Caudex 86-7 
Claudius (C.) Pulcher 157 
Claudius Marcellus 95 
Claudius Nero 111 
cluebat358; cluebunt2; cluo 454 
Clupea 408-9 

Clytaemnestra 301, 306-7, 347 
Cnossus 429 
coclites 392 
coepiam 498 
cohus, cohum 210 
Colchis 312-3, 320-1 
collua 486 
comedies 360-3, 378 ff., 468 ff. 



592 



INDEX 



commemoramentam 526 

commiaereacite 288 

compitum 542 

concordis (nom. sin^.') 506 

conqae fricati (?) 34 

consipta 330; conaiptum 331 

contra 172-3, 436-7 
J. convestirier 272 

convivat 182 

Corcyxa 408-9 
,^ Corinth 311, 314-5 

ComeUus (M.) Cethegus 112-3; see 
also Scipio 
, corpora'-et 256 

corpulentus 563 

Coriica 65, 87 
' Cotta 12IJ-1 
i Cotys 161 

cracentes 182 
j crebrisuro 563 
,. Creon 316-7, 319 
f Cresphontes 262 ft., 356 
„ii Cretans, Cretensium, Crete 422-3, 
428-9 

criminat 386 

Cumae 408-9 

canctato 360 

conctent 284 

cupjenter 330 

Curetes 428-9 

Guriatii, Curii 44 £f., 197 

Curius, M'. 78-9 

Cyclops 114-5 

Crnoecephalae 123-5 

Cyprus 402-3, 430-1, 508-9 



D 

Danai288 
dannnt 528 
Dardaniis 128 
Dardanus 129 
debU 114 
Decius Mus 75 
decoUes 510 
degrumari 102 (163) 
deintegravit 550 
Deiphobus 238-9 
delicat 512 
Delphi 351 
de me hortatur 136 
■* Demetrius of Pharoe 95 ; D. son of 
Philip 127 



depopulat 472 
deque totondit 196 
derepente 286 
destituit 534 
dialO, 18; die 40 
dibalare 554 
Dido 98 
Diomedes 221 
do (for domom) 460-1 
dueUis 178 
dulcitaa 540 
duriter 334, 484 



edim 474 

edolavi 307, 436-7 

Egeria 43 ; Egeriai 42 

eliminas 312 

elopem 408 

Empedocles 97, 348-9. 433 

endo 400, 460-1 ; see indu 

Ennius, life xvii £E. ; works 1 S. 

Ennius (grammarian') xivl 

enodari, 346 

Ephesos 134 

Epicharmus 410-1 

Epicharmus (poem) sxi, 6-7, 410 ff. 

epigrama 398-^03 

Epims, 351 

Epulo 148, 157 

eques 94-5, 160 

equitatus 194 

Erechtheus 204-7 

Eriboea 337 

Eriphyle 228-9 

erumna 564 

Ethiopia 252 

Etruria, Etruscans 56-8 

euax 188 

Eohemerus 414 

Euhemerus (poem) ni, 13, 414 fl. 

eumpse 478 

Europa, Europe 204-5 

Eurypylus 278-81 

evenat 294 

evitari 252 

exanclando 268; ezanclari 248 

eierugit 208 

expassom 536 

expectorat 230 

expedibo 270 

explebant 202 

extetulisses 320 



593 



ENNIUS 



Q Q 



INDEX 



Fabius Maximus Cunctator 95, 100-1, 

106 7, 132-3, 149 
Fabius Maximus Rullianus 95 
Fabricius 71 
face {from facio) 10 
facessite 270; facessunt 18 
facilloreis 56-1 
falarica 184 
famul 116 

faxim 334 ; faxit 402 
festra 563 
Festus xi ; passim 
fici 26 

ficus Ruminalis 26-7 
fidus (Jor foedus) 564 
flere 6-7 

filiis {for flliabus) 258 
flaminea 44-5 
Flaminia, via 93 
Flamininus see Quinctius 
Flaminius 93 
floces 532 
fortunatim 38 
Fregellae 63 
frandes 86 ; frus 460-1 
frux 116, 150 
fuat 282 

FulTius, ( naeus 89 
Fulvius (M.) Nobilior xx, xxi, xxt, 95, 

143, 149, 358-9, 435 
Fulvius (Q.) Nobilior xx-xxi, 435 
Furies 229, 243 
futtile 334 



G 



GaUia 120; seeQaai 

gau {for gaudiurn) 460-1 

Gaul(8) xivii, 63, 66, 90, 92-3, 111, 

121, 177 
gerrae 534 
Gibraltar 205 
Glabrio 137 
Glauca 420-1 
glaucum 408 
gluma 562 
gnoscit 564 
Gnossus 428 
Gracchus, Tiberius 158 
gracilentum 90 
Graecia 120, 336 ; see Greece 
Graecus 128, 276, 414-5 



Graium 54 ; Graius 68, 128 

grammonsis 550 

gravidavit 542 

Greece 121 fl., 158, 193, 337 

Greeks 126, 128, 247, 277, 415 etc. 

guttatim 296 



halitantes 284 

Hamilcar Rhodanus 100 

Hannibal xxv, 66, 85, 90, 95 ff., 134-7, 

145, 209, 396-7 
Hasdrubal 105 
hebem 500, 562 
Hector 244-5, 248-9, 250-1, 253, 

272 ff., 276, 280-1, 283-7 
Hecuba 234-7, 242-3, 247, 290 ff. 
Hedyphagetica 406-11 
hehae 368 
heia 196 
Helen 304-5 
Helenus 221 
Helicon 3, 7 
Hellen 327 

Hellespont 136-7, 141 
Heraclea 71 
Herem, Here 36-7 
HersUia 37, 39 
Hesione 337 
Hesperia 12 
hietans 556 
Hippodamea 352-3 
Histrians 144—5, 164-5; see letrian 

War 
Homer 2 ff. 
homonem 50 
Hora 38-9 

Horatii, Horatius 44 ff., 197 
Horatius Cocles 18 
horitatur 122 
horitur 156 

hortatur (de me h.) 136 
hostibitis 286-7 
Hostilius, Tullus 45-6, 49, 51 
hostlmentum 264 
Hyginus xiv-xv 
Hyperion 210-1 



iactarier 248 
ignotus 260-1 
Ilia 14 S. 
lUyrians 91, 111 



594 



INDEX 



I ;!nmemori8 {nom. sing.) -178 
I incursim 484 
' indalbabat 7&-7 
indotuetur 26 
' indu 80, 160 
induperantam 152 
induperator 30, 118, 122, 17S 
indaTolaus 158 
ineptjtado 488 
_ inferctis 388 
tjnibi 532 
inlex 488 
inriderier 492 

insece, inseque 118: inaeiit 563 
Insubriau ssvii 
iteramna Lirenas 65 

(nom.) 480 
ihigenia 298-9, 305, 310-1 
ipsei 284 
iracunditer 498 
Istrian War 144^59 
Itali, Italy 2, 13, 69, 119, 422-3, 449 
itiner 346 
Iup(p)iter see Jupiter 



Jason 311, 313, 321-3 
■ Juno 22-3, 109,420-1 

Jupiter, Iup(p)iter 20-5, 35, 77, 92, 
168, 288-9, 298-9, 324-5, 338-9, 
348-9, 352-3, 408-9, 414 ff., 448-9, 
45i>-l, 454-5, 469, 480-1 



aiensibus 86 ; see Carthage 
Kv/11) 40^9 



;3«8 

aon(ia) 242-3 
' 498 

I (rum.) 128, (ace.) 542 
I 460-1 ; lamis 442 
pi 143 
1450 
i. Lotina 12 ff., 57, 188-9 

176 
■ier206 

atis, Laurentum 14, 15 
Iverent 248 

atan, Leucate 118-9 



Liber 376-7 

Libya 204-5 

Licinins(P.) Crassus 159, 161 

Ucitantur 26 ; licitari 492 

Liguria 144 

limassis 514 

Liris 65 

Livius Andronicus xviii, xxii, 108-9 

Livius Salinator 110-1 

locum (nom. sinti.) 563 

longiscere, longiscunt 162 

Luceres 38 

Lucilius 36, 96-7 

Lucretia 59 

luculentitatem 490 

Luna 8—9 ; Lunai 8 

Lraeus 260 



Macedon, Macedonian Wars 119 ff., 

159, 197 
mactassint 344 
mactatos 110 
Maeotis 400-1 
Magnesia 134, 139, 141 
Manilas (Titus) Torquatus 63; his 

son 62 ; Cn. Manlius Vulsi) 144 
manta 480 ; mantat 500 
Marcellns 457 
Maro 376-7 
Mare 17, 2i>-3, 36-7 
Marsa, Marsian 448-9 
Massili- . . . -tanas 464-5 
Massinissa 158-9 
Mavortis 36 
med 242, 410, 472 

Medea 310 ff.; Mede 320; Medeai 314 
Mediolanum ixvii 
Mflanippe 326 ff. 
melannrum 408 
Melo 444-5 
memorvierit 390 
Menelaus 277, 302-5, 311 
mentis (nom. sing.) 412-3 
Mercurius, Mercury 468-9 
Merope 262-3, 265* 
Messapns rrii, 434-5 
Meesenia 262-3 
Metaurus 111 

Mettoeoque Fufetioeo (?) 48-9 
Mettus (Mettius) Fufet(t)ius 46, 48-9 
Minerra 270-3 
Mintumae, MintamenBes 446-7 



qq2 



595 



INDEX 



mirarier 534 

mis 44-5 

iniserete 292 

Mitylene 408-9 

moene 438 

moenimenta 398 

moero 248 ; moeros 1 36 

momen 212 

moraret 378 

morimur 140 

mu 438; hv 438 

muriculi 408 

Musa, Musae, Muses 2-3, 82-3, 108, 

118,462 
mussabant 68; mussare 162, 253; 

mussaret 122 ; musset 378 
muttire 344 
Mycenae 347, 356 
Myonnesus 139 
Myrmidones 288-9 



N 



Naevius xviii, xsii, 16, 64, 82-3 

NaT 92-3 

navus 68 

Nemea 328-31 

neminis 266 

Neoptolemus 368-9 

Neptune 246-7, 255, 394-5, 420-1, 

424-5 
Nereus 255, 258-9 
Nerienem, Nerio 36-7 
Nesactum 157 
Nestor 221, 408-9 
nictentur 492 
Nile 444-5 
ningolus 48 
nitidant 264 
uoctu (oftZ.) 56, 92 
noenu 162, 540 ; noenum (?) 132 
noltis 470 

nomas 276 ^ 

Nonius ix-xi ; passim 
nox (fldv.) 150 
Numa PompUius 43-5 
Numidae, Numidians 76, 105, 110 
Numitor 29 



obatus (? for orbatus) 204-5 
obnoxiosae 332-3 



obnoxium 476 

obsidionem 280, 338 

obsipiam 490 

obsorduit 496 

obstipis 150; obstipo 102; obstipam 

27, 502 
obstringillant 384 
obvarant 220 
occasus 46, 62, 110 
Oceania 418-9 
Oenomaus 352-3 

oUi 42, 170, 462 j 

Olympia, Olympic Games 144-5 
Olympus 2, 3, 424-5, 454-5 I 

opino 474 

opis 400 ; Ops 418-21, 424-7 
Opscus 106 
opulentitate 532 
Orcus 254-5, 490 
Orestes 268-71 
Ossaiei 
cesiculatim 484 
Ostia 53 



Pacuvius xxiii 

Paeligna, Paelignian 448-9 

palm {f(yr pal mis) 296-7 

paluda 96 

Pan 422-3 

Pancliaea 423 

Pancratiastes 362 

pamiibus 406 

parire 6 

Paris see Alexander and 234 2. 

partivit 342 

partum (Jor partium) 210 

Parum, Pares 204-5 

pammper 16-17, 26, 190, 208 

Patroclus 221, 273, 278-87 

Patricoles 278 ; see Patroclus 

pauperies 294; pauperii 532 

pavum 6 

peniculamentum 130, 512 

Pelias 312-3, 320-1 

Pelio, Pelion 312-3 

Pelopia 356-7 

Pelops 352-3, 356-7 

perbiteret 298 

perduellibus 366 

Pergamum, Pergama 135, 137, 234-5, 

244-5 
permarceret 198-9 
perpetuassit 118 



596 



INDEX 



Perseus .57 ff. 

Perseus (of ICaoedon) 94, 159, 161 

Phalanna 165 

Phegeus 229, 231, 233 

Phemonoe 454-5 

Philip V of Macedon 118-9, 125, 127 

philologam 562 

Phoenicians 86, 99, 449 ; tee Poeni 

Phoenix 221-3, 33U fl. 

pilatas 384 

pinsibant 376; pinsunt 124 
■Pizaeam, Piraeus 554-5 
■naatos xxii 
IfPicto 42t>-l 

Poeni 84, 98, 104-5, 116-7, 448; see 
Phoenicians 

poetor 39<> 

Polydamas 275 

PolVdoros 290-1 

Polymestor 291, 299 

Polyphontes 262-3, 265 

Tolypus 408 

Polyiena 253, 255, 291, 295 

Polyxenidas 139 

PompiliDS, Noma 43-5 

x)pnJatim 514 

jorcet 342 

Porcius Cato rviii, xxi, 95, 127, 129, 
131, 145 

XHgite 563 

>ortiscaIas 110 

Poeeidon 326 ; tee Xepmne 

PostumioB, (A.) AJbinus xxii 

Postumius, Locios 89 

)Gte 1^; poQS 376; potis est 278, 
373; poUssont 152 

iateBtiir440 

nraeeepta 406-7 
BOOI 100-1 

onwpete 202-3 

fMaeterpiopter 3t>8 

pwUigMa praestrinxit 538 

StexiUiea 265-7 

ftMin 8, 9, 234-7, 239 S., 250-1, 
272-3, 288-91 

?rocalus 39 

■rodinunc 56 

«oeliaat232 

»0giiaziter74 

iwAitumin 324 

iixdetaiias 196-7 

iropagmen 178 

'lopeiatim 526 

'K^inas 386 

vopitiabilis 360 



propritim 3«) 

proterviter 362 

Pntreptiaan (?) 406-7 

Proeerpina 415 

proeomia 468, 508 

Psophis 229, 231 

publicitos 196, 53'J 

paelli S4 

pnere 5i>4 

pugnitus 486 

pulchritas 486 

Punic Ware 64 ff., 78 f£., 193, 394 ff. 

patns 244 

PTTThns 65 ff., 101, 129, 193, 454 



quaesendom 253, 262 

quaesti {gen. ting.) 544 

qoamde 33, 46 

qnianam 80, 196 

Qoinctias CT.) Flamininus 120-5, 127 

129 
quippe 126, 146 
QoirinuB 38 
qnisqailias 554—5 
qoitur 558 
qnoi ^} 



B 
rabere498 
Bamnenses 38 
retailer 248 
raienter 246, 514, bm 
rata8 28 
raTim 500 
reciprocat 258 
rediiuint 663 
remorfoescat 563 
Bemoria 29 
Bemns 17, 27-33, 457 
reperibit 510 
repoetos 563 
RStat 166-7 
ie8titat304 
BhaeU 448-9 
Bbea 424-5 
Bhodiaiisl39 
rimantor (!') 132 
Bipaean 392-3 
Borne, Bomans xriii S., 31, 42, 60, 

66 ff. eU., 172, 176-7, 180, 182, 198, 

202, 398-9, 434, 446-9 



597 



INDEX 



Romulus 15-7, 27-43, 157 
Rudiae, Rudini, Rudian xvii-xviii 
rumpiae 141 
runata 18G-7 



Sabinae (poem) 360-1 

Sabini, Sabines 34 fif., 361 

saeviter 286 

sagus 180, 440 

Salamis 337 

sale (?iom.) 138-9 

Salmacis 226-7 

salum iaa:.) 290-1 

sam 82 

Samnites 63 

sauctioreis 564 

sanguen 40, 294 

sapientipotentes 66 

sapsa 152 

Sardinia xviii, 65, 87-9, 158 

Sarra 84 

Satires, Saturae xxv, 8, 382 ft., 436 ft. 

Satum(us) 12, 23, 418 ff., 448-9 

scabrent 256 

Scamander 288-9 

Bcamna 30 

Bcaphonem 548 

schema 488-9, 496 

sciciderit 328 

Scipio Africanus xs, x xiv-v, 95, 110-7, 

139, 141, 145, 164-5, 387, 394 ff. 
Scipio Nasica xix 
Scipio (poem) xx, xxv, 394-9 
Scythia 393 
sed (for sine) 80 
Seleucus IV 135, 137 
Sempronius, (P.) Tuditanus 105, 113 
sentinat 468-9 
Seppius Loesius 109 
Servilius Geminus 78-81 
Servius Galba xxii, 410-1 
Semus Honoratus xi-xii 
Servius Tullius 43, 57, 59 
sibynis 90 

SicUia, SicUy 81, 87, 428-9 
sicilibus 184 
silicemium 512 
silvai frondosai 70 
simiUtas 540 
singulatim 500 



sis 54 

Sky 419, 423, 425 

solui 563 

sonit 288; sonunt 140, 254 

soniti (gen. sing.) 474 

Bortiunt 262 

80S 10, 56, 88, 128 

80spe3 563; sospitem 366 

sospitent 326 

Sola, Sotas (poem) 402-5 

Sotades 403 

Spain, Spanish 131, 144 

speres (plur. of spes) 40, 152 

spiras 186 

spoliantnr 452 

Statins see Caecilius 

stlataria 68 

stola 342, 344, 374 

strepiti 274 

suai 122 

subcenturia (?) 544 

subices 224 

subUmat 322 

subulo 388 

Sulpicius (P.) Galba 120; Serviot 

Galba xxii, 410-1 
sum 32, 46, 432 
summussi 252-3 
sumpti (for sumptus) 530 
superescit 182 
Surrentum 408-9 
Syracuse 165, 410-1, 457 



Talthybius 294-5 
Tanaquil 55, 57 
Tantalus 352-3 
tapete558; tapetae 563 
taratantara 143 
Tarentum xviii, 69, 408-9 
Tarquinius Priscus 56-7, 431 
Tarquinius Superbus 59 
Tarractna 61 
ted 282 
telamo 444-5 
Telamo(n) 93, 336 ff. 
Telephus 342-7 
Tempe 159 
Terentius Varro 101 
tcrgus 180 
termo 164-6 
terrai frugiferai 212 



598 



INDEX 



tesca 376 
tetulisti 18, 496 
Tracer 228-9, 337 ff. 
Thebes 229 
Tr..:iis 306-7 

-:nopvlae 135, 137 
~;tes 219 

-; rotus 346, 351, 356-7 
thcta 456-7 

Thetis 284-5, 287, 3<;>6-7 
Thrace 144. 377: Thracians 141, 161 
Thraeca 376 
Thvestes 346 ff. 
Tiber 18-21, 24-5, 52-3 
Tiberinus 18 
Ticinus 102, 186 
Timavus 149, 151 
Titan(ns) 12-3, 261, 418-21 
Titaais 260 
TitieMes 38 
Titus Talius 36-39 
toleraret 46 
tongent 4i>4 

tonsam 110, 404 ; tonsas, tonsis 88 
topper 382-3 
torrus 563 
torviter 32 

totondit (deque t.) 196 
trabali 186 
tractatus 43 

tragedies xxv-vi, 218 ff., 362 ff. 
trifaci 198 
Trivia 260-1 

Troia 234, 244, 336, 347, 432 
TroT, Trojans 129, 181, 221, 235, 241, 
244, 247, 282-3, 286, 287, 337, 433 
trao 550 
tuditantes 48 
tullii 228 

Tullins, SerriuB 43, 57, 59 
Tullns Hostiiius 45-6, 49, 51 
tomulti 274 
tute 36 
tutolatoe 42 
Tyre 85 



ulciscerem 268 

riixes 276, 292 ; tee Ulyases 

Ulvsses 221-3, 227, 253, 255, 271 

292-3, 311 
nrvat 256 

nter (for uterus) 502 
Dtrasque 542 



vacant (?) 288 

vagit 156 

vagore 158 

VaJerius Laevinus 119 

vallatam 558 

vast^ 306 

veges 358 

vei 274 

velitatio 564 

Venus 10, 16-9, 430-1 

verant 136 

vemiliter 546 

Vesper 563 

Vesta 418-21 

Vestina, Vestinian 448-9 

viai 72 

Tias (for viae, gen.) 160 

Tiden 563 

viere 404 

Villins (P.) 134 

visceratam 258 

vitulans 238-9 

Votedans 61 

Tolcanns 284-5 

VulacnlnseO 

vulta 174 

vulturus 50 



Xerxes 135, 137 



Zama ixr, 115-7, 39»-7 



599 



Printed in Great Britain by 

Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, 

bunoay, suffolk. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL 
LIBRARY 

VOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHED 

Latin Authors 

APULEIUS : THE GOLDEN ASS (METAMORPHOSES). 

\V. Adlington (1566). ReN^sed by S. Gaselee. {6th Imp.) 
AULUS GELLIUS. J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 
AUSONIUS. H. G. Eveh-n \Miite. 2 Vols. 
BEDE. J. E. King. 2 Vols. 
BOETHIUS: TRACTS and DE CONSOLATIONE 

PHILOSOPHIAE. Rev. H. F. Stewart and E. K. Rand. 

{2nd Imp.) 
CAES.\R : CIVIL WARS. A. G. PESKETT. (3rd Imp.) 
CAESAR : GALLIC W.\R. H. J. Edwards. {6th Imp.) 
CATO .\XD VARRO : DE RE RUSTICA. H. B. Ash and 

W. D. Hooper. {2nd Imp.) 
C.\TULLUS. F.W. Cornish; TIBULLUS. J. B. Post- 
gate ; .\XD PERVIGILIUM VENERIS. J . \V. MackaU. 

{loth Imp.) 
CELSUS: DE MEDICINA. W. G. Spencer. 2 Vols. 

Vol. I. 
CICERO : DE FINIBUS. H. Rackham. {^rd Imp. re- 
vised.) 
CICERO : DE NATURA DEORUM and ACADEMICA. 

H. Rackham. 
CICERO : DE OFFICIIS. Walter Miller. {3rd Imp.) 
CICERO: DE SENECTUTE, DE AMICITIA, DE 

DIVINATIONE. W. A. Falconer. {3rd Imp.) 
CICERO : DE REPUBLICA and DE LEGIBUS. CUnton 

W. Keves. 
CICERO': LETTERS TO .\TTICUS. E. O. Winstedt. 

3 Vols. (Vol. I. 4/A Imp., II. 3rd Imp. and III. 2nd Imp. 
CICERO: LETTERS TO HIS FRIENDS. W. Glynn 

Williams. 3 Vols. 

X 



CICERO : PHILIPPICS. W. C. A. Ker. 

CICERO : PRO ARCHIA. POST REDITUM. DE DOMO, 

DE HARUSPICUM RESPONSIS, PRO PLANCIO. 

N. H. Watts. {2nd Imp.) 
CICERO : PRO QUINCTIO, PRO ROSCIO AMERINO, 

PRO ROSCIO COMOEDO, CONTRA RULLUM. J. H. 

Frccsc 
CICERo': TUSCULAN DISPUTATIONS. J. E. King. 
CICERO : PRO CAECINA, PRO LEGE MANILIA, PRO 

CLUENTIO, PRO RABIRIO. H. Grose Hodge. 
CICERO : PRO MILONE, IN PISONEM. PRO SCAURO, 

PRO FONTEIO. PRO RABIRIO POSTUMO, PRO 

MARCELLO, PRO LIGARIO, PRO REGE DEIO- 

TARO. N. H. Watts. 
CICERO : VERRINE ORATIONS. L. H. G. Greenwood. 

2 Vols. 

CLAUDIAN. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. 

FLORUS. E. S. Forster, and CORNELIUS NEPOS: 

J. C. Rolfe. 
FRONTINUS : STRATAGEMS and AQUEDUCTS. 

C. E. Bennett and M. B. McElwain. 
FRONTO: CORRESPONDENCE. C. R. Haines. 2 

Vols. 
HORACE : ODES and EPODES. C. E. Bennett. (loth 

Imp. revised.) 
HORACE: SATIRES, EPISTLES, ARS POETICA. 

H. R. Fairclough. {^rd Imp. revised.) 
JEROME : SELECTED LETTERS. F. A. Wright. 
JUVENAL AND PERSIUS. G. G. Ramsay. {5th Imp.) 
LIVY. B. O. Foster and E. Sage. 13 Vols. Vols. I.-V. 

and IX. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
LUCAN. J. D. Duff. 

LUCRETIUS. W. H. D. Rouse, (^yd Imp. revised.) 
MARTIAL. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
MINOR LATIN POETS : from Publilius Syrus to 

RuTiLius Namatianus, including Grattius, Cal- 

puRNius SicuLus, Nemesianus, Avianus, and others 

with " Aetna " and the " Phoenix." J. Wight Duff and 

Arnold M. Duff. {2nd Imp.) 
OVID : THE ART OF LOVE and OTHER POEMS. 

J. H. Mozley. 
OVID : FASTI. Sir James G. Frazer. 
OVID : HEROIDES and AMORES. Grant Showerman. 

{^rd Imp.) 
OVID : METAMORPHOSES. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (5^^ 

Imp.) 
OVID : TRISTIA and EX PONTO. A. L. Wheeler. 
2 



PETRONIUS. M. Heseltine; SENECA : APOCOLO- 

CYNTOSIS. W. H. D. Rouse. (5/A Imp. revised.) 
PLAUTUS. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. Vols. I.-IV. (Vol.1. 

4</t Imp., Vols. II. and III. ird Imp.) 
PLIXY : LETTERS. Melmoth's Translation revised by 

\V. M. L. Hutchinson. 2 Vols, {^th Imp.) 
PROPERTIUS. H. E. Butler. (4M Imp.) 
QUINTILIAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. ind Imp.) 
REMAINS OF OLD LATIN. E. H. Warmington. 3 Vols. 

Vol. I. (ENNIUS AND CAECILIUS.) 
ST. AUGUSTINE. CONFESSIONS OF. W. Watts 

(1631). 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4M Imp., Vol. II. 3frf Imp.) 
ST. AUGUSTINE, SELECT LETTERS. J. H. Baxter. 
SALLUST. J. Rolfe. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
SCRIPTORES HISTORIAE AUGUSTAE. D. Magie. 

3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
SENECA : APOCOLOCYNTOSIS. Cf. PETRONIUS. 
SENECA : EPISTULAE MORALES. K. M. Gummere. 

3 Vols. (Vol. I. ■^rd Imp., Vol. II. 'znd Imp. revised.) 
SENECA : MORAL ESSAYS. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. 

Vols. I. and II. (Vol. II. 2.nd Imp. revised.) 
SENECA: TRAGEDIES. F. J. MUler. 2 Vols. {2nd 

Imp. revised.) 
SILIUS ITALICUS. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. 
STATIUS. J. H. Mozlev. 2 Vols. 

SUETONIUS. J. C. Roife. 2 Vols, {^th Imp. revised.) 
TACITUS : DIALOGUS. Sir \Vm. Peterson and AGRI- 
COLA AND GERMANIA. Maurice Hutton. (4M Imp.) 
TACITUS : HISTORIES and ANNALS. C. H. Moore 

and J. Jackson. 3 Vols. Vols. I. and II. (Histories 

and Annals I-III.) 
TERENCE. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. (5M Imp.) 
TERTULLIAN : APOLOGIA and DE SPECTACULIS. 

T. R. Glover. MINUCIUS FELIX. G. H. Randall. 
VALERIUS FLACCUS. J. H. Mozley. 
VELLEIUS PATERCULUS and RES GESTAE DIVI 

AUGUSTI. F. \V. Shipley. 
VIRGIL. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. iith Imp., 

Vol. II. gth Imp. revised.) 
VITRUVIUS : DE ARCHITECTURA. F. Granger. 

2 Vols. 



Greek Authors 

ACHILLES TATIUS. S. Gaselee. 

AENEAS TACTICUS : ASCLEPIODOTUS and ONA- 

SANDER. The Illinois Greek Club. 
AESCHINES. C. D. Adams. 
AESCHYLUS. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3yd Imp.. 

Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
APOLLODORUS. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 
APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. R. C. Seaton. (4th Imp.) 
THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vol. II. ^th Imp.) 
APPIAN'S ROMAN HISTORY. Horace White. 4 Vols. 

(Vol. I. -^rd Imp., Vols. II., III. and IV. 2nd Imp.) 
ARATUS. Cf. CALLIMACHUS. 
ARISTOPHANES. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. 

{■^rd Imp.) Verse trans. 
ARISTOTLE: " ART " OF RHETORIC. J. H. Freese. 
ARISTOTLE: ATHENIAN CONSTITUTION, EUDE- 

MIAN ETHICS, VICES and VIRTUES. H. Rackham. 
ARISTOTLE : METAPHYSICS. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. 
ARISTOTLE : NICOMACHEAN ETHICS. H. Rackham. 

{2nd Imp. revised.) 
ARISTOTLE : OECONOMICA and MAGNA MORALIA. 

G. C. Armstrong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.) 
ARISTOTLE : ON THE SOUL, PARVA NATURALIA, 

ON BREATH. W. S. Hett. 
ARISTOTLE : PHYSICS. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. 

Cornford. 2 Vols. (Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
ARISTOTLE: POETICS and LONGINUS. W. Hamil- 
ton Fyfe; DEMETRIUS ON STYLE. W. Rhys 

Roberts. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
ARISTOTLE : POLITICS. H. Rackham. 
ARRIAN : HISTORY OF ALEXANDER and INDICA. 

Rev. E. Iliffe Robson. 2 Vols. 
ATHENAEUS : DEIPNOSOPHISTAE. C. B. Gulick. 

7 Vols. Vols. I-V. 
CALLIMACHUS and LYCOPHRON. A. W. Mair; 

ARATUS. G. R. Mair. 
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. Rev. G. W. Butter- 
worth. 
COLLUTHUS. Cf. OPPIAN. 
DAPHNIS and CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised 

by J. M. Edmonds; and PARTHENIUS. S. Gaselee. 

{2,rd Imp.) 
DEMOSTHENES : DE CORONA and DE FALSA 

LEGATIONE. C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 
4 



DEMOSTHENES : OLYNTHIACS, PHILIPPICS and 

MINOR ORATIONS : I-XVII and XX. J. H. Vince. 
DIO CASSIUS : ROMAN HISTORY. E. Car>^ 9 Vols. 

(Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
DIO CHRYSOSTOM. J. W. Cohoon. 4 Vols. Vol. I. 
DIODORUS SICULUS. C. H. Oldfather. In 10 Volumes. 

Vol. I. 
DIOGENES LAERTIUS. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

2nd Imp.) 
EPICTETUS. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
EURIPIDES. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vol. I., II.. IV. 

^th Imp., Vol. III. ird Imp.) Verse trans. 
EUSEBIUS : ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. Kirsopp 

Lake and J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
GALEN : ON THE NATURAL FACULTIES. A. J. 

Brock, [-zrid Imp.) 
THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 

(Vol. I. -^rd Imp., Vols. 11. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
GREEK ELEGY AND IAMBUS with the ANACRE- 

ONTEA. J. M. Edmonds. 2 Vols. 
THE GREEK BUCOLIC POETS (THEOCRITUS, 

BION.MOSCHUS). J.M.Edmonds, {^th Imp. revised.) 
HERODES. Cf. THEOPHRASTUS : CHARACTERS. 
HERODOTUS. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. [Wol.l. ^rd Imp., 

Vols. II.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
HESIOD AND THE HOMERIC HYMNS. H. G. Evelyn 

White. {~,th Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
HIPPOCRATES AND THE FRAGMENTS OF HERA- 

CLEITUS. W. H. S. Jones and E. T.Withington. 4 Vols. 
HOMER : ILIAD. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 3rd Imp. 
HOMER: ODYSSEY. A.T.Murray. 2 Vols. Uthlmp.) 
ISAEUS. E. W. Forster. 

ISOCRATES. George Norlin. 3 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 
JOSEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 

8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vol. V. 2nd Imp.) 
JULIAN. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd 

Imp.) 
LUCIAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-IV. (Vols. 

I. and II. 3rd Imp.) 
LYCOPHRON. Cf. CALLIMACHUS. 
LYRA GRAECA. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Ed. revised and enlarged.) 
LYSIAS. W. R. M. Lamb. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. C.R.Haines, drd Imp. revised.) 
MENANDER. F. G. Allinson. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
OPPIAN, COLLUTHUS. TRYPHIODORUS. A. W 

Mair. 



PAPYRI (SELECTIONS). A. S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar. 

4 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 
PARTHENIUS. Cf. DAPHNIS and CHLOE. 
PAUSANIAS : DESCRIPTION OF GREECE. W. H. S. 

Jones. 5 Vols, and Companion Vol. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
PHILO. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. Whitaker. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VI. 
PHILOSTRATUS : THE LIFE OF APOLLONIUS OF 

TYANA. F. C. Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ^rd Imp.. 

Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
PHILOSTRATUS : IMAGINES ; CALLISTRATUS : 

DESCRIPTIONS. A. Fairbanks. 
PHILOSTRATUS and EUNAPIUS : LIVES OF THE 

SOPH ISTS . Wilmer Cave Wright . 
PINDAR. Sir J. E. Sandys. (5th Imp. revised.) 
PLATO : CHARMIDES. ALCIBIADES, HIPPARCHUS, 

THE LOVERS, THEAGES, MINOS and EPINOMIS. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO : CRATYLUS, PARMENIDES, GREATER HIP- 

PIAS, LESSER HIPPIAS. H. N. Fowler. 
PLATO : EUTHYPHRO. APOLOGY, CRITO, PHAEDO, 

PHAEDRUS. H. N. Fowler, {jth Imp.) 
PLATO : LACHES, PROTAGORAS, MENO, EUTHY- 

DEMUS. W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO : LAWS. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
PLATO : LYSIS, SYMPOSIUM, GORGIAS. W. R. M. 

Lamb. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
PLATO : REPUBLIC. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
PLATO: STATESMAN, PHILEBUS. H. N. Fowler; 

ION. W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO : THEAETETUS and SOPHIST. H. N. Fowler. 

{2nd Imp.) 
PLATO : TIMAEUS, CRITIAS, CLITOPHO, MENEXE- 

NUS, EPISTULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
PLUTARCH : MORALIA. F.C. Babbitt. 14 Vols. Vols. 

I.-III. 
PLUTARCH : THE PARALLEL LIVES. B. Perrin. 11 

Vols. (Vols. I., II., III. and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
POLYBIUS. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 
PROCOPIUS: HISTORY OF THE WARS. H. B. 

Dewing. 7 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 
ST. BASIL : LETTERS. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. 
ST. JOHN DAMASCENE : BARLAAM AND lOASAPH. 

Rev. G. R. Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Rev. R. G. Bury. In 3 Vols. 

Vols. I. and II. 

6 



SOPHOCLES. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 6th Imp., Vol. 

II. ^th Imp.) Verse trans. 
STRABO : GEOGRAPHY. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

(Vols. I and VIII. 2nd Imp.) 
THEOPHRASTUS : CHARACTERS. J.M.Edmonds; 

HERODES, etc. A. D. Knox. 
THEOPHRASTUS : ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Sir 

Arthur Hort, Bart. 2 Vols. 
THUCYDIDES. C.F.Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol.1. 3rd Imp.. 

Vols. II., III. and IV. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
TRYPHIODORUS. Cf. OPPIAN. 
XENOPHON : CYROPAEDIA. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

{2nd Imp.) 
XENOPHON : HELLENICA, ANABASIS, APOLOGY. 

AND SYMPOSIUM. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 

3 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
XENOPHON : MEMORABILIA and OECONOMICUS. 

E. C. Marchant. 
XENOPHON : SCRIPTA MINORA. E. C. Marchant. 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

ARISTOTLE : DE CAELO, etc. W. C. K. Guthrie. 

ARISTOTLE : ON HISTORY, MOTION AND PRO- 
GRESSION OF ANIMALS. E. S. Forster and A. Peck. 

ARISTOTLE : ORGANON. H. P. Cooke and H. Treden- 
nick. 

ARISTOTLE: RHETORICA AD ALEXANDRUM. 
H. Rackham. 

DEMOSTHENES : MEIDIAS, ANDROTION. ARISTO- 
CRATES, TIMOCRATES. J. H. Vince. 

DEMOSTHENES : PRIVATE ORATIONS. A. T. Mur- 
ray. 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS : ROMAN ANTI- 
QUITIES. Spelman's translation revised bv E. Cary. 

GREEK MATHEMATICAL WORKS. J. Thomas. 

MINOR ATTIC ORATORS (ANTIPHON, ANDOCIDES 
DEMADES, DINARCHUS, HYPEREIDES). K. 
Maidment. 

NONNUS. W. H. D. Rouse. 



Latin Authors 

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS. J. C. Rolfe. 

S. AUGUSTINE : CITY OF GOD. J. H. Baxter. 

CICERO : AD HERENNIUM. H. Caplan. 

CICERO: IN CATILINAM. PRO FLACCO, PRO 
MURENA, PRO SULLA. Louis E. Lord. 

CICERO: DE ORATORE. Charles Stuttaford and 
W. E. Sutton. 

CICERO : ORATOR, BRUTUS. H. M. Hubbell. 

CICERO : PRO SESTIO, IN VATINIUM, PRO CAELIO. 
DE PROVINCIIS CONSULARIBUS, PRO BALBO. 
J. H. Freese. 

COLUMELLA : DE RE RUSTICA. H. B. Ash. 

PLINY : NATURAL HISTORY. W. H. S. Jones. 

PRUDENTIUS. J. H. Baxter and C. J. Fordyce. 

SIDONIUS : LETTERS & POEMS. E. V. Arnold and 
W. B. Anderson. 

VARRO : DE LINGUA LATINA. R. G. Kent. 



DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATION 



London - . . . WILLIAM HEINBiVIANN LTD 

Cambridge, Mass. - - - HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRE55 



1983 4 



PA Warmington, Eric Herbert (ed 

2510" and tr.) 

A2 Remains of old Latin 

1935 

v.l 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR aiPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY